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Chrysler (; officially FCA US LLC, and colloquially Fiat Chrysler Automobiles) is one of the “Big Three” automobile manufacturers in the United States, headquartered in Auburn Hills, Michigan The original Chrysler Corporation was founded in 1925 by Walter Chrysler from the remains of the Maxwell Motor Company. In 1998, it was acquired by Daimler-Benz, and the holding company was renamed DaimlerChrysler. After Daimler divested Chrysler in 2007, the company existed as Chrysler LLC (2007–2009) and Chrysler Group LLC (2009–2014) before merging in 2014 with Italian holding company Fiat S.p.A. and becoming a subsidiary of its successor Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. In addition to the Chrysler brand, FCA sells vehicles worldwide under the Dodge, Jeep, and Ram nameplates Furthermore, the subsidiary includes Mopar, its automotive parts and accessories division, and SRT, its performance automobile division After founding the company, Walter Chrysler used the General Motors brand diversification and hierarchy strategy that he had seen working for Buick, and acquired Fargo Trucks and Dodge Brothers, and created the Plymouth and DeSoto brands in 1928. Facing postwar declines in market share, productivity, and profitability, as GM and Ford were growing, Chrysler borrowed $250 million in 1954 from Prudential Insurance to pay for expansion and updated car designs.Chrysler expanded into Europe by taking control of French, British and Spanish auto companies in the 1960s; Chrysler Europe was sold in 1978 to PSA Peugeot Citroën for $1. The company struggled to adapt to changing markets, increased U.S. import competition, and safety and environmental regulation in the 1970s. It began an engineering partnership with Mitsubishi Motors, and began selling Mitsubishi vehicles branded as Dodge and Plymouth in North America. On the verge of bankruptcy in the late 1970s, it was saved by $1.5 billion in loan guarantees from the U.S. government. New CEO Lee Iacocca was credited with returning the company to profitability in the 1980s. In 1985, Diamond-Star Motors was created, further expanding the Chrysler-Mitsubishi relationship. In 1987, Chrysler acquired American Motors Corporation (AMC), which brought the profitable Jeep brand under the Chrysler umbrella In 1998, Chrysler merged with German automaker Daimler-Benz to form DaimlerChrysler AG; the merger proved contentious with investors As a result, Chrysler was sold to Cerberus Capital Management and renamed Chrysler LLC in 2007 Like the other Big Three automobile manufacturers, Chrysler was impacted by the automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010. The company remained in business through a combination of negotiations with creditors, filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization on April 30, 2009, and participating in a bailout from the U.S. government through the Troubled Asset Relief Program. On June 10, 2009, Chrysler emerged from the bankruptcy proceedings with the United Auto Workers pension fund, Fiat S.p.A., and the U.S. and Canadian governments as principal owners. The bankruptcy resulted in Chrysler defaulting on over $4 billion in debts. By May 24, 2011, Chrysler finished repaying its obligations to the U.S government five years early, although the cost to the American taxpayer was $1.3 billion Over the next few years, Fiat gradually acquired the other parties’ shares while removing much of the weight of the loans (which carried a 21% interest rate) in a short period On January 1, 2014, Fiat S.p.A announced a deal to purchase the rest of Chrysler from the United Auto Workers retiree health trust The deal was completed on January 21, 2014, making Chrysler Group a subsidiary of Fiat S.p.A. In May 2014, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles was established by merging Fiat S.p.A. into the company. This was completed in August

2014. Chrysler Group LLC remained a subsidiary until December 15, 2014, when it was renamed FCA US LLC, to reflect the Fiat-Chrysler merger == History == === 1925–1998: Chrysler Corporation === The Chrysler company was founded by Walter Chrysler on June 6, 1925, when the Maxwell Motor Company (est. 1904) was re-organized into the Chrysler Corporation.Chrysler had arrived at the ailing Maxwell-Chalmers company in the early 1920s, hired to overhaul the company’s troubled operations (after a similar rescue job at the Willys-Overland car company) In late 1923 production of the Chalmers automobile was ended In January 1924, Walter Chrysler launched the well-received Chrysler automobile. The 6-cylinder Chrysler was designed to provide customers with an advanced, well-engineered car, was an automobile at an affordable price Elements of this car are traceable to a prototype which had been under development at Willys during Chrysler’s tenure The original 1924 Chrysler included a carburetor air filter, high compression engine, full pressure lubrication, and an oil filter, features absent from most autos at the time. Among the innovations in its early years were the first practical mass-produced four-wheel hydraulic brakes, a system nearly completely engineered by Chrysler with patents assigned to Lockheed, and rubber engine mounts to reduce vibration Chrysler also developed a wheel with a ridged rim, designed to keep a deflated tire from flying off the wheel. This wheel was eventually adopted by the auto industry worldwide The Maxwell brand was dropped after the 1925 model year, with the new, lower-priced four-cylinder Chryslers introduced for the 1926 year being badge-engineered Maxwells. The advanced engineering and testing that went into Chrysler Corporation cars helped to push the company to the second-place position in U.S. sales by 1936, which it held until 1949 In 1928, the Chrysler Corporation began dividing its vehicle offerings by price class and function The Plymouth brand was introduced at the low-priced end of the market (created essentially by once again reworking and rebadging Chrysler’s four-cylinder model). At the same time, the DeSoto brand was introduced in the medium-price field. Also in 1928, Chrysler bought the Dodge Brothers automobile and truck company and continued the successful Dodge line of automobiles and Fargo range of trucks. By the mid-1930s, the DeSoto and Dodge divisions would trade places in the corporate hierarchy The Imperial name had been used since 1926 but was never a separate make, just the top-of-the-line Chrysler. However, in 1955, the company decided to spin it off as its own make/brand and division to better compete with its rivals, Lincoln and Cadillac On April 28, 1955, Chrysler and Philco had announced the development and production of the World’s First All-Transistor car radio The all-transistor car radio, Mopar model 914HR, was developed and produced by Chrysler and Philco, and it was a $150.00 “option” on the 1956 Imperial automobile models. Philco began manufacturing this radio in the fall of 1955 at its Sandusky Ohio plant.On September 28, 1957, Chrysler had announced the first production electronic fuel injection (EFI), as an option on some of its new 1958 car models (Chrysler 300D, Dodge D500, DeSoto Adventurer, Plymouth Fury). The first attempt to use this system was by American Motors on the 1957 Rambler Rebel. Bendix Corporation’s Electrojector used a transistor computer brain modulator box, but teething problems on pre-production

cars meant very few cars were made. The EFI system in the Rambler ran fine in warm weather, but suffered hard starting in cooler temperatures and AMC decided not to use this EFI system, on its 1957 Rambler Rebel production cars that were sold to the public. Chrysler also used the Bendix “Electrojector” fuel injection system and only around 35 vehicles were built with this option, on its 1958 production built car models. Owners of EFI Chryslers were so dissatisfied that all but one were retrofitted with carburetors (while that one has been completely restored, with original EFI electronic problems resolved).Imperial would see new body styles introduced every two to three years, all with V8 engines and automatic transmissions, as well as technologies that would filter down to Chrysler corporation’s other models Imperial was folded back into the Chrysler brand in 1971 The Valiant was also introduced for 1960 as a distinct brand. In the U.S. market, Valiant was made a model in the Plymouth line for 1961 and the DeSoto make was discontinued in 1961. With those exceptions per applicable year and market, Chrysler’s range from lowest to highest price from the 1940s through the 1970s was Valiant, Plymouth, Dodge, DeSoto, Chrysler, and Imperial From 1963 through 1969, Chrysler increased its existing stakes to take full control of the French Simca, British Rootes and Spanish Barreiros companies, merging them into Chrysler Europe in 1967. In the 1970s, an engineering partnership was established with Mitsubishi Motors, and Chrysler began selling Mitsubishi vehicles branded as Dodge and Plymouth in North America Chrysler struggled to adapt to the changing environment of the 1970s. When consumer tastes shifted to smaller cars in the early 1970s, particularly after the 1973 oil crisis, Chrysler could not meet the demand. Additional burdens came from increased US import competition, and tougher government regulation of car safety, fuel economy, and emissions. As the smallest of the Big 3 US automakers, Chrysler lacked the financial resources to meet all of these challenges. In 1978, Lee Iacocca was brought in to turn the company around, and in 1979 Iacocca sought US government help. Congress later passed the Loan Guarantee Act providing $1.5 billion in loan guarantees. The Loan Guarantee Act required that Chrysler also obtain $2 billion in concessions or aid from sources outside the federal government, which included interest rate reductions for $650 million of the savings, asset sales of $300 million, local and state tax concessions of $250 million, and wage reductions of about $590 million along with a $50 million stock offering. $180 million was to come from concessions from dealers and suppliers.After a period of plant closures and salary cuts agreed to by both management and the auto unions, the loans were repaid with interest in 1983. In November 1983, the Dodge Caravan/Plymouth Voyager was introduced, establishing the minivan as a major category, and initiating Chrysler’s return to stability.In 1985, Diamond-Star Motors was created, further expanding the Chrysler-Mitsubishi relationship. In 1987, Chrysler acquired American Motors Corporation (AMC), which brought the profitable Jeep brand under the Chrysler umbrella In 1985, Chrysler entered an agreement with AMC to produce Chrysler M platform rear-drive, as well as Dodge Omnis front wheel drive cars, in AMC’s Kenosha, Wisconsin plant. In 1987, Chrysler acquired the 47% ownership of AMC that was held by Renault. The remaining outstanding shares of AMC were bought on the NYSE by August 5, 1987, making the deal valued somewhere between US$1.7 billion and US$2 billion, depending on how costs were counted. Chrysler CEO Lee Iacocca wanted the Jeep brand, particularly the Jeep Grand Cherokee (ZJ) that was under

development, the new world-class manufacturing plant in Bramalea, Ontario, and AMC’s engineering and management talent that became critical for Chrysler’s future success. Chrysler established the Jeep/Eagle division as a “specialty” arm to market products distinctly different from the K-car-based products with the Eagle cars targeting import buyers. Former AMC dealers sold Jeep vehicles and various new Eagle models, as well as Chrysler products, strengthening the automaker’s retail distribution system Eurostar, a joint venture between Chrysler and Steyr-Daimler-Puch, began producing the Chrysler Voyager in Austria for European markets in 1992 === 1998–2007: DaimlerChrysler === In 1998, Chrysler and its subsidiaries entered into a partnership dubbed a “merger of equals” with German-based Daimler-Benz AG, creating the combined entity DaimlerChrysler AG. To the surprise of many stockholders, Daimler acquired Chrysler in a stock swap before Chrysler CEO Bob Eaton retired. It is widely accepted that the merger was needed because of Eaton’s lack of planning for Chrysler in the 1990s, to become their own global automotive company Under DaimlerChrysler, the company was named DaimlerChrysler Motors Company LLC, with its U.S. operations generally called “DCX”. The Eagle brand was retired soon after Chrysler’s merger with Daimler-Benz in 1998 Jeep became a stand-alone division, and efforts were made to merge the Chrysler and Jeep brands as one sales unit. In 2001, the Plymouth brand was also discontinued Eurostar also built the Chrysler PT Cruiser in 2001 and 2002. The Austrian venture was sold to Magna International in 2002 and became Magna Steyr. The Voyager continued in production until 2007, whereas the Chrysler 300C, Jeep Grand Cherokee and Jeep Commander were also built at the plant from 2005 to 2010 On May 14, 2007, DaimlerChrysler announced the sale of 80.1% of Chrysler Group to American private equity firm Cerberus Capital Management, L.P., thereafter known as Chrysler LLC, although Daimler (renamed as Daimler AG) continued to hold a 19.9% stake === 2007–2014: Effects of Great Recession === The economic collapse of 2007 – 2009 pushed the fragile company to the brink. On April 30, 2009, the automaker filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection to be able to operate as a going concern, while renegotiating its debt structure and other obligations, which resulted in the corporation defaulting on over $4 billion in secured debts. The U.S government described the company’s action as a “prepackaged surgical bankruptcy”.On June 10, 2009, substantially all of Chrysler’s assets were sold to “New Chrysler”, organized as Chrysler Group LLC. The federal government provided support for the deal with US$8 billion in financing at near 21%. Under CEO Sergio Marchionne, “World Class Manufacturing” or WCM, a system of thorough manufacturing quality, was introduced and several products re-launched with quality and luxury. The 2010 Jeep Grand Cherokee very soon became the most awarded SUV ever. The Ram, Jeep, Dodge, SRT and Chrysler divisions were separated to focus on their own identity and brand, and 11 major model refreshes occurred in 21 months. The PT Cruiser, Nitro, Liberty and Caliber models (created during DCX) were discontinued. On May 24, 2011, Chrysler repaid its $7.6 billion loans to the United States and Canadian governments

The US Treasury, through the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP), invested $12.5 billion in Chrysler and recovered $11.2 billion when the company shares were sold in May 2011, resulting in a $1.3 billion loss. On July 21, 2011, Fiat bought the Chrysler shares held by the US Treasury. The purchase made Chrysler foreign-owned again, this time as the luxury division. The Chrysler 300 was badged Lancia Thema in some European markets (with additional engine options), giving Lancia a much needed replacement for its flagship === 2014–present: Fiat Chrysler Automobiles === On January 21, 2014, Fiat bought the remaining shares of Chrysler owned by the VEBA worth $3.65 billion. Several days later, the intended reorganization of Fiat and Chrysler under a new holding company, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, together with a new FCA logo were announced The most challenging launch for this new company came immediately in January 2014 with a completely redesigned Chrysler 200. The vehicle’s creation is from the completely integrated company, FCA, executing from a global compact-wide platform.On December 16, 2014, Chrysler Group LLC announced a name change to FCA US LLC.On January 12, 2017, FCA shares traded at the New York Stock Exchange lost value after the EPA accused FCA US of using emissions cheating software to evade diesel-emissions tests, however the company countered the accusations, and the chairman and CEO Sergio Marchionne sternly rejected them. The following day, shares rose as investors played down the effect of the accusations. Analysts gave estimates of potential fines from several hundred million dollars to $4 billion, although the likelihood of a hefty fine was low. Senior United States Senator Bill Nelson urged the FTC to look into possible deceptive marketing of the company’s diesel-powered SUVs. Shares dropped 2.2% after the announcement.On July 21, 2018, Sergio Marchionne stepped down as chairman and CEO for health reasons, and was replaced by John Elkann and Michael Manley, respectively.As a result of ending domestic production of more fuel-efficient passenger automobiles such as the Dodge Dart and Chrysler 200 sedans, FCA US elected to pay $77 million in fines for violating the anti-backsliding provision of fuel economy standards set under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 for its model year 2016 fleet.As part of a January 2019 settlement, Fiat Chrysler will recall and repair approximately 100,000 automobiles equipped with a 3.0-liter V6 EcoDiesel engine having a prohibited defeat device, pay $311 million in total civil penalties to US regulators and CARB, pay $72.5 million for state civil penalties, implement corporate governance reforms, and pay $33.5 million to mitigate excess pollution. The company will also pay affected consumers up to $280 million and offer extended warranties on such vehicles worth $105 million. The total value of the settlement is worth about $800 million, though FCA did not admit liability, and it did not resolve an ongoing criminal investigation == Corporate governance == As of 2018, management positions of FCA US include: === Board of directors === Michael Manley, CEO Reid Bigland Giorgio Fossati Michael J. Keegan Richard Palmer, CFO === Management team === Michael “Mike” Manley: CEO; CEO FCA

Steven Beahm: head of passenger car brands – Dodge, SRT, Chrysler and Fiat, FCA – North America; head of parts and service (Mopar), FCA – North America Reid Bigland: head of Ram brand; head of US sales; chairman, president and CEO, FCA Canada Inc Bruno Cattori: president and CEO, FCA Mexico, S.A. de C.V Mark Champine: head of quality – North America Mark Chernoby: chief technical compliance officer, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V Richard Cox: head of portfolio planning, FCA – North America; head of Alfa Romeo and Maserati product planning Davide Ferina: chief information officer, FCA – North America Olivier François: chief marketing officer; head of Fiat brand Alistair “Al” Gardner: head of network development, FCA – North America; head of Maserati – North America Ralph Gilles: head of design Niel Golightly: global chief communications officer Brian Harlow: head of manufacturing, FCA – North America Philip M. Jansen: head of product development, FCA – North America Roger “Shane” Karr: head of external affairs, FCA – North America Michael J. Keegan: chief audit; sustainability and compliance officer Timothy Kuniskis: global head of Alfa Romeo; head of Jeep brand – North America João Laranjo: chief financial officer, FCA – North America Robert “Bob” E. Lee: head of engine, powertrain and electrified propulsion, and systems engineering, FCA – North America; powertrain coordination Jeffrey P. Lux: head of transmission powertrain, FCA – North America Douglas Ostermann: head of business development, FCA – North America; treasurer Chris Pardi: NAFTA general counsel and corporate secretary, FCA US LLC Barbara J. Pilarski: head of human resources, FCA – North America Mark Stewart: chief operating officer Scott Thiele: head of purchasing, FCA – North America; head of supply chain, FCA – North America Joseph Veltri: head of investor relations Laurie A. Vitale: head of internal audit and compliance, FCA – North America == Sales and marketing == === United States sales === Chrysler is the smallest of the “Big Three” U.S. automakers (Chrysler Group LLC, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors). In 2013 Chrysler sold 1,800,368 vehicles, 9% up from 2012, and fourth largest in sales behind GM, Ford and Toyota.Chrysler’s sales have fluctuated dramatically over the last decade. In 2007 sales reached 2,076,650, falling to 931,402 units in 2009, the company’s worst result in decades It is reported that Chrysler was heavy on fleet sales in 2010, hitting as high as 56 percent of total sales in February of that year. For the whole year, 38 percent of sales of Chrysler were to fleet customers. The industry average was 19 percent. However, the company hopes to reduce its fleet sales to the industry average in 2011 with a renewed product lineup === Global sales === Chrysler is the world’s 11th largest vehicle manufacturer as ranked by OICA in 2012. Total Chrysler vehicle production was about 2.37

million that year, up from 1.58 million in 2010 === Marketing === ==== Lifetime powertrain warranty ==== In 2007, Chrysler began to offer vehicle lifetime powertrain warranty for the first registered owner or retail lessee. The deal covered owner or lessee in U.S., Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, for 2009 model year vehicles, and 2006, 2007 and 2008 model year vehicles purchased on or after July 26, 2007. Covered vehicles excluded SRT models, Diesel vehicles, Sprinter models, Ram Chassis Cab, Hybrid System components (including transmission), and certain fleet vehicles. The warranty is non-transferable After Chrysler’s restructuring, the warranty program was replaced by five-year/100,000 mile transferrable warranty for 2010 or later vehicles ==== “Let’s Refuel America” ==== In 2008, as a response to customer feedback citing the prospect of rising gas prices as a top concern, Chrysler launched the “Let’s Refuel America” incentive campaign, which guaranteed new-car buyers a gasoline price of $2.99 for three years. With the U.S. purchase of eligible Chrysler, Jeep, and Dodge vehicles, customers could enroll in the program and receive a gas card that immediately lowers their gas price to $2.99 a gallon, and keeps it there for the three years ==== Lancia co-branding ==== Chrysler plans for Lancia to codevelop products, with some vehicles being shared. Olivier Francois, Lancia’s CEO, was appointed to the Chrysler division in October 2009. Francois plans to reestablish the Chrysler brand as an upscale brand ==== Ram trucks ==== In October 2009, Dodge’s car and truck lines were separated, with the name “Dodge” being used for cars, minivans and crossovers and “Ram” for light- and medium-duty trucks and other commercial-use vehicles ==== “Imported From Detroit” ==== In 2011, Chrysler unveiled their “Imported From Detroit” campaign with ads featuring Detroit rapper Eminem, one of which aired during the Super Bowl. The campaign highlighted the rejuvenation of the entire product lineup, which included the new, redesigned and repackaged 2011 200 sedan and 200 convertible, the Chrysler 300 sedan and the Chrysler Town & Country minivan. As part of the campaign, Chrysler sold a line of clothing items featuring the Monument to Joe Louis, with proceeds being funneled to Detroit-area charities, including the Boys and Girls Clubs of Southeast Michigan, Habitat for Humanity Detroit and the Marshall Mathers Foundation. Following the Eminem ad, there was also an ad for Detroit Lions defensive tackle Ndamukong Suh driving a Chrysler 300 to Portland, Oregon, to visit his mother, an ad featuring Detroit-born fashion designer John Varvatos cruising through a shadowy Gotham while Kevin Yon’s familiar baritone traces the designer’s genesis.In March 2011, Chrysler Group LLC filed a lawsuit against Moda Group LLC (owner of Pure Detroit clothing retailer) for copying and selling merchandise with the “Imported from Detroit” slogan. Chrysler claimed it had notified defendant of its pending trademark application February 14, but the defendant argued Chrysler had not secured a trademark for the “Imported From Detroit” phrase. On June 18, 2011, U.S. District Judge Arthur Tarnow ruled that Chrysler’s request did not show that it would suffer irreparable harm or that it had a strong likelihood of winning its case. Therefore, Pure Detroit’s owner,

Detroit retailer Moda Group LLC, can continue selling its “Imported from Detroit” products Tarnow also noted that Chrysler does not have a trademark on “Imported from Detroit” and rejected the automaker’s argument that trademark law is not applicable to the case. In March 2012, Chrysler Group LLC and Pure Detroit agreed to a March 27 mediation to try to settle the lawsuit over the clothing company’s use of “Imported from Detroit” slogan. Pure Detroit stated that Chrysler has made false claims about the origins of three vehicles – Chrysler 200, Chrysler 300 and Chrysler Town & Country – none of which are built in Detroit. Pure Detroit also said that Chrysler’s Imported From Detroit merchandise is not being made in Detroit. In 2012 Chrysler and Pure Detroit came to an undisclosed settlement.Chrysler’s Jefferson North Assembly, which makes the Jeep Grand Cherokee and Dodge Durango, is the only car manufacturing plant of any company remaining entirely in Detroit (General Motors operates a plant which is partly in Detroit and partly in Hamtramck).In 2011, Eminem settled a lawsuit against Audi alleging the defendant had ripped off the Chrysler 300 Super Bowl commercial in the Audi A6 Avant ad ==== “Half Time in America” ==== Again in 2012, Chrysler advertised during the Super Bowl. Its two-minute February 5, 2012 Super Bowl XLVI advertisement was titled “Half Time in America”. The ad drew criticism from several leading U.S. conservatives, who suggested that its messaging implied that President Barack Obama deserved a second term and, as such, was political payback for Obama’s support for the federal bailout of the company Asked about the criticism in a 60 Minutes interview with Steve Kroft, Sergio Marchionne responded “just to rectify the record I paid back the loans at 19.7% Interest. I don’t think I committed to do to a commercial on top of that” and characterized the Republican reaction as “unnecessary and out of place” “America’s Import”In 2014, Chrysler started using a new slogan, “America’s Import” in ads introducing their all-new 2015 Chrysler 200, targeting foreign automakers from Germany to Japan with such ads (German performance and Japanese quality), and at the ending of selected ads, the advertisement will say, “We Built This”, indicating being built in America, instead of overseas ==== Slogans ==== Engineered to the Power of Cars (1998–2001) Drive = Love (2002–2004) Inspiration comes standard (2004–2007) Engineered Beautifully (2007-mid 2010) Imported From Detroit (2011-2014) America’s Import (2014–present) == Product line == === Current brands === Chrysler: Luxury sedans and minivans Dodge: Passenger, performance cars, minivans, crossovers and SUVs Jeep: Off-road vehicles, SUVs and crossovers Ram: Trucks and commercial vehicles === Mopar === Mopar: Replacement parts for Chrysler-built vehicles, as well as a brand for dealer service and customer service operations Mopar Performance: a subdivision providing performance aftermarket parts for Chrysler-built vehicles === Chrysler Uconnect === First introduced as MyGig, Chrysler Uconnect is a system that brings interactive ability to the in-car radio and telemetric-like controls

to car settings. As of mid-2015, it is installed in hundreds of thousands of Fiat Chrysler vehicles. It connects to the Internet via the mobile network of AT&T, providing the car with its own IP address. Internet connectivity using any Chrysler, Dodge, Jeep or Ram vehicle, via a Wi-Fi “hot-spot”, is also available via Uconnect Web. According to Chrysler LLC, the hotspot range extends approximately 100 feet (30 m) from the vehicle in all directions, and combines both Wi-Fi and Sprint’s 3G cellular connectivity. Uconnect is available on several current and was available on several discontinued Chrysler models including the current Dodge Dart, Chrysler 300, Aspen, Sebring, Town and Country, Dodge Avenger, Caliber, Grand Caravan, Challenger, Charger, Journey, Nitro, and Ram.In July 2015, IT security researchers announced a severe security flaw assumed to affect every Chrysler vehicle with Uconnect produced from late 2013 to early 2015. It allows hackers to gain access to the car over the Internet, and in the case of a Jeep Cherokee was demonstrated to enable an attacker to take control not just of the radio, A/C, and windshield wipers, but also of the car’s steering, brakes and transmission. Chrysler published a patch that car owners can download and install via a USB stick, or have a car dealer install for them === Former brands === Chrysler Europe (sold to Peugeot) Rootes Group, UK Sunbeam (1901–1976), UK Humber (1898–1976), UK Singer (1905–1970), UK Commer (1905–1979), UK Hillman (1907–1976), UK Karrier (1908–1977), UK Simca (1934–1977), France Barreiros (1959–1978), Spain American Motors Corporation (AMC) (1954–1988), US Hudson (1909–1957), US Nash (1917–1957), US Rambler (1900–1914; 1950–1969), US Willys-Overland (1908-1963) acquired by Kaiser Motors, later Kaiser Jeep, then by AMC in 1970 Graham-Paige (1927-1947),acquired by Kaiser Kaiser (1946-1955) Frazer(1946-1951) Graham Brothers (1916–1929), acquired by Dodge Brothers in 1926 Maxwell (1904–1926), US Chalmers (1908-1923) Merged with Maxwell 1922 Fargo (1920–1972), Canada DeSoto (1928–1961), US Plymouth (1928–2001), US Merged with Chrysler Imperial (1955–1975; 1981–1983), US Valiant (1960–1976) The Valiant was introduced in 1960 as a separate Chrysler brand, then was incorporated into the Plymouth line in the US starting in 1961 Valiant (1962–1981), Australia Valiant (1960–1966) Chrysler marketed the Valiant as a separate Chrysler model in Canada until 1967, when the Canada–United States Automotive Products Agreement of 1965 facilitated the sale of American-built Plymouth Valiants in Canada Eagle (1988–1998), US

GEMCAR (1998–2011) sold to Polaris Industries, US SRT (2012–2014). Merged with Dodge, US Lamborghini (1987-1994) Sold to Malaysian investment group Mycom Setdco and Indonesian group V’Power Corporation Chrysler Marine (1927-1980) == Chrysler brand == The Chrysler brand has mostly been Chrysler’s premium brand competing with brands such as Cadillac, Packard, Cord and Lincoln. After the corporation decided to spin Imperial off as a separate brand in 1955 to better compete with Cadillac and Lincoln, Chrysler became the corporation’s number two brand, but still offered luxury and near-luxury products. After the Imperial brand was dropped in 1975, Chrysler once again became the top brand The Chrysler Town & Country is a station wagon that was manufactured by Chrysler from 1940 to 1942 and from 1945 to 1988 (there was no production during World War II from 1943 to 1945). The Town & Country was also available in four-door sedan, two-door hardtop (no “B” pillar), and convertible body styles from 1947 to 1950 and from 1983 to 1986. The 1988 model year was the last for the Chrysler Town & Country station wagon, after that and partly during one model year (1989), the Town & Country nameplate was off the market until the 1990 model year run when Chrysler re-introduced the Town & Country nameplate as a rebadged variant Chrysler Town & Country minivan Chrysler’s Town & Country wagon was reintroduced as a four door station wagon of all steel construction in 1951. It was offered in both Windsor and New Yorker variants through the end of Windsor model production after the 1960 model year, and then in Newport and New Yorker models through 1965. After that, it was a model in its own right, with trim and features which bridged the gap between the two sedan lines. It was distinguished by luxury features including a carpeted loadfloor trimmed with chrome strips, and from 1968 forward, woodgrain paneling on the body sides and tailgate, a feature also associated with somewhat competitive top-shelf station wagons such as the AMC Ambassador, Buick Estate, Oldsmobile Custom Cruiser, Ford Country Squire, and the Mercury Colony Park Town and Country, however, stood in a class by itself until the last of the full-sized versions of 1977. From 1978, it was sized down and absorbed into the LeBaron series, with a lesser version lacking the more luxurious features and the woodgrain bodyside decals available for a few years in the early 1980s Chrysler re-introduced the Town & Country nameplate in calendar year 1989 as a luxury rebadged variant of the Dodge Grand Caravan/Plymouth Grand Voyager minivan for the 1990 model year and continued to sell this incarnation of the Chrysler Town & Country until the end of the 2016 model year when Chrysler reintroduced the Pacifica nameplate for their minivan in calendar year 2016 for the 2017 model year run === 1950s === Chrysler introduced their first overhead-valve, high-compression V8 engine in 1951, Displacing 331 cubic inches, it was rated at 180 bhp, 20 more hoursepower than the new-for-1949 Cadillac V8. It was unique as the only American V8 engine designed with hemispherical combustion chambers. After successfully winning Mexican Road Races, the engine was upgraded to 250 bhp by 1955. Although Chrysler didn’t have the capital to build a small sporty car (such as the Chevrolet Corvette and the Ford Thunderbird), they decided to build a unique sporting car based on the New Yorker hardtop coupe, that featured a 300-bhp “Hemi” V8. To add to the car’s uniqueness, the car was given a grille

from the Imperial, and side trim from the less-adorned Windsor. A PowerFlite 2-speed automatic transmission was the only available gearbox. It was marketed as the Chrysler 300, emphasizing the engine’s horsepower A 1955 restyle by newly-hired Virgil Exner saw a dramatic rise in Chrysler sales, which rose even more in 1957, when the entire line was dramatically restyled a second time with a sloping front end and high-flying tailfins at the rear. Although well-received at first, it soon became apparent that quality control was compromised to get the new cars to market on an accelerated schedule. Sales therefore plummeted in 1958 and 1959 despite improvements in quality. Throughout the mid- and late-1950s, Chryslers were available in top-line New Yorker, mid-line Saratoga, and base Windsor series Exner’s designs for the Chrysler brand in the early 1960s were overblown versions of the late 1950s, which were unhelpful in sales Exner left his post by 1962, leaving Elwood Engel, a recent transfer from Ford Motor Co, in charge of Chrysler styling === 1960s === Although early 1960s Chrysler cars reflected Virgil Exner’s exaggerated styling, ELwood Engel’s influence was evident as early as 1963, when a restyled, trimmer, boxier Chrysler was introduced. The Windsor and Saratoga series were replaced with the Newport, while New Yorker continued as the top-of-the-line. The Chrysler 300, officially part of the New York line, continued in production through 1965, adding a different letter of the alphabet for each year of production, starting with the 300-B of 1956, through the 300-L of 1965 1962 saw a “non-letter” 300 which was lower in price but was equipped with downgraded standard equipment. The ’65 Chryslers were again dramatically restyled, with a thoroughly modern unit body and larger engines up to 440 cubic inches. They were trim and boxy, with glass-covered headlamps and a swept-back roofline for 2-door hardtop models. a Although Chryslers though the 1960s were well-built, quality cars with man innovative features (such as unit bodies and front torsion bar suspension), sales slumped as American buyers bought record numbers of cars from Ford and GM === 1970s === The Cordoba was introduced by Chrysler for the 1975 model year as an upscale personal luxury car, competing with the Oldsmobile Cutlass, Buick Regal, and Mercury Cougar The Cordoba was originally intended to be a Plymouth—the names Mirada, Premier, Sebring, and Grand Era were associated with the project; all except Grand Era would be used on later Chrysler, Dodge, and Eagle vehicles, though only the Dodge Mirada would be related to the Cordoba. However, losses from the newly introduced full-size C-body models due to the 1973 oil crisis encouraged Chrysler executives to seek higher profits by marketing the model under the more upscale Chrysler brand The car was a success, with over 150,000 examples sold in 1975, a sales year that was otherwise dismal for the company. Gauges, except the tachometer, were standard. For the 1976 model year, sales increased slightly to 165,000 The mildly revised 1977 version also sold well, with just under 140,000 cars. The success of using the Chrysler nameplate strategy is contrasted to sales of its similar and somewhat cheaper corporate cousin, the Dodge Charger SE.Interiors were more luxurious than the Dodge Charger SE and much more than the top-line standard intermediates (Plymouth Fury, Dodge Coronet) with a velour cloth notchback bench seat and folding armrest standard. Optionally available were bucket seats upholstered in

Corinthian leather with a center armrest and cushion, or at extra cost, a center console with floor shifter and storage compartment The dashboard and door panels featured simulated burled elm trim and metal stampings in 1975, while 1976–1979 models featured simulated rosewood trim. A 60/40 bench seat was introduced in 1976 and other seating/upholstery options were added each year through 1979 === 1980s === The early 1980s Imperial was an attempt to reinvent the Imperial as a personal luxury car. This came about after Lee Iacocca took the helm at Chrysler, as he had been instrumental in creating the successful Continental Mark series for this market while he was at Ford in the late 1960s. Although the company was facing bankruptcy, Iacocca decided that “a new flagship would assure the public that Chrysler had a future.” During the design of the car it was intended to be named Chrysler LaScala. However, when the car finally appeared, it was marketed simply as an Imperial, and the Chrysler name was not used.For 1982, the LeBaron moved to the front-wheel drive Chrysler K platform, where it was the upscale brand’s lowest priced offering. It was initially available in just sedan and coupe versions. In early 1982, it was released in a convertible version, bringing to the market the first factory-built open-topped domestic vehicle since the 1976 Cadillac Eldorado. A station wagon version called the Town and Country was added as well A special Town and Country convertible was also made from 1983 to 1986 in limited quantities (1,105 total), which like the wagon featured simulated wood paneling that made it resemble the original 1940s Town and Country. This model was part of the well-equipped Mark Cross option package for the latter years In 1982 the R-body line was discontinued and the New Yorker nameplate transferred to the smaller M-body line. Up to this point, the Chrysler M-body entry had been sold as LeBaron, but that name was moved to a new K-car based FWD line (refer to the Chrysler LeBaron article for information on the 1977-81 M-bodies) Following the nameplate swap, the M-body line was consolidated and simplified. 360 V8 engines were gone, as were coupes and station wagons (the K-car LeBaron’s coupe and wagon replaced them) The Fifth Avenue option was still available as a $1,244 option package. It was adapted from the earlier LeBaron’s package, with a distinctive vinyl roof, electro-luminescent opera lamps, and a rear fascia adapted from the Dodge Diplomat, albeit modified. Interiors featured button-tufted, pillow-soft seats covered in either “Kimberley velvet” or “Corinthian leather”, choices that would continue unchanged throughout the car’s run. In addition, the carpet was thicker than that offered in the base New Yorker, Diplomat and Gran Fury/Caravelle Salon, and the interior had more chrome trim The Fifth Avenue option also included illuminated entry, AM/FM stereo with a rear amplifier, power door locks, power 6-way driver’s seat, power antenna, remote trunk release, dual side mirrors, full undercoating, passenger vanity mirror, tape stripes, locking wire wheel covers, as well as a standard 5.2L (318 in³) V8 engine For 1984 the car was simply called Fifth Avenue, setting the name that would continue for six successful years. The Fifth Avenue (and its Dodge and Plymouth siblings) would prove to be the last V8-powered, rear wheel drive Chrysler vehicles until the Chrysler 300 was revived in that configuration for 2005 All Fifth Avenues from 1984 to 1989 were powered by a 5.2 L (318 in³) V8 engine, with either a two barrel carburetor making 140 hp (104

kW) (in all states except California) or a four barrel rated at 170 hp (127 kW) (in California), mated to Chrysler’s well-known Torqueflite three speed automatic transmission. As this was the largest Chrysler model available, sales took off, especially during 1985-86, when over 100,000 were made each year Starting with the 1984 models, Fifth Avenue production was moved from Windsor, Ontario to St. Louis, Missouri. Beginning in late 1986 through the 1989 model year, they were manufactured at the American Motors plant in Kenosha, Wisconsin (purchased by Chrysler in 1987). The Fifth Avenue also far outsold its Dodge Diplomat and Plymouth Gran Fury siblings, with a much greater proportion of sales going to private customers, despite its higher price tag. Production peaked at 118,000 cars for 1986 and the Fifth Avenue stood out in a by-now K-car dominated lineup as Chrysler’s lone concession to traditional RWD American sedans === 1990s === Chrysler re-introduced the Town & Country nameplate in calendar year 1989 as a luxury rebadged variant of the Dodge Grand Caravan/Plymouth Grand Voyager minivan for the 1990 model year and continued to sell this incarnation of the Chrysler Town & Country until the end of the 2016 model year when Chrysler reintroduced the Pacifica nameplate for their minivan in calendar year 2016 for the 2017 model year run. 1990 saw the previous relationship between New Yorker and Fifth Avenue return, as the Fifth Avenue became a model of the New Yorker There was some substantive difference, however, as the New Yorker Fifth Avenue used a slightly longer chassis than the standard car. The new New Yorker Fifth Avenue’s larger interior volume classified it as a full-size model this time; despite having smaller exterior dimensions than the first generation. 1990 also saw the return of hidden headlamps which when off were concealed behind retractable metal covers. Hidden headlamps had not been available since the 1981 R-body New Yorker Fifth Avenue. For 1990, Chrysler’s new 3.3-liter V6 engine was the standard and only choice, teamed with the company’s A-604 four-speed electronic automatic transaxle. Beginning in 1991, a larger 3.8-liter V-6 became optional It delivered the same 147 horsepower as the 3.3, but had more torque The New Yorker Fifth Avenue’s famous seats, long noted for their button-tufted appearance and sofa-like comfort, continued to be offered with the customer’s choice of velour or leather, with the former “Corinthian leather” replaced by that of the Mark Cross company. Leather-equipped cars bore the Mark Cross logo on the seats and, externally, on an emblem attached to the brushed aluminum band ahead of the rear door opera windows. In this form, the New Yorker Fifth Avenue resembled the newly revived Chrysler Imperial, although some much-needed distinction was provided between the cars when the New Yorker Fifth Avenue (along with its New Yorker Salon linemate) received restyled, rounded-off front and rear ends for the 1992 model year, while the Imperial continued in its original crisply-lined form The early 1990s saw a revival of the Imperial as a high-end sedan in Chrysler’s lineup Unlike the 1955–1983 Imperial, this car was a model of Chrysler, not its own marque Based on the Y platform, it represented the top full-size model in Chrysler’s lineup; below it was the similar New Yorker Fifth Avenue, and below that was the shorter wheelbase New Yorker The reintroduction of the Imperial was two years after the Lincoln Continental was changed to a front-wheel drive sedan with a V6 engine Other domestic competitors in this segment included the Cadillac Sedan de Ville/Fleetwood, Oldsmobile 98 and Buick Electra/Park Avenue, all of which shared General Motors’ then-flagship C platform Though closely related, the Imperial differed from the New Yorker Fifth Avenue in many ways The Imperial’s nose was more wedge-shaped, while the New Yorker Fifth Avenue’s had a sharper, more angular profile (the New Yorker

Fifth Avenue was later restyled with a more rounded front end). The rears of the two cars also differed. Like the front, the New Yorker Fifth Avenue’s rear came to stiffer angles while the Imperial’s rear-end came to more rounded edges. Also found on the Imperial were full-width taillights which were similar to those of the Chrysler TC, as well as the early 1980s Imperial coupe, while the New Yorker Fifth Avenue came with smaller vertical taillights. On the inside, the Imperial’s “Kimberly Velvet” (Mark Cross Leather was available) seats carried a more streamlined look, while the New Yorker Fifth Avenue came with its signature pillowy button-tufted seats Initially, the 1990 Imperial was powered by the 147 hp (110 kW) 3.3 L EGA V6 engine, which was rated at 185 lb⋅ft (251 N⋅m) of torque For 1991, the 3.3 L V6 was replaced by the larger 3.8 L EGH V6. Although horsepower only increased to 150 hp (112 kW), with the new larger 3.8 L V6 torque increased to 215 lb⋅ft (292 N⋅m) at 2750 rpm. A four-speed automatic transmission was standard with both engines This generation Imperial was a 6-passenger sedan offered in either velour or Mark Cross leather. Power equipment came standard, as did automatic climate controlled air conditioning, anti-lock brakes, cruise control, driver’s side airbag, and its distinct landau vinyl roof. The Imperial featured hidden headlamps behind retractable metal covers similar to those found on the LeBaron coupe/convertible and New Yorker/Fifth Avenue. The Imperial was available with a choice of several Infinity sound systems, all with a cassette player Other major options included fully electronic digital instrument cluster with information center, electronically controlled air suspension system, and remote keyless entry with security alarm. Dealer-installed integrated Chrysler cellular phones and six-disc CD changers were also available Introduced in May 1993 for the 1994 model year, the Chrysler LHS was the top of the line model for the division, as well as the most expensive of the Chrysler LH platform cars. All the LH-series models shared a 113.0-inch (2,870 mm) wheelbase and were developed using Chrysler’s new computer drafting system.The car was differentiated from the division’s New Yorker sedan by its bucket leather seats (the New Yorker had a bench seat) and standard features such as alloy wheels that were options on the New Yorker. Further differences between the Chrysler LHS and its New Yorker counterpart were a floor console and shifter, five-passenger seating, lack of chrome trim, an upgraded interior and a sportier image. From the 1996 model year on the New Yorker was dropped in favor of a six-passenger option on the LHS The LHS received a minor face change in 1995 when the corporate wide pentastar emblem was replaced with the revived Chrysler brand emblem Standard features of the LHS included a 3.5 L EGE 24-valve 214 hp (160 kW; 217 PS) V6 engine, body-colored grille, side mirrors and trim, traction control, aluminum wheels, integrated fog lights, 8-way power adjustable front seats, premium sound systems with amplifiers, and automatic temperature control. Unlike the New Yorker, leather seats were standard The final generation of the New Yorker continued with front-wheel drive on an elongated version of the new Chrysler LH platform and was shown at the 1992 North American International Auto Show in Detroit. It was released in May 1993 along with the nearly identical Chrysler LHS as an early 1994 model, eight months after the original LH cars: the Chrysler Concorde, Dodge Intrepid, and Eagle Vision, were introduced The New Yorker came standard with the 3.5 L EGE which produced 214 hp (160 kW). Chrysler gave the New Yorker a more “traditional American”

luxury image, and the LHS a more European performance image (as was done with the Eagle Vision). Little separated New Yorker from LHS in appearance, with New Yorker’s chrome hood trim, body-color cladding, standard chrome wheel covers and 15″ wheels, column shifter and front bench seat, being the only noticeable differences. An option provided for 16″ wheels and a firmer suspension type (“touring suspension”) This option eliminated the technical differences between New Yorker and LHS. LHS came with almost all of New Yorker’s optional features as standard equipment and featured the firmer tuned suspension, to go with its more European image During the 1994 model run, various changes were made to the New Yorker. On the outside, New Yorker was switched to new accent-color body cladding, whereas LHS received body-color cladding. This change aligned New Yorker with the Chrysler Concorde which also had accent-color cladding. Instead of standard 15″ and optional 16″ wheels, for the sake of enhanced stability 16″ wheels became standard and the 15″ wheels were dropped. Likewise, the touring suspension option available on early 1994 New Yorker models was discontinued, leaving only “ride-tuned” suspension. This resulted in a permanent technical difference with the LHS The first generation of the Concorde debuted at the 1992 North American International Auto Show in Detroit as a 1993 model. It debuted as a single, well-equipped model with a base price of US$18,341.Out of all the LH sedans, the first generation Concorde was most closely related to the Eagle Vision. The Concorde was given a more traditional image than the Vision. The two shared nearly all sheetmetal in common with the main differences limited to their grilles, rear fascias, body side moldings, and wheel choices. The Concorde featured a modern take on Chrysler’s signature waterfall grille. It was split into six sections divided by body colored strips with the Chrysler Pentastar logo on the center strip. The Concorde’s rear fascia was highlighted by a full-width and full-height lightbar between the taillights, giving the appearance that the taillights stretched across the entire trunk. In keeping with its upscale position, Concorde’s body side moldings incorporated bright chrome (later golden colored) work not found on its Dodge or Eagle siblings. On Concordes with gray lower body paint color, the gray came all the way up to the chrome beltline; on Visions the gray lower body paint area was smaller and much more subtle. Wheel styles, which included available aluminum wheels with a Spiralcast design, were also unique to the Chrysler LH sedans (Concorde, LHS, New Yorker); Dodge and Eagle had their own different wheel styles === 2010s === Following FCA’s acquisition of Chrysler, FCA set a long-term goal of reviving the Chrysler brand as a full luxury brand to compete again with Cadillac and other luxury brands. The company stated in October 2009 that future plans for Chrysler brand vehicles include closer cooperation and shared development between Chrysler and Lancia, an upscale Italian automaker within the Fiat Group. In 2011, the brand’s winged emblem was modified, eliminating the historic blue ribbon center which dated from the 1930s, replacing it with a blue-backed “Chrysler” nameplate. In May 2014, FCA announced it would make the brand a mainstream brand with premium features.The brand’s current lineup consist of the Chrysler 300 and the Chrysler Pacifica === Fiat === In 2010, Fiat Auto was planning to sell seven of its vehicles in the U.S. by 2014, while Fiat-controlled Chrysler Group was to supply

nine models to sell under Fiat brands in the European market, according to a five-year plan rolled out on April 21, 2010 in Turin, Italy, by Fiat and Chrysler CEO Sergio Marchionne At least five of the Fiat Auto models were expected to be marketed in the U.S. under its Alfa Romeo brand. Showing the level of integration envisioned, a product introduction timeline envisaged Chrysler-built compact and full-size SUVs going on sale in 2012 and 2014, respectively, in both European and North American markets === Reception === Chrysler’s quality and customer satisfaction ratings have been below average according to Consumer Reports and JD Powers since the late 1990s. Consumer Reports has consistently reported Chrysler brands at the bottom of their reliability ratings in the past decade as well as their Automotive Brand Report Card JDP has found similar results over the same time period in both Initial Quality Studies and Customer Service Indexes as has the American Customer Satisfaction Index survey. Chrysler has had a few quality successes during this period. Strategic Vision named Chrysler an overall winner in 2015 noting strong customer appeal and that with the rise in quality of all cars the difference between high and low “problem-counting” ratings are relatively small == Environmental Initiatives == Chrysler produced an experimental electric vehicle in 1979, the company developed Chrysler ETV-1 electric prototype in cooperation with U.S. Department of Energy In 1992, Chrysler developed the Dodge EPIC concept minivan. In 1993, Chrysler began to sell a limited-production electric minivan called the TEVan; however only 56 were produced In 1997, a second generation, called the EPIC, was released. It was discontinued after 1999.Chrysler once owned the Global Electric Motorcars company, building low-speed neighborhood electric vehicles, but sold GEM to Polaris Industries in 2011 In September 2007, Chrysler established ENVI, an in-house organization focused on electric-drive vehicles and related technologies which was disbanded by late 2009. In August 2009, Chrysler took US$70 million in grants from the U.S Department of Energy to develop a test fleet of 220 hybrid pickup trucks and minivans The first hybrid models, the Chrysler Aspen hybrid and the Dodge Durango hybrid, were discontinued a few months after production in 2008, sharing their GM-designed hybrid technology with GM, Daimler and BMW.Chrysler is on the Advisory Council of the PHEV Research Center, and undertook a government sponsored demonstration project with Ram and minivan vehicles.In 2012, FCA CEO Sergio Marchionne said that Chrysler and Fiat both plan to focus primarily on alternative fuels, such as CNG and Diesel, instead of hybrid and electric drivetrains for their consumer products.Fiat Chrysler bought 8.2 million megagrams of U.S greenhouse gas emission credits from competitors including Toyota, Honda, Tesla and Nissan It had the worst fleet average fuel economy among major manufacturers selling in the USA from model years 2012–2017 == Chrysler Defense == The dedicated tank building division of Chrysler, this division was founded as the Chrysler Tank division in 1940, originally with the intention of providing another production line for the M2 Medium Tank, so that the U.S Army could more rapidly build up its inventory of the type. Its first plant was the Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant. When the M2A1 was unexpectedly declared obsolete in August of the same year,

plans were altered (though not without considerable difficulty) to produce the M3 Grant instead, primarily for the British as part of the United States under the counter support for Great Britain against Nazi Germany (the U.S. not yet being formally in the war), with the balance of the revised order going to the U.S. Army as the Lee. After December 1941 and the United States’ entry into the war against the Axis powers, the Tank division rapidly expanded, with new facilities such as the Tank Arsenal Proving Ground at (then) Utica, Michigan It also quickly widened the range of products it was developing and producing, including the M4 Sherman tank and the Chrysler A57 multibank tank engine == Special programs == During World War II, essentially all of Chrysler’s facilities were devoted to building military vehicles (the Jeep brand came later, after Chrysler acquired American Motors Corporation) They were also designing V12 and V16 hemi-engines producing 2,500 hp (1,864 kW; 2,535 PS) for airplanes, but they did not make it into production as jets were developed and were seen as the future for air travel. During the 1950s Cold War period, Chrysler made air raid sirens powered by its Hemi V-8 engines === Radar antennas === When the Radiation Laboratory at MIT was established in 1941 to develop microwave radars, one of the first projects resulted in the SCR-584, the most widely recognized radar system of the war era. This system included a parabolic antenna six feet in diameter that was mechanically aimed in a helical pattern (round and round as well as up and down) One of Chrysler’s most significant contributions to the war effort was not in the field of vehicles but in the radar field. For the final production design of this antenna and its highly complex drive mechanism, the Army’s Signal Corps Laboratories turned to Chrysler’s Central Engineering Office. There, the parabola was changed from aluminum to steel, allowing production forming using standard automotive presses. To keep weight down, 6,000 equally spaced holes were drilled in the face (this had no effect on the radiation pattern). The drive mechanism was completely redesigned, using technology derived from Chrysler’s research in automotive gears and differentials. The changes resulted in improved performance, reduced weight, and easier maintenance. A large portion of the Dodge plant was used in building 1,500 of the SCR-584 antennas as well as the vans used in the systems === Aircraft === Chrysler VZ-6 === Missiles === In April 1950, the U.S. Army established the Ordnance Guided Missile Center (OGMC) at Redstone Arsenal, adjacent to Huntsville, Alabama To form OGMC, over 1,000 civilian and military personnel were transferred from Fort Bliss, Texas. Included was a group of German scientists and engineers led by Wernher von Braun; this group had been brought to America under Project Paperclip. OGMC designed the Army’s first short-range ballistic missile, the PGM-11 Redstone, based on the WWII German V-2 missile Chrysler established the Missile Division to serve as the Redstone prime contractor, setting up an engineering operation in Huntsville and for production obtaining use from the U.S. Navy of a large plant in Sterling Heights, Michigan. The Redstone was in active service from 1958 to 1964; it was also the first missile to test-launch a live nuclear weapon, first detonated in a 1958 test in the South Pacific.Working together, the Missile Division and von Braun’s

team greatly increased the capability of the Redstone, resulting in the PGM-19 Jupiter, a medium-range ballistic missile. In May 1959, a Jupiter missile launched two small monkeys into space in a nose cone; this was America’s first successful flight and recovery of live space payloads. Responsibility for deploying Jupiter missiles was transferred from the Army to the Air Force; armed with nuclear warheads, they were first deployed in Italy and Turkey during the early 1960s === Space boosters === In July 1959, NASA chose the Redstone missile as the basis for the Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle to be used for suborbital test flights of the Project Mercury spacecraft. Three unmanned MRLV launch attempts were made between November 1960 and March 1961, two of which were successful The MRLV successfully launched the chimpanzee Ham, and astronauts Alan Shepard and Gus Grissom on three suborbital flights in January, May and July 1961, respectively America’s more ambitious manned space travel plans included the design of the Saturn series of heavy-lift launch vehicles by a team headed by Wernher von Braun. Chrysler’s Huntsville operation, then designated the Space Division, became Marshall Space Flight Center’s prime contractor for the first stage of the Saturn I and Saturn IB versions. The design was based on a cluster of Redstone and Jupiter fuel tanks, and Chrysler built it for the Apollo program in the Michoud Assembly Facility in East New Orleans, one of the largest manufacturing plants in the world. Between October 1961 and July 1975, NASA used ten Saturn Is and nine Saturn IBs for suborbital and orbital flights, all of which were successful; Chrysler missiles and boosters never suffered a launch failure. The division was also a subcontractor which modified one of the Mobile Launcher Platforms for use with the Saturn IB rockets using Saturn V infrastructure == See also == === Countries === Chrysler Australia Chrysler Fevre Argentina – sold to Volkswagen in 1980 Chrysler Canada Chrysler Kamyon Turkey – sold to the ASKAM in 2003 == Notes == 1. [1] Fiat is exercising their right to increase their share in the company, and have announced that they want to buy an additional ~6.6% of the shares from VEBA Trust, but VEBA disagrees with the price set by Fiat. The matter is currently the subject of proceedings at Delaware Chancery Court

American frontier | Wikipedia audio article

The American frontier comprises the geography, history, folklore, and cultural expression of life in the forward wave of American expansion that began with English colonial settlements in the early 17th century and ended with the admission of the last mainland territories as states in 1912. “Frontier” refers to a contrasting region at the edge of a European–American line of settlement. American historians cover multiple frontiers but the folklore is focused primarily on the conquest and settlement of Native American lands west of the Mississippi River, in what is now the Midwest, Texas, the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, the Southwest, and the West Coast In 19th- and early 20th-century media, enormous popular attention was focused on the Western United States in the second half of the 19th century, a period sometimes called the “Old West” or the “Wild West”. Such media typically exaggerated the romance, anarchy, and chaotic violence of the period for greater dramatic effect. This eventually inspired the Western genre of film, which spilled over into comic books, and children’s toys, games and costumes This era of massive migration and settlement was particularly encouraged by President Thomas Jefferson following the Louisiana Purchase, giving rise to the expansionist philosophy known as “Manifest destiny” As defined by Hine and Faragher, “frontier history tells the story of the creation and defense of communities, the use of the land, the development of markets, and the formation of states.” They explain, “It is a tale of conquest, but also one of survival, persistence, and the merging of peoples and cultures that gave birth and continuing life to America.” Through treaties with foreign nations and native tribes; political compromise; military conquest; establishment of law and order; the building of farms, ranches, and towns; the marking of trails and digging of mines; and the pulling in of great migrations of foreigners, the United States expanded from coast to coast, fulfilling the dreams of Manifest Destiny. Historian Frederick Jackson Turner in his “Frontier Thesis” (1893) theorized that the frontier was a process that transformed Europeans into a new people, the Americans, whose values focused on equality, democracy, and optimism, as well as individualism, self-reliance, and even violence. Thus, Turner’s Frontier Thesis proclaimed the westward frontier to be the defining process of American history As the American frontier passed into history, the myths of the West in fiction and film took a firm hold in the imagination of Americans and foreigners alike. In David Murdoch’s view, America is “exceptional” in choosing its iconic self-image: “No other nation has taken a time and place from its past and produced a construct of the imagination equal to America’s creation of the West.” == Terms “West” and “Frontier” == The frontier line was the outer line of European-American settlement. It moved steadily westward from the 1630s to the 1880s (with occasional movements north into Maine and Vermont, south into Florida, and east from California into Nevada). Turner favored the Census Bureau definition of the “frontier line” as a settlement density of two people per square mile. The “West” was the recently settled area near that boundary Thus, parts of the Midwest and American South, though no longer considered “western”, have a frontier heritage along with the modern western states. In the 21st century, however, the term “American West” is most often used for the area west of the Great Plains == Colonial frontier == In the colonial era, before 1776, the west was of high priority for settlers and politicians The American frontier began when Jamestown, Virginia was settled by the English in 1607 In the earliest days of European settlement of the Atlantic coast, until about 1680, the frontier was essentially any part of the interior of the continent beyond the fringe of existing settlements along the Atlantic coast. English, French, Spanish and Dutch patterns of expansion and settlement were quite different. Only a few thousand French migrated to Canada; these habitants settled in villages along the St. Lawrence River, building communities that remained stable for long stretches; they did not simply jump west the way the British did. Although French fur traders ranged widely through the Great Lakes and mid-west region they seldom settled down. French settlement was limited to a few very small villages such as Kaskaskia, Illinois as well as a larger settlement around New Orleans. Likewise, the Dutch set up fur trading posts in the Hudson River valley, followed by large grants of

land to rich landowning patroons who brought in tenant farmers who created compact, permanent villages. They created a dense rural settlement in upstate New York, but they did not push westward.Areas in the north that were in the frontier stage by 1700 generally had poor transportation facilities, so the opportunity for commercial agriculture was low. These areas remained primarily in subsistence agriculture, and as a result by the 1760s these societies were highly egalitarian, as explained by historian Jackson Turner Main: The typical frontier society therefore was one in which class distinctions were minimized The wealthy speculator, if one was involved, usually remained at home, so that ordinarily no one of wealth was a resident. The class of landless poor was small. The great majority were landowners, most of whom were also poor because they were starting with little property and had not yet cleared much land nor had they acquired the farm tools and animals which would one day make them prosperous. Few artisans settled on the frontier except for those who practiced a trade to supplement their primary occupation of farming. There might be a storekeeper, a minister, and perhaps a doctor; and there were a number of landless laborers. All the rest were farmers In the South, frontier areas that lacked transportation, such as the Appalachian Mountain region, remained based on subsistence farming and resembled the egalitarianism of their northern counterparts, although they had a larger upper-class of slaveowners. North Carolina was representative However frontier areas of 1700 that had good river connections were increasingly transformed into plantation agriculture. Rich men came in, bought up the good land, and worked it with slaves. The area was no longer “frontier” It had a stratified society comprising a powerful upper-class white landowning gentry, a small middle-class, a fairly large group of landless or tenant white farmers, and a growing slave population at the bottom of the social pyramid Unlike the North, where small towns and even cities were common, the South was overwhelmingly rural === From British peasants to American farmers === The seaboard colonial settlements gave priority to land ownership for individual farmers, and as the population grew they pushed westward for fresh farm land. Unlike Britain, where a small number of landlords owned most of the good land, ownership in America was cheap, easy and widespread. Land ownership brought a degree of independence as well as a vote for local and provincial offices. The typical New England settlements were quite compact and small—under a square mile. Conflict with the Native Americans arose out of political issues, namely who would rule. Early frontier areas east of the Appalachian Mountains included the Connecticut River valley, and northern New England (which was a move to the north, not the west) === Wars with French and with Natives === Most of the frontiers experienced Native wars, The “French and Indian Wars” were imperial wars between Britain and France, with the French making up for their small colonial population base by enlisting Indian war parties as allies. The series of large wars spilling over from European wars ended in a complete victory for the British in the worldwide Seven Years’ War. In the peace treaty of 1763, France lost practically everything, as the lands west of the Mississippi river, in addition to Florida and New Orleans, went to Spain Otherwise lands east of the Mississippi River and what is now Canada went to Britain === Steady migration to frontier lands === Regardless of wars Americans were moving across the Appalachians into western Pennsylvania, what is now West Virginia, and areas of the Ohio Country, Kentucky and Tennessee. In the southern settlements via the Cumberland Gap, their most famous leader was Daniel Boone, Young George Washington promoted settlements in West Virginia on lands awarded to him and his soldiers by the Royal government in payment for their wartime service in Virginia’s militia West of the mountains, settlements were curtailed briefly by a decree by the Royal Proclamation of 1763. However the Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1768) re-opened most of the western lands for frontiersmen to settle == New nation == The first major movement west of the Appalachian mountains originated in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and North Carolina as soon as the Revolutionary War ended in 1781. Pioneers housed themselves in a rough lean-to or at most a one-room log cabin. The main food supply at first came from hunting deer, turkeys, and other abundant game Clad in typical frontier garb, leather breeches, moccasins, fur cap, and hunting shirt, and

girded by a belt from which hung a hunting knife and a shot pouch—all homemade—the pioneer presented a unique appearance. In a short time he opened in the woods a patch, or clearing, on which he grew corn, wheat, flax, tobacco, and other products, even fruit In a few years, the pioneer added hogs, sheep, and cattle, and perhaps acquired a horse Homespun clothing replaced the animal skins The more restless pioneers grew dissatisfied with over civilized life, and uprooted themselves again to move 50 or hundred miles (80 or 160 km) further west === Land policy === The land policy of the new nation was conservative, paying special attention to the needs of the settled East. The goals sought by both parties in the 1790–1820 era were to grow the economy, avoid draining away the skilled workers needed in the East, distribute the land wisely, sell it at prices that were reasonable to settlers yet high enough to pay off the national debt, clear legal titles, and create a diversified Western economy that would be closely interconnected with the settled areas with minimal risk of a breakaway movement. By the 1830s, however, the West was filling up with squatters who had no legal deed, although they may have paid money to previous settlers. The Jacksonian Democrats favored the squatters by promising rapid access to cheap land. By contrast, Henry Clay was alarmed at the “lawless rabble” heading West who were undermining the utopian concept of a law-abiding, stable middle-class republican community. Rich southerners, meanwhile, looked for opportunities to buy high-quality land to set up slave plantations. The Free Soil movement of the 1840s called for low-cost land for free white farmers, a position enacted into law by the new Republican Party in 1862, offering free 160 acre (65 ha) homesteads to all adults, male and female, black and white, native-born or immigrant After winning the Revolutionary War (1783), American settlers in large numbers poured into the west. In 1788, American pioneers to the Northwest Territory established Marietta, Ohio as the first permanent American settlement in the Northwest Territory.In 1775, Daniel Boone blazed a trail for the Transylvania Company from Virginia through the Cumberland Gap into central Kentucky. It was later lengthened to reach the Falls of the Ohio at Louisville The Wilderness Road was steep and rough, and it could only be traversed on foot or horseback, but it was the best route for thousands of settlers moving into Kentucky. In some areas they had to face Indian attacks. In 1784 alone, Indians killed over 100 travelers on the Wilderness Road. No Indians lived permanently in Kentucky but they sent raiding parties to stop the newcomers. One of those intercepted was Abraham Lincoln’s grandfather, who was scalped in 1784 near Louisville === Acquisition of indigenous lands === The War of 1812 marked the final confrontation between major Indian forces trying to stop the advance, with British aid. The British war goal included the creation of an independent Indian state (under British auspices) in the Midwest. American frontier militiamen under General Andrew Jackson defeated the Creeks and opened the Southwest, while militia under Governor William Henry Harrison defeated the Indian-British alliance at the Battle of the Thames in Canada in 1813. The death in battle of the Indian leader Tecumseh dissolved the coalition of hostile Indian tribes. Meanwhile, General Andrew Jackson ended the Indian military threat in the Southeast at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814 in Alabama. In general the frontiersmen battled the Indians with little help from the U.S. Army or the federal government.To end the War of 1812 American diplomats negotiated the Treaty of Ghent, signed in 1815, with Britain. They rejected the British plan to set up an Indian state in U.S. territory south of the Great Lakes. They explained the American policy toward acquisition of Indian lands: The United States, while intending never to acquire lands from the Indians otherwise than peaceably, and with their free consent, are fully determined, in that manner, progressively, and in proportion as their growing population may require, to reclaim from the state of nature, and to bring into cultivation every portion of the territory contained within their acknowledged boundaries. In thus providing for the support of millions of civilized beings, they will not violate any dictate of justice or of humanity; for they will not only give to the few thousand savages scattered over that territory an ample equivalent for any right they may surrender, but will always leave them the possession of lands more than they can cultivate, and more than adequate to their subsistence, comfort, and enjoyment, by cultivation. If this be a spirit of aggrandizement, the undersigned are prepared to admit, in that sense, its existence; but they must deny that it affords the slightest proof of an

intention not to respect the boundaries between them and European nations, or of a desire to encroach upon the territories of Great Britain. […] They will not suppose that that Government will avow, as the basis of their policy towards the United States a system of arresting their natural growth within their own territories, for the sake of preserving a perpetual desert for savages === New territories and states === As settlers poured in, the frontier districts first became territories, with an elected legislature and a governor appointed by the president. Then when population reached 100,000 the territory applied for statehood. Frontiersmen typically dropped the legalistic formalities and restrictive franchise favored by eastern upper classes, and adopting more democracy and more egalitarianism.In 1800 the western frontier had reached the Mississippi River St. Louis, Missouri was the largest town on the frontier, the gateway for travel westward, and a principal trading center for Mississippi River traffic and inland commerce but remained under Spanish control until 1803 === The Louisiana Purchase of 1803 === Thomas Jefferson thought of himself as a man of the frontier and was keenly interested in expanding and exploring the West. Jefferson’s Louisiana Purchase of 1803 doubled the size of the nation at the cost of $15 million, or about $0.04 per acre ($245 million in 2017 dollars, less than 42 cents per acre). Federalists opposed the expansion, but Jeffersonians hailed the opportunity to create millions of new farms to expand the domain of land-owning yeomen; the ownership would strengthen the ideal republican society, based on agriculture (not commerce), governed lightly, and promoting self-reliance and virtue, as well as form the political base for Jeffersonian Democracy.The $15 million paid France for its sovereignty over the territory in terms of international law. Because of inflation, that $15 million is equivalent to about $294 million in 2012 dollars. Between 1803 and the 1870s, the federal government purchased the actual land from the Indian tribes then in possession of it 20th century accountants and courts have calculated the value of the payments made to the Indians, which included future payments of cash, food, horses, cattle, supplies, buildings, schooling, and medical care. In cash terms, the total paid to the tribes in the area of the Louisiana Purchase amounted to about $2.6 billion in current dollars, or $8.5 billion in 2012 dollars (nearly $9 billion in 2016 dollars). Additional sums were paid to the Indians living east of the Mississippi for their lands, as well as payments to Indians living in parts of the west outside the Louisiana Purchase.Even before the purchase Jefferson was planning expeditions to explore and map the lands He charged Lewis and Clark to “explore the Missouri River, and such principal stream of it, as, by its course and communication with the waters of the Pacific Ocean; whether the Columbia, Oregon, Colorado or any other river may offer the most direct and practicable communication across the continent for the purposes of commerce”. Jefferson also instructed the expedition to study the region’s native tribes (including their morals, language, and culture), weather, soil, rivers, commercial trading, and animal and plant life.Entrepreneurs, most notably John Jacob Astor quickly seized the opportunity and expanded fur trading operations into the Pacific Northwest. Astor’s “Fort Astoria” (later Fort George), at the mouth of the Columbia River, became the first permanent white settlement in that area, although it was not profitable for Astor. He set up the American Fur Company in an attempt to break the hold that the Hudson’s Bay Company monopoly had over the region. By 1820, Astor had taken over independent traders to create a profitable monopoly; he left the business as a multi-millionaire in 1834 === The fur trade === As the frontier moved westward, trappers and hunters moved ahead of settlers, searching out new supplies of beaver and other skins for shipment to Europe. The hunters were the first Europeans in much of the Old West and they formed the first working relationships with the Native Americans in the West. They added extensive knowledge of the Northwest terrain, including the important South Pass through the central Rocky Mountains. Discovered about 1812, it later became a major route for settlers to Oregon and Washington. By 1820, however, a new “brigade-rendezvous” system sent company men in “brigades” cross-country on long expeditions, bypassing many tribes It also encouraged “free trappers” to explore

new regions on their own. At the end of the gathering season, the trappers would “rendezvous” and turn in their goods for pay at river ports along the Green River, the Upper Missouri, and the Upper Mississippi. St. Louis was the largest of the rendezvous towns. By 1830, however, fashions changed and beaver hats were replaced by silk hats, ending the demand for expensive American furs. Thus ended the era of the mountain men, trappers, and scouts such as Jedediah Smith, Hugh Glass, Davy Crockett, Jack Omohundro, and others. The trade in beaver fur virtually ceased by 1845 === The federal government and the West === There was wide agreement on the need to settle the new territories quickly, but the debate polarized over the price the government should charge. The conservatives and Whigs, typified by president John Quincy Adams, wanted a moderated pace that charged the newcomers enough to pay the costs of the federal government. The Democrats, however, tolerated a wild scramble for land at very low prices. The final resolution came in the Homestead Law of 1862, with a moderated pace that gave settlers 160 acres free after they worked on it for five years.The private profit motive dominated the movement westward, but the Federal Government played a supporting role in securing land through treaties and setting up territorial governments, with governors appointed by the President The federal government first acquired western territory through treaties with other nations or native tribes. Then it sent surveyors to map and document the land. By the 20th century Washington bureaucracies managed the federal lands such as the General Land Office in the Interior department, and after 1891 the Forest Service in the Department of Agriculture After 1900 dam building and flood control became major concerns.Transportation was a key issue and the Army (especially the Army Corps of Engineers) was given full responsibility for facilitating navigation on the rivers The steamboat, first used on the Ohio River in 1811, made possible inexpensive travel using the river systems, especially the Mississippi and Missouri rivers and their tributaries Army expeditions up the Missouri River in 1818–25 allowed engineers to improve the technology. For example, the Army’s steamboat “Western Engineer” of 1819 combined a very shallow draft with one of the earliest stern wheels. In 1819–25, Colonel Henry Atkinson developed keelboats with hand-powered paddle wheels.The federal postal system played a crucial role in national expansion. It facilitated expansion into the West by creating an inexpensive, fast, convenient communication system. Letters from early settlers provided information and boosterism to encourage increased migration to the West, helped scattered families stay in touch and provide neutral help, assisted entrepreneurs to find business opportunities, and made possible regular commercial relationships between merchants and the West and wholesalers and factories back east. The postal service likewise assisted the Army in expanding control over the vast western territories. The widespread circulation of important newspapers by mail, such as the New York Weekly Tribune, facilitated coordination among politicians in different states. The postal service helped integrated established areas with the frontier, creating a spirit of nationalism and providing a necessary infrastructure === Scientists, artists, and explorers === Government and private enterprise sent many explorers to the West. In 1805–6, Army lieutenant Zebulon Pike (1779–1813) led a party of 20 soldiers to find the head waters of the Mississippi. He later explored the Red and Arkansas Rivers in Spanish territory, eventually reaching the Rio Grande. On his return, Pike sighted the peak in Colorado named after him Major Stephen Harriman Long (1784–1864) led the Yellowstone and Missouri expeditions of 1819–1820, but his categorizing in 1823 of the Great Plains as arid and useless led to the region getting a bad reputation as the “Great American Desert”, which discouraged settlement in that area for several decades.In 1811, naturalists Thomas Nuttall (1786–1859) and John Bradbury (1768–1823) traveled up the Missouri River documenting and drawing plant and animal life. Artist George Catlin (1796–1872) painted accurate paintings of Native American culture. Swiss artist Karl Bodmer made compelling landscapes and portraits John James Audubon (1785–1851) is famous for classifying and painting in minute details

500 species of birds, published in Birds of America.The most famous of the explorers was John Charles Frémont (1813–1890), an Army officer in the Corps of Topographical Engineers He displayed a talent for exploration and a genius at self-promotion that gave him the sobriquet of “Pathmarker of the West” and led him to the presidential nomination of the new Republican Party in 1856. He led a series of expeditions in the 1840s which answered many of the outstanding geographic questions about the little-known region. He crossed through the Rocky Mountains by five different routes, and mapped parts of Oregon and California In 1846–7, he played a role in conquering California. In 1848–49, Frémont was assigned to locate a central route through the mountains for the proposed transcontinental railroad, but his expedition ended in near-disaster when it became lost and was trapped by heavy snow. His reports mixed narrative of exciting adventure with scientific data, and detailed practical information for travelers. It caught the public imagination and inspired many to head west. Goetzman says it was “monumental in its breadth—a classic of exploring literature”.While colleges were springing up across the Northeast, there was little competition on the western frontier for Transylvania University, founded in Lexington, Kentucky, in 1780. It boasted of a law school in addition to its undergraduate and a medical programs. Transylvania attracted politically ambitious young men from across the Southwest, including 50 who became United States senators, 101 representatives, 36 governors, and 34 ambassadors, as well as Jefferson Davis, the president of the Confederacy == The Antebellum West == === Religion === The established Eastern churches were slow to meet the needs of the frontier. The Presbyterians and Congregationalists, since they depended on well-educated ministers, were shorthanded in evangelizing the frontier. They set up a Plan of Union of 1801 to combine resources on the frontier. Most frontiersmen showed little commitment to religion until traveling evangelists began to appear and to produce “revivals”. The local pioneers responded enthusiastically to these events and, in effect, evolved their own populist religions, especially during the Second Great Awakening (1790–1840), which featured outdoor camp meetings lasting a week or more and which introduced many people to organized religion for the first time One of the largest and most famous camp meetings took place at Cane Ridge, Kentucky in 1801.The localistic Baptists set up small independent churches—Baptists abjured centralized authority; each local church was founded on the principle of independence of the local congregation On the other hand, bishops of the well-organized, centralized Methodists assigned circuit riders to specific areas for several years at a time, then moved them to fresh territory. Several new denominations were formed, of which the largest was the Disciples of Christ === Democracy in the Midwest === Historian Mark Wyman calls Wisconsin a “palimpsest” of layer upon layer of peoples and forces, each imprinting permanent influences. He identified these layers as multiple “frontiers” over three centuries: Native American frontier, French frontier, English frontier, fur-trade frontier, mining frontier, and the logging frontier. Finally the coming of the railroad brought the end of the frontier.Frederick Jackson Turner grew up in Wisconsin during its last frontier stage, and in his travels around the state he could see the layers of social and political development. One of Turner’s last students, Merle Curti used in-depth analysis of local Wisconsin history to test Turner’s thesis about democracy. Turner’s view was that American democracy, “involved widespread participation in the making of decisions affecting the common life, the development of initiative and self-reliance, and equality of economic and cultural opportunity. It thus also involved Americanization of immigrant.” Curti found that from 1840 to 1860 in Wisconsin the poorest groups gained rapidly in land ownership, and often rose to political leadership at the local level. He found that even landless young farmworkers were soon able to obtain their own farms. Free land on the frontier therefore created opportunity and democracy, for both European immigrants as well as old stock Yankees === Southwest === From the 1770s to the 1830s, pioneers moved into the new lands that stretched from Kentucky

to Alabama to Texas. Most were farmers who moved in family groups.Historian Louis Hacker shows how wasteful the first generation of pioneers was; they were too ignorant to cultivate the land properly and when the natural fertility of virgin land was used up, they sold out and moved west to try again. Hacker describes that in Kentucky about 1812: Farms were for sale with from ten to fifty acres cleared, possessing log houses, peach and sometimes apple orchards, enclosed in fences, and having plenty of standing timber for fuel. The land was sown in wheat and corn, which were the staples, while hemp [for making rope] was being cultivated in increasing quantities in the fertile river bottoms Yet, on the whole, it was an agricultural society without skill or resources. It committed all those sins which characterize a wasteful and ignorant husbandry. Grass seed was not sown for hay and as a result the farm animals had to forage for themselves in the forests; the fields were not permitted to lie in pasturage; a single crop was planted in the soil until the land was exhausted; the manure was not returned to the fields; only a small part of the farm was brought under cultivation, the rest being permitted to stand in timber Instruments of cultivation were rude and clumsy and only too few, many of them being made on the farm. It is plain why the American frontier settler was on the move continually It was, not his fear of a too close contact with the comforts and restraints of a civilized society that stirred him into a ceaseless activity, nor merely the chance of selling out at a profit to the coming wave of settlers; it was his wasting land that drove him on Hunger was the goad. The pioneer farmer’s ignorance, his inadequate facilities for cultivation, his limited means, of transport necessitated his frequent changes of scene. He could succeed only with virgin soil Hacker adds that the second wave of settlers reclaimed the land, repaired the damage, and practiced a more sustainable agriculture Historian Frederick Jackson Turner explored the individualistic world view and values of the first generation: What they objected to was arbitrary obstacles, artificial limitations upon the freedom of each member of this frontier folk to work out his own career without fear or favor What they instinctively opposed was the crystallization of differences, the monopolization of opportunity and the fixing of that monopoly by government or by social customs. The road must be open The game must be played according to the rules There must be no artificial stifling of equality of opportunity, no closed doors to the able, no stopping the free game before it was played to the end. More than that, there was an unformulated, perhaps, but very real feeling, that mere success in the game, by which the abler men were able to achieve preëminence gave to the successful ones no right to look down upon their neighbors, no vested title to assert superiority as a matter of pride and to the diminution of the equal right and dignity of the less successful === Manifest Destiny === Manifest Destiny was the belief that the United States was pre-ordained to expand from the Atlantic coast to the Pacific coast. The concept was expressed during Colonial times, but the term was coined in the 1840s by a popular magazine which editorialized, “the fulfillment of our manifest destiny…to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions.” As the nation grew, “Manifest destiny” became a rallying cry for expansionists in the Democratic Party. In the 1840s the Tyler and Polk administrations (1841–49) successfully promoted this nationalistic doctrine. However the Whig Party, which represented business and financial interests, stood opposed to Manifest Destiny. Whig leaders such as Henry Clay and Abraham Lincoln called for deepening the society through modernization and urbanization instead of simple horizontal- expansion. Starting with the annexation of Texas, the expansionists got the upper hand. John Quincy Adams, an anti-slavery Whig, felt the Texas annexation in 1845 to be “the heaviest calamity that ever befell myself and my country” Helping settlers move westward were the emigrant “guide books” of the 1840s featuring route information supplied by the fur traders and the Frémont expeditions, and promising fertile farm land beyond the Rockies === Mexico and Texas === Mexico became independent of Spain in 1821, and took over Spain’s northern possessions stretching from Texas to California. Caravans began delivering goods to Mexico’s Santa Fe along the Santa Fe Trail, over the 870-mile (1,400 km) journey which took 48 days from

Kansas City, Missouri (then known as Westport) Santa Fe was also the trailhead for the “El Camino Real” (the King’s Highway), a trade route which carried American manufactured goods southward deep into Mexico and returned silver, furs, and mules northward (not to be confused with another “Camino Real” which connected the missions in California). A branch also ran eastward near the Gulf (also called the Old San Antonio Road). Santa Fe connected to California via the Old Spanish Trail.The Spanish and Mexican governments attracted American settlers to Texas with generous terms Stephen F. Austin became an “empresario”, receiving contracts from the Mexican officials to bring in immigrants. In doing so, he also became the de facto political and military commander of the area. Tensions rose, however, after an abortive attempt to establish the independent nation of Fredonia in 1826. William Travis, leading the “war party”, advocated for independence from Mexico, while the “peace party” led by Austin attempted to get more autonomy within the current relationship When Mexican president Santa Anna shifted alliances and joined the conservative Centralist party, he declared himself dictator and ordered soldiers into Texas to curtail new immigration and unrest. However, immigration continued and 30,000 Anglos with 3,000 slaves were settled in Texas by 1835. In 1836, the Texas Revolution erupted. Following losses at the Alamo and Goliad, the Texians won the decisive Battle of San Jacinto to secure independence. At San Jacinto, Sam Houston, commander-in-chief of the Texian Army and future President of the Republic of Texas famously shouted “Remember the Alamo! Remember Goliad”. The U.S. Congress declined to annex Texas, stalemated by contentious arguments over slavery and regional power Thus, the Republic of Texas remained an independent power for nearly a decade before it was annexed as the 28th state in 1845. The government of Mexico, however, viewed Texas as a runaway province and asserted its ownership === The Mexican–American War === Mexico refused to recognize the independence of Texas in 1836, but the U.S. and European powers did so. Mexico threatened war if Texas joined the U.S., which it did in 1845. American negotiators were turned away by a Mexican government in turmoil. When the Mexican army killed 16 American soldiers in disputed territory war was at hand. Whigs, such as Congressman Abraham Lincoln denounced the war, but it was quite popular outside New England.The Mexican strategy was defensive; the American strategy was a three pronged offensive, using large numbers of volunteer soldiers. Overland forces seized New Mexico with little resistance and headed to California, which quickly fell to the American land and naval forces. From the main American base at New Orleans, General Zachary Taylor led forces into northern Mexico, winning a series of battles that ensued. The U.S. Navy transported General Winfield Scott to Veracruz. He then marched his 12,000-man force west to Mexico City, winning the final battle at Chapultepec. Talk of acquiring all of Mexico fell away when the army discovered the Mexican political and cultural values were so alien to America’s. As the Cincinnati Herald asked, what would the U.S. do with eight million Mexicans “with their idol worship, heathen superstition, and degraded mongrel races?”The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848 ceded the territories of California and New Mexico to the United States for $18.5 million (which included the assumption of claims against Mexico by settlers). The Gadsden Purchase in 1853 added southern Arizona, which was needed for a railroad route to California In all Mexico ceded half a million square miles (1.3 million km2) and included the states-to-be of California, Utah, Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming, in addition to Texas. Managing the new territories and dealing with the slavery issue caused intense controversy, particularly over the Wilmot Proviso, which would have outlawed slavery in the new territories. Congress never passed it, but rather temporarily resolved the issue of slavery in the West with the Compromise of 1850. California entered the Union in 1850 as a free state; the other areas remained territories for many years === Growth of Texas === The new state grew rapidly as migrants poured into the fertile cotton lands of east Texas German immigrants started to arrive in the early 1840s because of negative economic, social and political pressures in Germany

With their investments in cotton lands and slaves, planters established cotton plantations in the eastern districts. The central area of the state was developed more by subsistence farmers who seldom owned slaves.Texas in its Wild West days attracted men who could shoot straight and possessed the zest for adventure, “for masculine renown, patriotic service, martial glory and meaningful deaths” === The California Gold Rush === In 1846 about 10,000 Californios (Hispanics) lived in California, primarily on cattle ranches in what is now the Los Angeles area. A few hundred foreigners were scattered in the northern districts, including some Americans. With the outbreak of war with Mexico in 1846 the U.S. sent in Frémont and a U.S. Army unit, as well as naval forces, and quickly took control. As the war was ending, gold was discovered in the north, and the word soon spread worldwide Thousands of “Forty-Niners” reached California, by sailing around South America (or taking a short-cut through disease-ridden Panama), or walked the California trail. The population soared to over 200,000 in 1852, mostly in the gold districts that stretched into the mountains east of San Francisco Housing in San Francisco was at a premium, and abandoned ships whose crews had headed for the mines were often converted to temporary lodging. In the gold fields themselves living conditions were primitive, though the mild climate proved attractive. Supplies were expensive and food poor, typical diets consisting mostly of pork, beans, and whiskey. These highly male, transient communities with no established institutions were prone to high levels of violence, drunkenness, profanity, and greed-driven behavior. Without courts or law officers in the mining communities to enforce claims and justice, miners developed their own ad hoc legal system, based on the “mining codes” used in other mining communities abroad. Each camp had its own rules and often handed out justice by popular vote, sometimes acting fairly and at times exercising vigilantism—with Indians, Mexicans, and Chinese generally receiving the harshest sentences.The gold rush radically changed the California economy and brought in an array of professionals, including precious metal specialists, merchants, doctors, and attorneys, who added to the population of miners, saloon keepers, gamblers, and prostitutes A San Francisco newspaper stated, “The whole country… resounds to the sordid cry of gold! Gold! Gold! while the field is left half planted, the house half built, and everything neglected but the manufacture of shovels and pick axes.” Over 250,000 miners found a total of more than $200 million in gold in the five years of the California Gold Rush. As thousands arrived, however, fewer and fewer miners struck their fortune, and most ended exhausted and broke Violent bandits often preyed upon the miners, such as the case of Jonathan R. Davis’ killing of eleven bandits single-handedly. Camps spread out north and south of the American River and eastward into the Sierras. In a few years, nearly all of the independent miners were displaced as mines were purchased and run by mining companies, who then hired low-paid salaried miners. As gold became harder to find and more difficult to extract, individual prospectors gave way to paid work gangs, specialized skills, and mining machinery. Bigger mines, however, caused greater environmental damage In the mountains, shaft mining predominated, producing large amounts of waste. Beginning in 1852, at the end of the ’49 gold rush, through 1883, hydraulic mining was used. Despite huge profits being made, it fell into the hands of a few capitalists, displaced numerous miners, vast amounts of waste entered river systems, and did heavy ecological damage to the environment. Hydraulic mining ended when public outcry over the destruction of farmlands led to the outlawing of this practice.The mountainous areas of the triangle from New Mexico to California to South Dakota contained hundreds of hard rock mining sites, where prospectors discovered gold, silver, copper and other minerals (as well as some soft-rock coal). Temporary mining camps sprang up overnight; most became ghost towns when the ores were depleted. Prospectors spread out and hunted for gold and silver along the Rockies and in the southwest. Soon gold was discovered in Colorado, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Idaho, Montana, and South Dakota (by 1864) The discovery of the Comstock Lode, containing vast amounts of silver, resulted in the Nevada boomtowns of Virginia City, Carson City, and Silver City. The wealth from silver, more than from gold, fueled the maturation of San Francisco in the 1860s and helped the rise of some of its wealthiest families, such as that of George Hearst

=== The Oregon Trail === To get to the rich new lands of the West Coast, there were two options: some sailed around the southern tip of South America during a six-month voyage, but 400,000 others walked there on an overland route of more than 2,000 miles (3,000 km); their wagon trains usually left from Missouri. They moved in large groups under an experienced wagonmaster, bringing their clothing, farm supplies, weapons, and animals. These wagon trains followed major rivers, crossed prairies and mountains, and typically ended in Oregon and California Pioneers generally attempted to complete the journey during a single warm season, usually over the course of six months. By 1836, when the first migrant wagon train was organized in Independence, Missouri, a wagon trail had been cleared to Fort Hall, Idaho. Trails were cleared further and further west, eventually reaching all the way to the Willamette Valley in Oregon. This network of wagon trails leading to the Pacific Northwest was later called the Oregon Trail. The eastern half of the route was also used by travelers on the California Trail (from 1843), Mormon Trail (from 1847), and Bozeman Trail (from 1863) before they turned off to their separate destinations.In the “Wagon Train of 1843”, some 700 to 1,000 emigrants headed for Oregon; missionary Marcus Whitman led the wagons on the last leg. In 1846, the Barlow Road was completed around Mount Hood, providing a rough but passable wagon trail from the Missouri River to the Willamette Valley: about 2,000 miles (3,000 km). Though the main direction of travel on the early wagon trails was westward, people also used the Oregon Trail to travel eastward Some did so because they were discouraged and defeated. Some returned with bags of gold and silver. Most were returning to pick up their families and move them all back west These “gobacks” were a major source of information and excitement about the wonders and promises—and dangers and disappointments—of the far West.Not all emigrants made it to their destination The dangers of the overland route were numerous: snakebites, wagon accidents, violence from other travelers, suicide, malnutrition, stampedes, Indian attacks, a variety of diseases (dysentery, typhoid, and cholera were among the most common), exposure, avalanches, etc. One particularly well-known example of the treacherous nature of the journey is the story of the ill-fated Donner Party, which became trapped in the Sierra Nevada mountains during the winter of 1846–1847 in which nearly half of the 90 people traveling with the group died from starvation and exposure, and some resorted to cannibalism to survive. Another story of cannibalism featured Alfred Packer and his trek to Colorado in 1874. There were also frequent attacks from bandits and highwaymen, such as the infamous Harpe brothers who patrolled the frontier routes and targeted migrant groups === Mormons and Utah === In Missouri and Illinois, animosity between the Mormon settlers and locals grew, which would mirror those in other states such as Utah years later. Violence finally erupted on October 24, 1838 when militias from both sides clashed and a mass killing of Mormons in Livingston County occurred 6 days later An executive order was filed during these conflicts, and the Mormons were forced to scatter. Brigham Young, seeking to leave American jurisdiction to escape religious persecution in Illinois and Missouri, led the Mormons to the valley of the Great Salt Lake, owned at the time by Mexico but not controlled by them. A hundred rural Mormon settlements sprang up in what Young called “Deseret”, which he ruled as a theocracy. It later became Utah Territory. Young’s Salt Lake City settlement served as the hub of their network, which reached into neighboring territories as well The communalism and advanced farming practices of the Mormons enabled them to succeed. They sold goods to wagon trains passing through and came to terms with local Indian tribes because Young decided it was cheaper to feed the Indians than fight them. Education became a high priority to protect the beleaguered group, reduce heresy and maintain group solidarity.The great threat to the Mormons in Utah was the U.S. government, which took ownership of Utah in 1848, and pushed by the Protestant churches, rejected theocracy and polygamy. The Republican Party swore to destroy polygamy, which it saw as an affront to religious, cultural and moral values of a modern civilization. Confrontations verged on open warfare in the late 1850s as President Buchanan sent in troops. Although there were no military battles fought, and negotiations led to a stand down, violence still escalated and there were a number of casualties. After the Civil War the federal government systematically took control of Utah away from the Mormons, and drove the church’s leadership underground. Meanwhile,

aggressive missionary work in the U.S. and Europe brought a flood of Mormon converts to Utah. Finally in 1890 the Church leadership announced polygamy was no longer a central tenet, and a compromise was reached, with Utah becoming a state and the Mormons dividing into Republicans and Democrats === The Pony Express and the telegraph === The federal government provided subsidies for the development of mail and freight delivery, and by 1856, Congress authorized road improvements and an overland mail service to California The new commercial wagon trains service primarily hauled freight. In 1858 John Butterfield (1801–69) established a stage service that went from Saint Louis to San Francisco in 24 days along a southern route. This route was abandoned in 1861 after Texas joined the Confederacy, in favor of stagecoach services established via Fort Laramie and Salt Lake City, a 24-day journey, with Wells Fargo & Co. as the foremost provider (initially using the old “Butterfield” name).William Russell, hoping to get a government contract for more rapid mail delivery service, started the Pony Express in 1860, cutting delivery time to ten days. He set up over 150 stations about 15 miles (24 km) apart In 1861 Congress passed the Land-Grant Telegraph Act which financed the construction of Western Union’s transcontinental telegraph lines Hiram Sibley, Western Union’s head, negotiated exclusive agreements with railroads to run telegraph lines along their right-of-way Eight years before the transcontinental railroad opened, the First Transcontinental Telegraph linked Omaha, Nebraska and San Francisco (and points in-between) on October 24, 1861. The Pony Express ended in just 18 months because it could not compete with the telegraph === Bleeding Kansas === Constitutionally, Congress could not deal with slavery in the states but it did have jurisdiction in the western territories. California unanimously rejected slavery in 1850 and became a free state. New Mexico allowed slavery, but it was rarely seen there. Kansas was off limits to slavery by the Compromise of 1820 Free Soil elements feared that if slavery were allowed rich planters would buy up the best lands and work them with gangs of slaves, leaving little opportunity for free white men to own farms. Few Southern planters were actually interested in Kansas, but the idea that slavery was illegal there implied they had a second-class status that was intolerable to their sense of honor, and seemed to violate the principle of state’s rights. With the passage of the extremely controversial Kansas–Nebraska Act in 1854, Congress left the decision up to the voters on the ground in Kansas. Across the North a new major party was formed to fight slavery: the Republican Party, with numerous westerners in leadership positions, most notably Abraham Lincoln of Illinois To influence the territorial decision, anti-slavery elements (also called “Jayhawkers” or “Free-soilers”) financed the migration of politically determined settlers. But pro-slavery advocates fought back with pro-slavery settlers from Missouri Violence on both sides was the result; in all 56 men were killed by the time the violence abated in 1859. By 1860 the pro-slavery forces were in control—but Kansas had only two slaves. The antislavery forces took over by 1861, as Kansas became a free state. The episode demonstrated that a democratic compromise between North and South over slavery was impossible and served to hasten the Civil War == The Civil War in the West == Despite its large territory, the trans-Mississippi West had a small population and its wartime story has to a large extent been underplayed in the historiography of the American Civil War === The Trans-Mississippi theater === The Confederacy engaged in several important campaigns in the West. However, Kansas, a major area of conflict building up to the war, was the scene of only one battle, at Mine Creek. But its proximity to Confederate lines enabled pro-Confederate guerrillas, such as Quantrill’s Raiders, to attack Union strongholds and massacre the residents.In Texas, citizens voted to join the Confederacy; anti-war Germans were hanged. Local troops took over the federal arsenal in San Antonio, with plans to grab the territories of northern New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado, and possibly California. Confederate Arizona was created by Arizona citizens who wanted protection against Apache raids after the United States Army units were moved out. The Confederacy then sets its sight to gain control of the New Mexico Territory. General Henry Hopkins Sibley was tasked for the campaign, and together

with his New Mexico Army, marched right up the Rio Grande in an attempt to take the mineral wealth of Colorado as well as California The First Regiment of Volunteers discovered the rebels, and they immediately warned and joined the Yankees at Fort Union. The Battle of Glorieta Pass soon erupted, and the Union ended the Confederate campaign and the area west of Texas remained in Union hands.Missouri, a Union state where slavery was legal, became a battleground when the pro-secession governor, against the vote of the legislature, led troops to the federal arsenal at St. Louis; he was aided by Confederate forces from Arkansas and Louisiana. However Union General Samuel Curtis regained St. Louis and all of Missouri for the Union. The state was the scene of numerous raids and guerrilla warfare in the west === Peacekeeping === The U.S. Army after 1850 established a series of military posts across the frontier, designed to stop warfare among Indian tribes or between Indians and settlers. Throughout the 19th century, Army officers typically served built their careers in peacekeeper roles moving from fort to fort until retirement. Actual combat experience was uncommon for any one soldier.The most dramatic conflict was the Sioux war in Minnesota in 1862, when Dakota tribes systematically attacked German farms in an effort to drive out the settlers. Over a period of several days, Dakota attacks at the Lower Sioux Agency, New Ulm and Hutchinson, slaughtered 300 to 400 white settlers. The state militia fought back and Lincoln sent in federal troops. The ensuing battles at Fort Ridgely, Birch Coulee, Fort Abercrombie, and Wood Lake punctuated a six-week war, which ended in American victory. The federal government tried 425 Indians for murder, and 303 were convicted and sentenced to death. Lincoln pardoned the majority, but 38 leaders were hanged .The decreased presence of Union troops in the West left behind untrained militias; hostile tribes used the opportunity to attack settlers. The militia struck back hard, most notably by attacking the winter quarters of the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians, filled with women and children, at the Sand Creek massacre in eastern Colorado in late 1864.Kit Carson and the U.S. Army in 1864 trapped the entire Navajo tribe in New Mexico, where they had been raiding settlers, and put them on a reservation Within the Indian Territory, now Oklahoma, conflicts arose among the Five Civilized Tribes, most of which sided with the South being slaveholders themselves.In 1862, Congress enacted two major laws to facilitate settlement of the West: the Homestead Act and the Pacific Railroad Act. The result by 1890 was millions of new farms in the Plains states, many operated by new immigrants from Germany and Scandinavia == The Postbellum West == === Territorial governance after the Civil War === With the war over and slavery abolished, the federal government focused on improving the governance of the territories. It subdivided several territories, preparing them for statehood, following the precedents set by the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. It standardized procedures and the supervision of territorial governments, taking away some local powers, and imposing much “red tape”, growing the federal bureaucracy significantly.Federal involvement in the territories was considerable. In addition to direct subsidies, the federal government maintained military posts, provided safety from Indian attacks, bankrolled treaty obligations, conducted surveys and land sales, built roads, staffed land offices, made harbour improvements, and subsidized overland mail delivery. Territorial citizens came to both decry federal power and local corruption, and at the same time, lament that more federal dollars were not sent their way.Territorial governors were political appointees and beholden to Washington so they usually governed with a light hand, allowing the legislatures to deal with the local issues. In addition to his role as civil governor, a territorial governor was also a militia commander, a local superintendent of Indian affairs, and the state liaison with federal agencies. The legislatures, on the other hand, spoke for the local citizens and they were given considerable leeway by the federal government to make local law.These improvements to governance still left plenty of room for profiteering. As Mark Twain wrote while working for his brother, the secretary of Nevada, “The government of my country snubs honest simplicity, but fondles artistic villainy, and I think I might have developed into a very capable pickpocket if I had remained in the public service a year or two.” “Territorial rings”, corrupt associations of local politicians and business owners buttressed with federal patronage, embezzled from Indian tribes and local citizens, especially in the Dakota and New Mexico territories

=== Federal land system === In acquiring, preparing, and distributing public land to private ownership, the federal government generally followed the system set forth by the Land Ordinance of 1785. Federal exploration and scientific teams would undertake reconnaissance of the land and determine Native American habitation. Through treaty, land title would be ceded by the resident tribes Then surveyors would create detailed maps marking the land into squares of six miles (10 km) on each side, subdivided first into one square mile blocks, then into 160-acre (0.65 km2) lots. Townships would be formed from the lots and sold at public auction Unsold land could be purchased from the land office at a minimum price of $1.25 per acre.As part of public policy, the government would award public land to certain groups such as veterans, through the use of “land script” The script traded in a financial market, often at below the $1.25 per acre minimum price set by law, which gave speculators, investors, and developers another way to acquire large tracts of land cheaply. Land policy became politicized by competing factions and interests, and the question of slavery on new lands was contentious. As a counter to land speculators, farmers formed “claims clubs” to enable them to buy larger tracts than the 160-acre (0.65 km2) allotments by trading among themselves at controlled prices.In 1862, Congress passed three important bills that transformed the land system. The Homestead Act granted 160 acres (0.65 km2) free to each settler who improved the land for five years; citizens and non-citizens including squatters and women, were all eligible. The only cost was a modest filing fee. The law was especially important in the settling of the Plains states. Many took free homestead and others purchased their land from railroads at low rates.The Pacific Railway Acts of 1862 provided for the land needed to build the transcontinental railroad The land given the railroads alternated with government-owned tracts saved for free distribution to homesteaders. In an effort to be equitable, the federal government reduced each tract to 80 acres (32 ha) because of its perceived higher value given its proximity to the rail line. Railroads had up to five years to sell or mortgage their land, after tracks were laid, after which unsold land could be purchased by anyone. Often railroads sold some of their government acquired land to homesteaders immediately to encourage settlement and the growth of markets the railroads would then be able to serve. Nebraska railroads in the 1870s were strong boosters of lands along their routes They sent agents to Germany and Scandinavia with package deals that included cheap transportation for the family as well as its furniture and farm tools, and they offered long-term credit at low rates. Boosterism succeeded in attracting adventurous American and European families to Nebraska, helping them purchase land grant parcels on good terms. The selling price depended on such factors as soil quality, water, and distance from the railroad.The Morrill Act of 1862 provided land grants to states to begin colleges of agriculture and mechanical arts (engineering). Black colleges became eligible for these land grants in 1890. The Act succeeded in its goals to open new universities and make farming more scientific and profitable === Transcontinental railroads === In the 1850s government sponsored surveys to chart the remaining unexplored regions of the West, and to plan possible routes for a transcontinental railroad. Much of this work was undertaking by the Corps of Engineers, Corps of Topographical Engineers, and Bureau of Explorations and Surveys, and became known as “The Great Reconnaissance”. Regionalism animated debates in Congress regarding the choice of a northern, central or southern route. Engineering requirements for the rail route were an adequate supply of water and wood, and as nearly-level route as possible, given the weak locomotives of the era In the 1850s, proposals to build a transcontinental failed because of Congressional disputes over slavery. With the secession of the Confederate states in 1861, the modernizers in the Republican party took over Congress and wanted a line to link to California. Private companies were to build and operate the line. Construction would be done by unskilled laborers who would live in temporary camps along the way. Immigrants from China and Ireland did most of the construction work. Theodore Judah, the chief engineer of the Central Pacific surveyed the route from San Francisco east. Judah’s tireless lobbying efforts in Washington were largely responsible for the passage of the 1862 Pacific Railroad Act, which authorized construction of both

the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific (which built west from Omaha). In 1862 four rich San Francisco merchants (Leland Stanford, Collis Huntington, Charles Crocker, and Mark Hopkins) took charge, with Crocker in charge of construction. The line was completed in May 1869. Coast-to-coast passenger travel in 8 days now replaced wagon trains or sea voyages that took 6 to 10 months and cost much more The road was built with mortgages from New York, Boston and London, backed by land grants There were no federal cash subsidies, But there was a loan to the Central Pacific that was eventually repaid at six percent interest The federal government offered land-grants in a checkerboard pattern. The railroad sold every-other square, with the government opening its half to homesteaders. The government also loaned money—later repaid—at $16,000 per mile on level stretches, and $32,000 to $48,000 in mountainous terrain. Local and state governments also aided the financing Most of the manual laborers on the Central Pacific were new arrivals from China. Kraus shows how these men lived and worked, and how they managed their money. He concludes that senior officials quickly realized the high degree of cleanliness and reliability of the Chinese. The Central Pacific employed over 12,000 Chinese workers, 90% of its manual work force. Ong explores whether or not the Chinese Railroad Workers were exploited by the railroad, with whites in the better positions He finds the railroad set different wage rates for whites and Chinese and used the latter in the more menial and dangerous jobs, such as the handling and the pouring of nitroglycerin However the railroad also provided camps and food the Chinese wanted and protected the Chinese workers from threats from whites Building the railroad required six main activities: surveying the route, blasting a right of way, building tunnels and bridges, clearing and laying the roadbed, laying the ties and rails, and maintaining and supplying the crews with food and tools. The work was highly physical, using horse-drawn plows and scrapers, and manual picks, axes, sledgehammers, and handcarts A few steam-driven machines, such as shovels, were used. The rails were iron (steel came a few years later) and weighed 700 lb (320 kg). and required five men to lift. For blasting, they used black powder. The Union Pacific construction crews, mostly Irish Americans, averaged about two miles (3 km) of new track per day.Six transcontinental railroads were built in the Gilded Age (plus two in Canada); they opened up the West to farmers and ranchers From north to south they were the Northern Pacific, Milwaukee Road, and Great Northern along the Canada–US border; the Union Pacific/Central Pacific in the middle, and to the south the Santa Fe, and the Southern Pacific. All but the Great Northern of James J. Hill relied on land grants. The financial stories were often complex. For example, the Northern Pacific received its major land grant in 1864. Financier Jay Cooke (1821–1905) was in charge until 1873, when he went bankrupt. Federal courts, however, kept bankrupt railroads in operation In 1881 Henry Villard (1835–1900) took over and finally completed the line to Seattle But the line went bankrupt in the Panic of 1893 and Hill took it over. He then merged several lines with financing from J.P. Morgan, but President Theodore Roosevelt broke them up in 1904.In the first year of operation, 1869–70, 150,000 passengers made the long trip. Settlers were encouraged with promotions to come West on free scouting trips to buy railroad land on easy terms spread over several years. The railroads had “Immigration Bureaus” which advertised package low-cost deals including passage and land on easy terms for farmers in Germany and Scandinavia. The prairies, they were promised, did not mean backbreaking toil because “settling on the prairie which is ready for the plow is different from plunging into a region covered with timber”. The settlers were customers of the railroads, shipping their crops and cattle out, and bringing in manufactured products. All manufacturers benefited from the lower costs of transportation and the much larger radius of business.White concludes with a mixed verdict. The transcontinentals did open up the West to settlement, brought in many thousands of high-tech, highly paid workers and managers, created thousands of towns and cities, oriented the nation onto an east–west axis, and proved highly valuable for the nation as a whole. On the other hand, too many were built, and they were built too far ahead of actual demand. The result was a bubble that left heavy losses to investors, and led to poor management practices. By contrast, as White notes, the lines in the Midwest and

East supported by a very large population base, fostered farming, industry and mining while generating steady profits and receiving few government benefits === Migration after the Civil War === After the Civil War, many from the East Coast and Europe were lured west by reports from relatives and by extensive advertising campaigns promising “the Best Prairie Lands”, “Low Prices”, “Large Discounts For Cash”, and “Better Terms Than Ever!”. The new railroads provided the opportunity for migrants to go out and take a look, with special family tickets, the cost of which could be applied to land purchases offered by the railroads. Farming the plains was indeed more difficult than back east Water management was more critical, lightning fires were more prevalent, the weather was more extreme, rainfall was less predictable.The fearful stayed home. The actual migrants looked beyond fears of the unknown. Their chief motivation to move west was to find a better economic life than the one they had. Farmers sought larger, cheaper and more fertile land; merchants and tradesman sought new customers and new leadership opportunities. Laborers wanted higher paying work and better conditions As settlers move West, they have to faced challenges along the way, such as the lack of wood for housing, bad weather like blizzards and droughts, and fearsome tornadoes. In the treeless prairies homesteaders built sod houses One of the greatest plague that hit the homesteaders was the 1874 Locust Plague which devastated the Great Plains. These challenges hardened these settlers in taming the frontier ==== Oklahoma Land Rush ==== In 1889, Washington opened 2,000,000 acres (8,100 km2) of unoccupied lands in the Oklahoma territory. On April 22, over 100,000 settlers and cattlemen (known as “boomers”) lined up at the border, and when the army’s guns and bugles giving the signal, began a mad dash to stake their claims in the Land Run of 1889 A witness wrote, “The horsemen had the best of it from the start. It was a fine race for a few minutes, but soon the riders began to spread out like a fan, and by the time they reached the horizon they were scattered about as far as the eye could see”. In a single day, the towns of Oklahoma City, Norman, and Guthrie came into existence. In the same manner, millions of acres of additional land was opened up and settled in the following four years === Alaska Purchase === Fearful of takeover of Alaska (then Russian America) from the British Army based in British North America and due to lack of economic interests, the Russian Empire, which had established a presence in Alaska in the mid-18th century, was eager to get rid of the territory. They first approached the United States about selling the territory in the late 1850s, but negotiations were stalled by the outbreak of the Civil War. After 1865, Secretary of State William Seward, a supporter of territorial expansion, was eager to acquire the tremendous landmass of Alaska, an area roughly one-fifth the size of the rest of the United States. On March 30, 1867, the U.S. purchased the territory from the Russians for $7.2 million ($118 million in today’s dollars). The transfer ceremony was completed in Sitka on October 18 of that same year where Russian soldiers handed over the territory to the United States Army Critics at the time decried the purchase as “Seward’s Folly”, reasoning that there was no natural resources in the new territory and no one can be bothered to live in such a cold, icy climate. Although the development and settlement of Alaska grew slow, the discovery of gold fields during the Klondike Gold Rush in 1896 and Nome Gold Rush in 1898 brought thousands of migrants and immigrants into the territory, thus propelling Alaska’s prosperity for decades to come. Alaska is later known as “America’s Last Frontier”, as the U.S completed westward in the North American continent == Indian Wars == Indian wars have occurred throughout the United States though the conflicts are generally separated into two categories; the Indian wars east of the Mississippi River and the Indian wars west of the Mississippi. The U.S Bureau of the Census (1894) provided an estimate of deaths: The Indian wars under the government of the United States have been more than 40 in number They have cost the lives of about 19,000 white men, women and children, including those killed in individual combats, and the lives of about 30,000 Indians. The actual number of killed and wounded Indians must be very much higher than the given… Fifty percent additional

would be a safe estimate Historian Russell Thornton estimates that from 1800 to 1890, the Indian population declined from 600,000 to as few as 250,000. The depopulation was principally caused by disease as well as warfare. Many tribes in Texas, such as the Karankawan, Akokisa, Bidui and others, were extinguished due to conflicts with settlers The rapid depopulation of the American Indians after the Civil War alarmed the U.S. Government, and the Doolittle Committee was formed to investigate the causes as well recommendations to save the population. The solutions presented by the committee, such as the establishment of the five boards of inspection to prevent Indian abuses, had little effect as large Western migration commenced === Indian wars east of the Mississippi === ==== The Trail of Tears ==== The expansion of migration into the Southeastern United States in the 1820s to the 1830s forced the federal government to deal with the “Indian question”. The Indians were under federal control but were independent of state governments State legislatures and state judges had no authority on their lands, and the states demanded control. Politically the new Democratic Party of President Andrew Jackson demanded removal of the Indians out of the southeastern states to new lands in the west, while the Whig Party and the Protestant churches were opposed to removal. The Jacksonian Democracy proved irresistible, as it won the presidential elections of 1828, 1832 and 1836. By 1837 the “Indian Removal policy” began, to implement the act of Congress signed by Andrew Jackson in 1830. Many historians have sharply attacked Jackson. The 1830 law theoretically provided for voluntary removal and had safeguards for the rights of Indians, but in reality the removal was involuntary, brutal and ignored safeguards. Jackson justified his actions by stating that Indians had “neither the intelligence, the industry, the moral habits, nor the desire of improvements”.The forced march of about twenty tribes included the “Five Civilized Tribes” (Creek, Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw, and Seminole). To motivate natives reluctant to move, the federal government also promised rifles, blankets, tobacco, and cash. By 1835 the Cherokee, the last Indian nation in the South, had signed the removal treaty and relocated to Oklahoma. All the tribes were given new land in the “Indian Territory” (which later became Oklahoma) Of the approximate 70,000 Indians removed, about 18,000 died from disease, starvation, and exposure on the route. This exodus has become known as The Trail of Tears (in Cherokee “Nunna dual Tsuny”, “The Trail Where they Cried”). The impact of the removals was severe The transplanted tribes had considerable difficulty adapting to their new surroundings and sometimes clashed with the tribes native to the area.The only way for an Indian to remain and avoid removal was to accept the federal offer of 640 acres (2.6 km2) or more of land (depending on family size) in exchange for leaving the tribe and becoming a state citizen subject to state law and federal law. However, many natives who took the offer were defrauded by “ravenous speculators” who stole their claims and sold their land to whites. In Mississippi alone, fraudulent claims reached 3,800,000 acres (15,000 km2). Of the five tribes, the Seminole offered the most resistance, hiding out in the Florida swamps and waging a war which cost the U.S. Army 1,500 lives and $20 million === Indian wars west of the Mississippi === Indian warriors in the West, using their traditional style of limited, battle-oriented warfare, confronted the U.S. Army. The Indians emphasized bravery in combat while the Army put its emphasis not so much on individual combat as on building networks of forts, developing a logistics system, and using the telegraph and railroads to coordinate and concentrate its forces Plains Indian intertribal warfare bore no resemblance to the “modern” warfare practiced by the Americans along European lines, using its vast advantages in population and resources Many tribes avoided warfare and others supported the U.S. Army. The tribes hostile to the government continued to pursue their traditional brand of fighting and, therefore, were unable to have any permanent success against the Army.Indian wars were fought throughout the western regions, with more conflicts in the states bordering Mexico than in the interior states. Arizona ranked highest, with 310 known battles fought within the state’s boundaries between Americans

and the natives. Arizona ranked highest in war deaths, with 4,340 killed, including soldiers, civilians and Native Americans. That was more than twice as many as occurred in Texas, the second highest ranking state. Most of the deaths in Arizona were caused by the Apache Michno also says that fifty-one percent of the Indian war battles between 1850 and 1890 took place in Arizona, Texas and New Mexico, as well as thirty-seven percent of the casualties in the county west of the Mississippi River.One of the deadliest Indian wars fought was the Snake War in 1864–1868, which was conducted by a confederacy of Northern Paiute, Bannock and Shoshone Native Americans, called the “Snake Indians” against the United States Army in the states of Oregon, Nevada, California, and Idaho which ran along the Snake River The war started when tension arose between the local Indians and the flooding pioneer trains encroaching through their lands, which resulted in competition for food and resources Indians included in this group attacked and harassed emigrant parties and miners crossing the Snake River Valley, which resulted in further retaliation of the white settlements and the intervention of the United States army. The war resulted in a total of 1,762 men who have been killed, wounded, and captured from both sides. Unlike other Indian Wars, the Snake War was widely forgotten in United States history due to having only limited coverage of the war.The Colorado War fought by Cheyenne, Arapaho and Sioux, was fought in the territories of Colorado to Nebraska The conflict was fought in 1863–1865 while the American Civil War was still ongoing Caused by dissolution between the Natives and the white settlers in the region, the war was infamous for the atrocities done between the two parties. White militias destroyed Native villages and killed Indian women and children such as the bloody Sand Creek massacre, and the Indians also raided ranches, farms and killed white families such as the American Ranch massacre and Raid on Godfrey Ranch.In the Apache Wars, Colonel Christopher “Kit” Carson forced the Mescalero Apache onto a reservation in 1862. In 1863–1864, Carson used a scorched earth policy in the Navajo Campaign, burning Navajo fields and homes, and capturing or killing their livestock He was aided by other Indian tribes with long-standing enmity toward the Navajos, chiefly the Utes Another prominent conflict of this war was Geronimo’s fight against settlements in Texas in the 1880s. The Apaches under his command conducted ambushes on US cavalries and forts, such as their attack on Cibecue Creek, while also raiding upon prominent farms and ranches, such as their infamous attack on the Empire Ranch that killed three cowboys. The U.S finally induced the last hostile Apache band under Geronimo to surrender in 1886 During the Comanche Campaign, the Red River War was fought in 1874–75 in response to the Comanche’s dwindling food supply of buffalo, as well as the refusal of a few bands to be inducted in reservations. Comanches started raiding small settlements in Texas, which led to the Battle of Buffalo Wallow and Second Battle of Adobe Walls fought by buffalo hunters, and the Battle of Lost Valley against the Texas Rangers. The war finally ended with a final confrontation between the Comanches and the U.S. Cavalry in Palo Duro Canyon The last Comanche war chief, Quanah Parker, surrendered in June 1875, which would finally end the wars fought by Texans and Indians.Red Cloud’s War was led by the Lakota chief Red Cloud against the military who were erecting forts along the Bozeman trail. It was the most successful campaign against the U.S during the Indian Wars. By the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868), the U.S. granted a large reservation to the Lakota, without military presence; it included the entire Black Hills. Captain Jack was a chief of the Native American Modoc tribe of California and Oregon, and was their leader during the Modoc War. With 53 Modoc warriors, Captain Jack held off 1,000 men of the U.S. Army for 7 months. Captain Jack killed Edward Canby In June 1877, in the Nez Perce War the Nez Perce under Chief Joseph, unwilling to give up their traditional lands and move to a reservation, undertook a 1,200-mile (2,000 km) fighting retreat from Oregon to near the Canada–US border in Montana. Numbering only 200 warriors, the Nez Perce “battled some 2,000 American regulars and volunteers of different military units, together with their Indian auxiliaries of many tribes, in a total of eighteen engagements, including four major battles and at least four fiercely contested skirmishes.” The Nez Perce were finally surrounded at the Battle of Bear Paw and surrendered. The Great Sioux War of 1876 was conducted by the Lakota under Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse. The conflict

began after repeated violations of the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) once gold was discovered in the hills. One of its famous battles was the Battle of the Little Bighorn, in which combined Sioux and Cheyenne forces defeated the 7th Cavalry, led by General George Armstrong Custer. The Ute War, fought by the Ute people against settlers in Utah and Colorado, led to two battles; the Meeker massacre which killed 11 Indian agents, and the Pinhook massacre which killed 13 armed ranchers and cowboys The Ute conflicts finally ended after the events of the Bluff War The end of the Indian wars came at the Wounded Knee massacre on December 29, 1890 where the 7th Cavalry attempted to disarm a Sioux man and precipitated an engagement in which about 150 Sioux men, women, and children were killed Only thirteen days before, Sitting Bull had been killed with his son Crow Foot in a gun battle with a group of Indian police that had been sent by the American government to arrest him === Forts and outposts === As the frontier moved westward, the establishment of U.S. military forts moved with it, representing and maintaining federal sovereignty over new territories. The military garrisons usually lacked defensible walls but were seldom attacked They served as bases for troops at or near strategic areas, particularly for counteracting the Indian presence. For example, Fort Bowie protected Apache Pass in southern Arizona along the mail route between Tucson and El Paso and was used to launch attacks against Cochise and Geronimo. Fort Laramie and Fort Kearny helped protect immigrants crossing the Great Plains and a series of posts in California protected miners. Forts were constructed to launch attacks against the Sioux. As Indian reservations sprang up, the military set up forts to protect them. Forts also guarded the Union Pacific and other rail lines. Other important forts were Fort Sill, Oklahoma, Fort Smith, Arkansas, Fort Snelling, Minnesota, Fort Union, New Mexico, Fort Worth, Texas, and Fort Walla Walla in Washington. Fort Omaha, Nebraska was home to the Department of the Platte, and was responsible for outfitting most Western posts for more than 20 years after its founding in the late 1870s. Fort Huachuca in Arizona was also originally a frontier post and is still in use by the United States Army === Indian reservations === Settlers on their way overland to Oregon and California became targets of Indian threats Robert L. Munkres read 66 diaries of parties traveling the Oregon Trail between 1834 and 1860 to estimate the actual dangers they faced from Indian attacks in Nebraska and Wyoming The vast majority of diarists reported no armed attacks at all. However many did report harassment by Indians who begged or demanded tolls, and stole horses and cattle. Madsen reports that the Shoshoni and Bannock tribes north and west of Utah were more aggressive toward wagon trains. The federal government attempted to reduce tensions and create new tribal boundaries in the Great Plains with two new treaties in the early 1850, The Treaty of Fort Laramie established tribal zones for the Sioux, Cheyennes, Arapahos, Crows, and others, and allowed for the building of roads and posts across the tribal lands. A second treaty secured safe passage along the Santa Fe Trail for wagon trains. In return, the tribes would receive, for ten years, annual compensation for damages caused by migrants The Kansas and Nebraska territories also became contentious areas as the federal government sought those lands for the future transcontinental railroad. In the Far West settlers began to occupy land in Oregon and California before the federal government secured title from the native tribes, causing considerable friction In Utah, the Mormons also moved in before federal ownership was obtained A new policy of establishing reservations came gradually into shape after the boundaries of the “Indian Territory” began to be ignored In providing for Indian reservations, Congress and the Office of Indian Affairs hoped to de-tribalize Native Americans and prepare them for integration with the rest of American society, the “ultimate incorporation into the great body of our citizen population” This allowed for the development of dozens of riverfront towns along the Missouri River in the new Nebraska Territory, which was carved from the remainder of the Louisiana Purchase after the Kansas–Nebraska Act. Influential pioneer towns included Omaha, Nebraska City and St. Joseph American attitudes towards Indians during this period ranged from malevolence (“the only good Indian is a dead Indian”) to misdirected humanitarianism (Indians live in “inferior” societies and by assimilation into white society they can be redeemed) to somewhat realistic (Native Americans and settlers could co-exist

in separate but equal societies, dividing up the remaining western land). Dealing with nomadic tribes complicated the reservation strategy and decentralized tribal power made treaty making difficult among the Plains Indians Conflicts erupted in the 1850s, resulting in various Indian wars. In these times of conflict, Indians become more stringent about white men entering their territory. Such as in the case of Oliver Loving, they would sometimes attack cowboys and their cattle if ever caught crossing in the borders of their land. They would also prey upon livestock if food was scarce during hard times. However, relationship between cowboys and Native Americans were more mutual than they are portrayed, and the former would occasionally pay a fine of 10 cents per cow for the latter to allow them to travel through their land. Indians also preyed upon stagecoaches travelling in the frontier for its horses and valuables.After the Civil War, as the volunteer armies disbanded, the regular army cavalry regiments increased in number from six to ten, among them Custer’s U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment of Little Bighorn fame, and the African-American U.S. 9th Cavalry Regiment and U.S. 10th Cavalry Regiment. The black units, along with others (both cavalry and infantry), collectively became known as the Buffalo Soldiers. According to Robert M. Utley: The frontier army was a conventional military force trying to control, by conventional military methods, a people that did not behave like conventional enemies and, indeed, quite often were not enemies at all. This is the most difficult of all military assignments, whether in Africa, Asia, or the American West == Social history == === Democratic society === Westerners were proud of their leadership in the movement for democracy and equality, a major theme for Frederick Jackson Turner The new states of Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama and Ohio were more democratic than the parent states back East in terms of politics and society. The Western states were the first to give women the right to vote. By 1900 the West, especially California and Oregon, led the Progressive movement Scholars have examined the social history of the west in search of the American character The history of Kansas, argued historian Carl L. Becker a century ago, reflects American ideals. He wrote: “The Kansas spirit is the American spirit double distilled. It is a new grafted product of American individualism, American idealism, American intolerance. Kansas is America in microcosm.”Scholars have compared the emergence of democracy in America with other countries, with reference to the frontier experience. Selwyn Troen has made the comparison with Israel. The American frontiersmen relied on individual effort, in the context of very large quantities of unsettled land with weak external enemies. Israel by contrast, operated in a very small geographical zone, surrounded by more powerful neighbors. The Jewish pioneer was not building an individual or family enterprise, but was a conscious participant in nation building, with a high priority on collective and cooperative planned settlements. The Israeli pioneers brought in American experts on irrigation and agriculture to provide technical advice However they rejected the American frontier model in favor of a European model that supported their political and security concerns === Urban frontier === The cities played an essential role in the development of the frontier, as transportation hubs, financial and communications centers, and providers of merchandise, services, and entertainment. As the railroads pushed westward into unsettled territory after 1860, they build service towns to handle the needs of railroad construction crews, train crews, and passengers who ate meals at scheduled stops. In most of the South, there were very few cities of any size for miles around, and this pattern held for Texas as well, so railroads did not arrive until the 1880s. They then shipped the cattle out and cattle drives became short-distance affairs. However the passenger trains were often the targets of armed gangs Denver’s economy before 1870 had been rooted in mining; it then grew by expanding its role in railroads, wholesale trade, manufacturing, food processing, and servicing the growing agricultural and ranching hinterland. Between 1870 and 1890, manufacturing output soared from $600,000 to $40 million, and population grew by a factor of 20 times to 107,000. Denver had always attracted miners, workers, whores and travelers. Saloons and gambling dens sprung up overnight. The city fathers boasted of its fine theaters, and especially the Tabor

Grand Opera House built in 1881. By 1890, Denver had grown to be the 26th largest city in America, and the fifth-largest city west of the Mississippi River. The boom times attracted millionaires and their mansions, as well as hustlers, poverty and crime. Denver gained regional notoriety with its range of bawdy houses, from the sumptuous quarters of renowned madams to the squalid “cribs” located a few blocks away. Business was good; visitors spent lavishly, then left town. As long as madams conducted their business discreetly, and “crib girls” did not advertise their availability too crudely, authorities took their bribes and looked the other way. Occasional cleanups and crack downs satisfied the demands for reform.With its giant mountain of copper, Butte, Montana was the largest, richest and rowdiest mining camp on the frontier. It was an ethnic stronghold, with the Irish Catholics in control of politics and of the best jobs at the leading mining corporation Anaconda Copper. City boosters opened a public library in 1894. Ring argues that the library was originally a mechanism of social control, “an antidote to the miners’ proclivity for drinking, whoring, and gambling”. It was also designed to promote middle-class values and to convince Easterners that Butte was a cultivated city === Race and ethnicity === ==== European immigrants ==== European immigrants often built communities of similar religious and ethnic backgrounds For example, many Finns went to Minnesota and Michigan, Swedes and Norwegians to Minnesota and the Dakotas, Irish to railroad centers along the transcontinental lines, Volga Germans to North Dakota, and German Jews to Portland, Oregon ==== African-Americans ==== African Americans moved West as soldiers, as well as cowboys, farm hands, saloon workers, cooks, and outlaws. The Buffalo Soldiers were soldiers in the all-black 9th and 10th Cavalry regiments, and 24th and 25th Infantry Regiments of the U.S. Army. They had white officers and served in numerous western forts.About 4,000 blacks came to California in Gold Rush days. In 1879, after the end of Reconstruction in the South, several thousand Freedmen moved from Southern states to Kansas. Known as the Exodusters, they were lured by the prospect of good, cheap Homestead Law land and better treatment. The all-black town of Nicodemus, Kansas, which was founded in 1877, was an organized settlement that predates the Exodusters but is often associated with them ==== Asians ==== The California Gold Rush included thousands of Mexican and Chinese arrivals. Chinese migrants, many of whom were impoverished peasants, provided the major part of the workforce for the building of Central Pacific portion of the transcontinental railroad. Most of them went home by 1870 when the railroad was finished. Those who stayed on worked in mining, agriculture, and opened small shops such as groceries, laundries and restaurants. Hostility remained high as seen by the Chinese Massacre Cove episode and the Rock Springs massacre. The Chinese were generally forced into self-sufficient “Chinatowns” in cities such as San Francisco, Portland, and Seattle. In Los Angeles, the last major anti-Chinese riot took place in 1871, after which local law enforcement grew stronger. In the late 19th century, Chinatowns were squalid slums known for their vice, prostitution, drugs, and violent battles between “tongs”. By the 1930s, however, Chinatowns had become clean, safe and attractive tourist destinations.In the 1890–1907 era, thousands of Japanese permanently migrated to Hawaii, Alaska, and California as farm workers. Immigrants born in Asia were generally ineligible for U.S citizenship until World War II. However, their children born in the U.S. automatically became citizens in accordance to the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution ==== Hispanics ==== The great majority of Hispanics who had been living in the former territories of New Spain remained and became American citizens in 1848 The 10,000 or so Californios lived in southern California and after 1880 were overshadowed by the hundreds of thousands of arrivals from the east. Those in New Mexico dominated towns and villages that changed little until well into the 20th century. New arrivals from Mexico arrived, especially after the Revolution of 1911 terrorized thousands of villages all across Mexico. Most refugees went to Texas

or California, and soon poor barrios appeared in many border towns. Early on there was a criminal element as well. The California “Robin Hood”, Joaquin Murieta, led a gang in the 1850s which burned houses, killed miners, and robbed stagecoaches. In Texas, Juan Cortina led a 20-year campaign against Anglos and the Texas Rangers, starting around 1859 === Family life === On the Great Plains very few single men attempted to operate a farm or ranch; farmers clearly understood the need for a hard-working wife, and numerous children, to handle the many chores, including child-rearing, feeding and clothing the family, managing the housework, and feeding the hired hands. During the early years of settlement, farm women played an integral role in assuring family survival by working outdoors. After a generation or so, women increasingly left the fields, thus redefining their roles within the family New conveniences such as sewing and washing machines encouraged women to turn to domestic roles. The scientific housekeeping movement, promoted across the land by the media and government extension agents, as well as county fairs which featured achievements in home cookery and canning, advice columns for women in the farm papers, and home economics courses in the schools all contributed to this trend.Although the eastern image of farm life on the prairies emphasizes the isolation of the lonely farmer and farm life, in reality rural folk created a rich social life for themselves. They often sponsored activities that combined work, food, and entertainment such as barn raisings, corn huskings, quilting bees, Grange meetings, church activities, and school functions. The womenfolk organized shared meals and potluck events, as well as extended visits between families ==== Childhood ==== Childhood on the American frontier is contested territory. One group of scholars, following the lead of novelists Willa Cather and Laura Ingalls Wilder, argue the rural environment was beneficial to the child’s upbringing Historians Katherine Harris and Elliott West write that rural upbringing allowed children to break loose from urban hierarchies of age and gender, promoted family interdependence, and in the end produced children who were more self-reliant, mobile, adaptable, responsible, independent and more in touch with nature than their urban or eastern counterparts On the other hand, historians Elizabeth Hampsten and Lillian Schlissel offer a grim portrait of loneliness, privation, abuse, and demanding physical labor from an early age. Riney-Kehrberg takes a middle position === Prostitution === Entrepreneurs set up shops and businesses to cater to the miners. World-famous were the houses of prostitution found in every mining camp worldwide. Prostitution was a growth industry attracting sex workers from around the globe, pulled in by the money, despite the harsh and dangerous working conditions and low prestige. Chinese women were frequently sold by their families and taken to the camps as prostitutes; they had to send their earnings back to the family in China. In Virginia City, Nevada, a prostitute, Julia Bulette, was one of the few who achieved “respectable” status She nursed victims of an influenza epidemic; this gave her acceptance in the community and the support of the sheriff. The townspeople were shocked when she was murdered in 1867; they gave her a lavish funeral and speedily tried and hanged her assailant. Until the 1890s, madams predominately ran the businesses, after which male pimps took over, and the treatment of the women generally declined It was not uncommon for bordellos in Western towns to operate openly, without the stigma of East Coast cities. Gambling and prostitution were central to life in these western towns, and only later―as the female population increased, reformers moved in, and other civilizing influences arrived―did prostitution become less blatant and less common. After a decade or so the mining towns attracted respectable women who ran boarding houses, organized church societies, worked as laundresses and seamstresses, and strove for independent status === Law and order === Historian Waddy W. Moore uses court records to show that on the sparsely settled Arkansas frontier lawlessness was common. He distinguished two types of crimes: unprofessional (dueling, crimes of drunkenness, selling whiskey to the Indians, cutting trees on federal land) and professional (rustling, highway robbery, counterfeiting). Criminals found many opportunities to rob pioneer families of their possessions, while the few underfunded lawmen had great difficulty detecting, arresting, holding, and convicting wrongdoers. Bandits, typically in groups of two or three, rarely attacked stagecoaches with a guard carrying a sawed-off,

double-barreled shotgun; it proved less risky to rob teamsters, people on foot, and solitary horsemen, while bank robberies themselves were harder to pull off due to the security of the establishment. According also to historian Brian Robb, the earliest form of organized crime in America was born from the gangs of the Old West.When criminals were convicted, punishment was severe. Aside from the occasional Western sheriff and Marshal, there were other various law enforcement agencies throughout the American frontier, such as the Texas Rangers and the North-West Mounted Police. These lawmen were not just instrumental in keeping peace, but also in protecting the locals from Indian and Mexican threats at the border. Law enforcement tended to be more stringent in towns than in rural areas. Law enforcement emphasized maintaining stability more than armed combat, focusing on drunkenness, disarming cowboys who violated gun-control edicts and dealing with flagrant breaches of gambling and prostitution ordinances.Dykstra argues that the violent image of the cattle towns in film and fiction is largely myth. The real Dodge City, he says, was the headquarters for the buffalo-hide trade of the Southern Plains and one of the West’s principal cattle towns, a sale and shipping point for cattle arriving from Texas He states there is a “second Dodge City” that belongs to the popular imagination and thrives as a cultural metaphor for violence, chaos, and depravity. For the cowboy arriving with money in hand after two months on the trail, the town was exciting. A contemporary eyewitness of Hays City, Kansas paints a vivid image of this cattle town: Hays City by lamplight was remarkably lively, but not very moral. The streets blazed with a reflection from saloons, and a glance within showed floors crowded with dancers, the gaily dressed women striving to hide with ribbons and paint the terrible lines which that grim artist, Dissipation, loves to draw upon such faces… To the music of violins and the stamping of feet the dance went on, and we saw in the giddy maze old men who must have been pirouetting on the very edge of their graves It has been acknowledged that the popular portrayal of Dodge City in film and fiction carries a note of truth, however, as gun crime was rampant in the city prior to the establishment of a local government. Soon after the city’s residents officially established their first municipal government, however, a law banning concealed firearms was enacted and crime was reduced soon afterwards. Similar laws were passed in other frontier towns to reduce the rate of gun crime as well. As UCLA law professor Adam Wrinkler noted: Carrying of guns within the city limits of a frontier town was generally prohibited Laws barring people from carrying weapons were commonplace, from Dodge City to Tombstone When Dodge City residents first formed their municipal government, one of the very first laws enacted was a ban on concealed carry The ban was soon after expanded to open carry, too. The Hollywood image of the gunslinger marching through town with two Colts on his hips is just that – a Hollywood image, created for its dramatic effect Tombstone, Arizona was a turbulent mining town that flourished longer than most, from 1877 to 1929. Silver was discovered in 1877, and by 1881 the town had a population of over 10,000. In 1879 the newly arrived Earp brothers bought shares in the Vizina mine, water rights, and gambling concessions, but Virgil, Wyatt, and Morgan Earp obtained positions at different times as federal and local lawmen. After more than a year of threats and feuding, they killed three outlaws in the Gunfight at the O.K Corral, the most famous gunfight of the Old West. In the aftermath, Virgil Earp was maimed in an ambush and Morgan Earp was assassinated while playing billiards. Wyatt and others, including his brothers James Earp and Warren Earp, pursued those they believed responsible in an extra-legal vendetta and warrants were issued for their arrest in the murder of Frank Stilwell. The Cochise County Cowboys were one of the first organized crime syndicates in the United States, and their demise came at the hands of Wyatt Earp.Western story tellers and film makers featured the gunfight in many Western productions. Walter Noble Burns’s novel Tombstone (1927) made Earp famous. Hollywood celebrated Earp’s Tombstone days with John Ford’s My Darling Clementine (1946), John Sturges’s Gunfight at the O.K. Corral (1957) and Hour of the Gun (1967), Frank Perry’s Doc (1971), George Cosmatos’s Tombstone (1993), and Lawrence Kasdan’s Wyatt Earp (1994). They solidified Earp’s modern reputation as the Old West’s deadliest gunman ==== Banditry ==== The major type of banditry was conducted by the infamous outlaws of the West, including Jesse James, Billy the Kid, the Dalton Gang, Black Bart, Butch Cassidy and the Wild Bunch and hundreds of others who preyed on banks, trains, stagecoaches, and in some cases even armed government transports such as the Wham

Paymaster Robbery and the Skeleton Canyon Robbery. Some of the outlaws, such as Jesse James, were products of the violence of the Civil War (James had ridden with Quantrill’s Raiders) and others became outlaws during hard times in the cattle industry. Many were misfits and drifters who roamed the West avoiding the law. In rural areas Joaquin Murieta, Jack Powers, Augustine Chacon and other bandits terrorized the state. When outlaw gangs were near, towns would occasionally raise a posse to drive them out or capture them. Seeing that the need to combat the bandits was a growing business opportunity, Allan Pinkerton ordered his National Detective Agency, founded in 1850, to open branches out West, and they got into the business of pursuing and capturing outlaws. There was plenty of business thanks to the criminals such as the James Gang, Butch Cassidy, Sam Bass, and dozens of others. To take refuge from the law, outlaws would use the advantages of the open range, remote passes and badlands to hide. While some settlements and towns in the frontier also house outlaws and criminals, which were called “outlaw towns” Banditry was a major issue in California after 1849, as thousands of young men detached from family or community moved into a land with few law enforcement mechanisms. To combat this, the San Francisco Committee of Vigilance was established to give drumhead trials and death sentences to well-known offenders. As such, other earlier settlements created their own private agencies to protect communities due to the lack of peace-keeping establishments These vigilance committees reflected different occupations in the frontier, such as land clubs, cattlemen’s associations and mining camps. Similar vigilance committees also existed in Texas, and their main objective was to stamp out lawlessness and rid communities of desperadoes and rustlers. These committees would sometimes form mob rule for private vigilante groups, but usually were made up of responsible citizens who wanted only to maintain order. Criminals caught by these vigilance committees were treated cruelly; often hung or shot without any form of trial.Civilians also took arms to defend themselves in the Old West, sometimes siding with lawmen (Coffeyville Bank Robbery), or siding with outlaws (Battle of Ingalls). In the Post-Civil War frontier, over 523 whites, 34 blacks and 75 others were victims of lynching. However, cases of lynching in the Old West wasn’t primarily caused by the absence of a legal system, but also because of social class. Historian Michael J. Pfeifer writes, “Contrary to the popular understanding, early territorial lynching did not flow from an absence or distance of law enforcement but rather from the social instability of early communities and their contest for property, status, and the definition of social order.” === Gunfights and feuds === The names and exploits of Western gunslingers took a major role in American folklore, fiction and film. Their guns and costumes became children’s toys for make-believe shootouts. The stories became immensely popular in Germany and other European countries, which produced their own novels and films about the American frontier The image of a Wild West filled with countless gunfights was a myth based on repeated exaggerations The most notable and well-known took place in Arizona, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Actual gunfights in the Old West were more episodic than being a common thing, but when gunfights did occur, the cause for each varied. Some were simply the result of the heat of the moment, while others were longstanding feuds, or between bandits and lawmen. Although mostly romanticized, there were instances of “quick draw” that did occur though rarely, such as Wild Bill Hickok – Davis Tutt shootout and Luke Short-Jim Courtright Duel. Fatal duels were fought to uphold personal honor in the West. To prevent gunfights, towns such as Dodge City and Tombstone prohibited firearms in town Range wars were infamous armed conflicts that took place in the “open range” of the American frontier. The subject of these conflicts was the control of lands freely used for farming and cattle grazing which gave the conflict its name. Range wars became more common by the end of the American Civil War, and numerous conflicts were fought such as the Pleasant Valley War, Mason County War, Johnson County War, Colorado Range War, Fence Cutting War, Colfax County War, Castaic Range War, Barber–Mizell feud, San Elizario Salt War and others. During a range war in Montana, a vigilante group called Stuart’s Stranglers, which were made up of cattlemen and cowboys, killed up to 20 criminals and range squatters in 1884 alone In Nebraska, stock grower Isom Olive led a range war in 1878 that killed a number of homesteaders from lynchings and shootouts before eventually leading to his own murder

Another infamous type of open range conflict were the Sheep Wars, which were fought between sheep ranchers and cattle ranchers over grazing rights and mainly occurred in Texas, Arizona and the border region of Wyoming and Colorado In most cases, formal military involvement were used to quickly put an end to these conflicts Other conflicts over land and territory were also fought such as the Regulator–Moderator War, Cortina Troubles, Las Cuevas War and the Bandit War Feuds involving families and bloodlines also occurred much in the frontier. Since private agencies and vigilance committees were the substitute for proper courts, many families initially depended on themselves and their communities for their security and justice These wars include the Lincoln County War, Tutt–Everett War, Flynn–Doran feud, Early–Hasley feud, Brooks-Baxter War, Sutton–Taylor feud, Horrell Brothers feud, Brooks–McFarland Feud, Reese–Townsend feud and the Earp Vendetta Ride === Cattle === The end of the bison herds opened up millions of acres for cattle ranching. Spanish cattlemen had introduced cattle ranching and longhorn cattle to the Southwest in the 17th century, and the men who worked the ranches, called “vaqueros”, were the first “cowboys” in the West. After the Civil War, Texas ranchers raised large herds of longhorn cattle. The nearest railheads were 800 or more miles (130+ km) north in Kansas (Abilene, Kansas City, Dodge City, and Wichita). So once fattened the ranchers and their cowboys drove the herds north along the Western, Chisholm, and Shawnee trails. The cattle were shipped to Chicago, St. Louis, and points east for slaughter and consumption in the fast-growing cities. The Chisholm Trail, laid out by cattleman Joseph McCoy along an old trail marked by Jesse Chisholm, was the major artery of cattle commerce, carrying over 1.5 million head of cattle between 1867 and 1871 over the 800 miles (1,300 km) from south Texas to Abilene, Kansas. The long drives were treacherous, especially crossing water such as the Brazos and the Red River and when they had to fend off Indians and rustlers looking to make off with their cattle. A typical drive would take three to four months and contained two miles (3 km) of cattle six abreast Despite the risks, a successful drive proved very profitable to everyone involved, as the price of one steer was $4 in Texas and $40 back East.By the 1870s and 1880s, cattle ranches expanded further north into new grazing grounds and replaced the bison herds in Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, Nebraska and the Dakota territory, using the rails to ship to both coasts. Many of the largest ranches were owned by Scottish and English financiers. The single largest cattle ranch in the entire West was owned by American John W. Iliff, “cattle king of the Plains”, operating in Colorado and Wyoming Gradually, longhorns were replaced by the American breeds of Hereford and Angus, introduced by settlers from the Northwest. Though less hardy and more disease-prone, these breeds produced better tasting beef and matured faster.The funding for the cattle industry came largely from British sources, as the European investors engaged in a speculative extravaganza—a “bubble”. Graham concludes the mania was founded on genuine opportunity, as well as “exaggeration, gullibility, inadequate communications, dishonesty, and incompetence”. A severe winter engulfed the plains toward the end of 1886 and well into 1887, locking the prairie grass under ice and crusted snow which starving herds could not penetrate. The British lost most of their money—as did eastern investors like Theodore Roosevelt, but their investments did create a large industry that continues to cycle through boom and bust periods.On a much smaller scale sheep grazing was locally popular; sheep were easier to feed and needed less water. However, Americans did not eat mutton. As farmers moved in open range cattle ranching came to an end and was replaced by barbed wire spreads where water, breeding, feeding, and grazing could be controlled This led to “fence wars” which erupted over disputes about water rights ==== Cowboys ==== Central to the myth and the reality of the West is the American cowboy. His real life was a hard one and revolved around two annual roundups, spring and fall, the subsequent drives to market, and the time off in the cattle towns spending his hard earned money on food, clothing, gambling, and prostitution During winter, many cowboys hired themselves out to ranches near the cattle towns, where they repaired and maintained equipment and buildings. Working the cattle was not just a routine job but also a lifestyle that exulted in the freedom of the wide unsettled outdoors on horseback. Long drives hired one cowboy

for about 250 head of cattle. Saloons were ubiquitous (outside Mormondom), but on the trail the cowboys were forbidden to drink alcohol. Often, hired cowboys were trained and knowledgeable in their trade such as herding, ranching and protecting cattle. To protect their herd from wild animals, hostile Indians and rustlers, cowboys carried with them their iconic weaponry such as the Bowie knife, lasso, bullwhip, pistols, rifles and shotguns.Many of the cowboys were veterans of the Civil War; a diverse group, they included Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and immigrants from many lands. The earliest cowboys in Texas learned their trade, adapted their clothing, and took their jargon from the Mexican vaqueros or “buckaroos”, the heirs of Spanish cattlemen from middle-south of Spain. Chaps, the heavy protective leather trousers worn by cowboys, got their name from the Spanish “chaparreras”, and the lariat, or rope, was derived from “la reata”. All the distinct clothing of the cowboy—boots, saddles, hats, pants, chaps, slickers, bandannas, gloves, and collar-less shirts—were practical and adaptable, designed for protection and comfort. The cowboy hat quickly developed the capability, even in the early years, to identify its wearer as someone associated with the West; it came to symbolize the frontier. The most enduring fashion adapted from the cowboy, popular nearly worldwide today, are “blue jeans”, originally made by Levi Strauss for miners in 1850.Before a drive, a cowboy’s duties included riding out on the range and bringing together the scattered cattle. The best cattle would be selected, roped, and branded, and most male cattle were castrated. The cattle also needed to be dehorned and examined and treated for infections. On the long drives, the cowboys had to keep the cattle moving and in line The cattle had to be watched day and night as they were prone to stampedes and straying While camping every night, cowboys would often sing to their herd to keep them calm. The work days often lasted fourteen hours, with just six hours of sleep. It was grueling, dusty work, with just a few minutes of relaxation before and at the end of a long day. On the trail, drinking, gambling, and brawling were often prohibited and fined, and sometimes cursing as well. It was monotonous and boring work, with food to match: bacon, beans, bread, coffee, dried fruit, and potatoes. On average, cowboys earned $30 to $40 per month, because of the heavy physical and emotional toll, it was unusual for a cowboy to spend more than seven years on the range. As open range ranching and the long drives gave way to fenced-in ranches in the 1880s, by the 1890s the glory days of the cowboy came to an end, and the myths about the “free living” cowboy began to emerge ==== Cowtowns ==== Anchoring the booming cattle industry of the 1860s and 1870s were the cattle towns in Kansas and Missouri. Like the mining towns in California and Nevada, cattle towns such as Abilene, Dodge City, and Ellsworth experienced a short period of boom and bust lasting about five years. The cattle towns would spring up as land speculators would rush in ahead of a proposed rail line and build a town and the supporting services attractive to the cattlemen and the cowboys. If the railroads complied, the new grazing ground and supporting town would secure the cattle trade. However, unlike the mining towns which in many cases became ghost towns and ceased to exist after the ore played out, cattle towns often evolved from cattle to farming and continued on after the grazing lands were exhausted == Conservation and environmentalism == Concern with the protection of the environment became a new issue in the late 19th century, pitting different interests. On the one side were the lumber and coal companies who called for maximum exploitation of natural resources to maximize jobs, economic growth, and their own profit.In the center were the conservationists, led by Theodore Roosevelt and his coalition of outdoorsmen, sportsmen, bird watchers and scientists. They wanted to reduce waste; emphasized the value of natural beauty for tourism and ample wildlife for hunters; and argued that careful management would not only enhance these goals but also increase the long-term economic benefits to society by planned harvesting and environmental protections. Roosevelt worked his entire career to put the issue high on the national agenda. He was deeply committed to conserving natural resources. He worked closely with Gifford Pinchot and used the Newlands Reclamation Act of 1902 to promote federal construction of dams to irrigate small farms and placed 230 million acres (360,000 mi² or 930,000 km²) under federal protection Roosevelt set aside more Federal land, national parks, and nature preserves than all of his

predecessors combined.Roosevelt explained his position in 1910: Conservation means development as much as it does protection. I recognize the right and duty of this generation to develop and use the natural resources of our land but I do not recognize the right to waste them, or to rob, by wasteful use, the generations that come after us The third element, smallest at first but growing rapidly after 1870, were the environmentalists who honored nature for its own sake, and rejected the goal of maximizing human benefits. Their leader was John Muir (1838–1914), a widely read author and naturalist and pioneer advocate of preservation of wilderness for its own sake, and founder of the Sierra Club. Muir, based in California, in 1889 started organizing support to preserve the sequoias in the Yosemite Valley; Congress did pass the Yosemite National Park bill (1890). In 1897 President Grover Cleveland created thirteen protected forests but lumber interests had Congress cancel the move. Muir, taking the persona of an Old Testament prophet, crusaded against the lumberman, portraying it as a contest “between landscape righteousness and the devil”. A master publicist, Muir’s magazine articles, in Harper’s Weekly (June 5, 1897) and the Atlantic Monthly turned the tide of public sentiment. He mobilized public opinion to support Roosevelt’s program of setting aside national monuments, national forest reserves, and national parks. However Muir broke with Roosevelt and especially President William Howard Taft on the Hetch Hetchy dam, which was built in the Yosemite National Park to supply water to San Francisco. Biographer Donald Worster says, “Saving the American soul from a total surrender to materialism was the cause for which he fought.” === Buffalo === The rise of the cattle industry and the cowboy is directly tied to the demise of the huge herds of bison—usually called the “buffalo” Once numbering over 25 million on the Great Plains, the grass-eating herds were a vital resource animal for the Plains Indians, providing food, hides for clothing and shelter, and bones for implements. Loss of habitat, disease, and over-hunting steadily reduced the herds through the 19th century to the point of near extinction. The last 10–15 million died out in a decade 1872–1883; only 100 survived The tribes that depended on the buffalo had little choice but to accept the government offer of reservations, where the government would feed and supply them on condition they did not go on the warpath. Conservationists founded the American Bison Society in 1905; it lobbied Congress to establish public bison herds. Several national parks in the U.S and Canada were created, in part to provide a sanctuary for bison and other large wildlife, with no hunting allowed. The bison population reached 500,000 by 2003 == American frontier in popular culture == The exploration, settlement, exploitation, and conflicts of the “American Old West” form a unique tapestry of events, which has been celebrated by Americans and foreigners alike—in art, music, dance, novels, magazines, short stories, poetry, theater, video games, movies, radio, television, song, and oral tradition—which continues in the modern era. Levy argues that the physical and mythological West inspired composers Aaron Copland, Roy Harris, Virgil Thomson, Charles Wakefield Cadman, and Arthur Farwell.Religious themes have inspired many environmentalists as they contemplate the pristine West before the frontiersmen violated its spirituality. Actually, as historian William Cronon has demonstrated, the concept of “wilderness” was highly negative and the antithesis of religiosity before the romantic movement of the 19th century.The Frontier Thesis of historian Frederick Jackson Turner, proclaimed in 1893, established the main lines of historiography which fashioned scholarship for three or four generations and appeared in the textbooks used by practically all American students === Popularizing Western lore === The mythologizing of the West began with minstrel shows and popular music in the 1840s. During the same period, P. T. Barnum presented Indian chiefs, dances, and other Wild West exhibits in his museums. However, large scale awareness really took off when the dime novel appeared in 1859, the first being Malaeska, the Indian Wife of the White Hunter. By simplifying reality and grossly exaggerating the truth, the novels captured the public’s attention with sensational tales of violence and heroism, and fixed in

the public’s mind stereotypical images of heroes and villains—courageous cowboys and savage Indians, virtuous lawmen and ruthless outlaws, brave settlers and predatory cattlemen Millions of copies and thousands of titles were sold. The novels relied on a series of predictable literary formulas appealing to mass tastes and were often written in as little as a few days. The most successful of all dime novels was Edward S. Ellis’ Seth Jones (1860). Ned Buntline’s stories glamorized Buffalo Bill Cody and Edward L. Wheeler created “Deadwood Dick”, “Hurricane Nell”, and “Calamity Jane”.Buffalo Bill Cody was the most effective popularizer of the Old West in the U.S. and Europe. He presented the first “Wild West” show in 1883, featuring a recreation of famous battles (especially Custer’s Last Stand), expert marksmanship, and dramatic demonstrations of horsemanship by cowboys and Indians, as well as sure-shooting Annie Oakley.Elite Eastern writers and artists of the late 19th century promoted and celebrated western lore. Theodore Roosevelt, wearing his hats as historian, explorer, hunter, rancher and naturalist, was especially productive. Their work appeared in upscale national magazines such as Harper’s Weekly featured illustrations by artists Frederic Remington, Charles M. Russell, and others Readers bought action-filled stories by writers like Owen Wister, conveying vivid images of the Old West. Remington lamented the passing of an era he helped to chronicle when he wrote: I knew the wild riders and the vacant land were about to vanish forever…I saw the living, breathing end of three American centuries of smoke and dust and sweat === 20th century imagery === In the 20th century, both tourists to the West and avid readers enjoyed the visual imagery of the frontier. The Western movies provided the most famous examples, as in the numerous films of John Ford. He was especially enamored of Monument Valley. Critic Keith Phipps says, “its five square miles [13 square kilometers] have defined what decades of moviegoers think of when they imagine the American West.” The heroic stories coming out of the building of the transcontinental railroad in the mid-1860s enlivened many dime novels, and illustrated many newspapers and magazines with the juxtaposition of traditional environment with the iron horse of modernity ==== Cowboy images ==== The cowboy has for over a century been an iconic American image both in the country and abroad; recognized worldwide and revered by Americans. The most famous popularizers of the image include part-time cowboy and “Rough Rider” President Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919), who made “cowboy” internationally synonymous with the brash aggressive American, and Indian Territory-born trick roper Will Rogers (1879–1935), the leading humorist of the 1920s Roosevelt conceptualized the herder (cowboy) as a stage of civilization distinct from the sedentary farmer—a theme well expressed in the 1944 Hollywood hit Oklahoma! that highlights the enduring conflict between cowboys and farmers. Roosevelt argued that the manhood typified by the cowboy—and outdoor activity and sports generally—was essential if American men were to avoid the softness and rot produced by an easy life in the city.Will Rogers, the son of a Cherokee judge in Oklahoma, started with rope tricks and fancy riding, but by 1919 discovered his audiences were even more enchanted with his wit in his representation of the wisdom of the common man.Others who contributed to enhancing the romantic image of the American cowboy include Charles Siringo (1855–1928) and Andy Adams (1859–1935) Cowboy, Pinkerton detective, and western author, Siringo was the first authentic cowboy autobiographer Adams spent the 1880s in the cattle industry in Texas and 1890s mining in the Rockies When an 1898 play’s portrayal of Texans outraged Adams, he started writing plays, short stories, and novels drawn from his own experiences His The Log of a Cowboy (1903) became a classic novel about the cattle business, especially the cattle drive. It described a fictional drive of the Circle Dot herd from Texas to Montana in 1882, and became a leading source on cowboy life; historians retraced its path in the 1960s, confirming its basic accuracy His writings are acclaimed and criticized for realistic fidelity to detail on the one hand and thin literary qualities on the other Many regard Red River (1948), directed by Howard Hawks, and starring John Wayne and Montgomery Clift, as an authentic cattle drive

depiction.The unique skills of the cowboys are highlighted in the rodeo. It began in organized fashion in the West in the 1880s, when several Western cities followed up on touring Wild West shows and organized celebrations that included rodeo activities. The establishment of major cowboy competitions in the East in the 1920s led to the growth of rodeo sports Trail cowboys who were also known as gunfighters like John Wesley Hardin, Luke Short and others, were known for their prowess, speed and skill with their pistols and other firearms. Their violent escapades and reputations morphed over time into the stereotypical image of violence endured by the “cowboy hero” === Code of the West === Historians of the American West have written about the mythic West; the west of western literature, art and of people’s shared memories The phenomenon is “the Imagined West”. The “Code of the West” was an unwritten, socially agreed upon set of informal laws shaping the cowboy culture of the Old West. Over time, the cowboys developed a personal culture of their own, a blend of values that even retained vestiges of chivalry. Such hazardous work in isolated conditions also bred a tradition of self-dependence and individualism, with great value put on personal honesty, exemplified in songs and cowboy poetry. The code also included the Gunfighter, who sometimes followed a form of code duello adopted from the Old South, in order to solve disputes and duels Extrajudicial justice seen during the frontier days such as lynching, vigilantism and gunfighting, in turn popularized by the Western genre, would later be known in modern times as examples of frontier justice, as the West became a thing of imagination by the late 19th century == End of the frontier == Following the eleventh U.S. Census taken in 1890 the superintendent announced that there was no longer a clear line of advancing settlement, and hence no longer a frontier in the continental United States. Historian Frederick Jackson Turner seized upon the statistic to announce the end of the era in which the frontier process shaped the American character Fresh farmland was increasingly hard to find after 1890—although the railroads advertised some in eastern Montana. Bicha shows that nearly 600,000 American farmers sought cheap land by moving to the Prairie frontier of the Canadian West from 1897 to 1914. However, about two-thirds of them grew disillusioned and returned to the U.S. The admission of Oklahoma as a state in 1907 upon the combination of the Oklahoma Territory and the last remaining Indian Territory, and the Arizona and New Mexico territories as states in 1912, did not end the frontier. These contained plenty of unoccupied land, as did the territory of Alaska. Nevertheless, the ethos and storyline of the “American frontier” had passed == Historiography == Scores of Turner students became professors in history departments in the western states, and taught courses on the frontier. Scholars have debunked many of the myths of the frontier, but they nevertheless live on in community traditions, folklore and fiction. In the 1970s a historiographical range war broke out between the traditional frontier studies, which stress the influence of the frontier on all of American history and culture, and the “New Western History” which narrows the geographical and time framework to concentrate on the trans-Mississippi West after 1850. It avoids the word “frontier” and stresses cultural interaction between white culture and groups such as Indians and Hispanics. History professor William Weeks of the University of San Diego argues that in this “New Western History” approach: It is easy to tell who the bad guys are – they are almost invariably white, male, and middle-class or better, while the good guys are almost invariably non-white, non-male, or non-middle class…. Anglo-American civilization….is represented as patriarchal, racist, genocidal, and destructive of the environment, in addition to hypocritically betrayed the ideals on which it supposedly is built However, by 2005, Aron argues, the two sides had “reached an equilibrium in their rhetorical arguments and critiques”.Meanwhile, environmental history has emerged, in large part from the frontier historiography, hence its emphasis on wilderness. It plays an increasingly large role in frontier studies. Historians approached the environment from the point of view of the frontier or regionalism. The first group emphasizes human agency on the environment; the second looks at the influence of the environment William Cronon has argued that Turner’s famous 1893 essay was environmental history in an

embryonic form. It emphasized the vast power of free land to attract and reshape settlers, making a transition from wilderness to civilization.Journalist Samuel Lubell saw similarities between the frontier’s Americanization of immigrants that Turner described and the social climbing by later immigrants in large cities as they moved to wealthier neighborhoods. He compared the effects of the railroad opening up Western lands to urban transportation systems and the automobile, and Western settlers’ “land hunger” to poor city residents seeking social status. Just as the Republican party benefited from support from “old” immigrant groups that settled on frontier farms, “new” urban immigrants formed an important part of the Democratic New Deal coalition that began with Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s victory in the 1932 presidential election.Since the 1960s an active center is the history department at the University of New Mexico, along with the University of New Mexico Press. Leading historians there include Gerald D. Nash, Donald C. Cutter, Richard N. Ellis, Richard Etulain, Margaret Connell-Szasz, Paul Hutton, Virginia Scharff, and Samuel Truett. The department has collaborated with other departments and emphasizes Southwestern regionalism, minorities in the Southwest, and historiography == See also == American frontier portalGeneralTimeline of the American Old West Territories of the United States Indian massacre, list of massacres of Indians by whites and vice versa National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum: museum and art gallery, in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, housing one of the largest collections in the world of Western, American cowboy, American rodeo, and American Indian art, artifacts, and archival materials Rodeo: demonstration of cattle wrangling skills The Oregon-California Trails Association preserves, protects and shares the histories of emigrants who followed these trails westward Wanted poster: a poster, popular in mythic scenes of the west, let the public know of criminals whom authorities wish to apprehend Western lifestyle Wild West Shows: a following of the wild west shows of the American frontier The West As America March (territorial entity) Medieval European term with some similaritiesPeopleList of American Old West outlaws: list of known outlaws and gunfighters of the American frontier popularly known as the “Wild West” List of cowboys and cowgirls Schoolmarm: A female teacher that usually works in a one-room schoolhouse List of Western lawmen: list of notable law enforcement officials of the American frontier They occupied positions as sheriff, marshal, Texas Rangers, and others Gunfighter Category:Gunslingers of the American Old West Category:Lawmen of the American Old West Category:Outlaws of the American Old WestStudyWestern History Association Journal of the West True West Magazine Desert MagazineFictionChris Enss: author of historical nonfiction that documents the forgotten women of the Old West Zane Grey: author of many popular novels on the Old West Karl May: best selling German writer of all time, noted chiefly for wild west books set in the American West Winnetou: American-Indian hero of several novels written by Karl May.GamesBoot Hill: One of the early alternative RPGs from TSR and using a similar system to Dungeons & Dragons Aces & Eights: Shattered Frontier: an award-winning alternate history western role-playing gaming Deadlands: an alternate history western horror role-playing game Dust Devils: a western role-playing game modeled after Clint Eastwood films and similar darker Westerns The Red Dead series takes place in the days of the Wild West. Revolver focuses on the prime of the American frontier, while its spiritual successors Redemption and Redemption II focus on the waning years of the Western frontier and the introduction of industrialization to the western United States List of Western computer and video games: a list of computer and video games patterned after Westerns == Notes == == References == == Further reading == === Scholarly articles === Full text of all articles in Western Historical Quarterly, 1972 to present Great Plains Quarterly Table of contents, 1981 to present; 2014 to present online articles == External links == CultureWestern Folklife CenterHistoryAutry National Center of the American West – Los Angeles, California American West History New Perspectives on ‘The West’. The West Film Project, WETA-TV, 2001 Dodge City, Kansas ‘Cowboy Capital’ Fort Dodge, Kansas History by Ida Ellen Rath, 1964 w/ photos Old West Kansas Tombstone Arizona History “The American West”, BBC Radio 4 discussion with Frank McLynn, Jenni Calder and Christopher Frayling (In Our Time, June 13, 2002)MediaThe Frontier: A Frontier Town Three Months Old by Ward Platt—1908 book on the real West Free to read and full text search 161 photographs of frontier geography and personalities; these are pre-1923 and out

of copyright

The Radioactivity of Space – with Frances Staples

[MUSIC PLAYING] You’re listening to the sounds of space right now These are measurements of waves in our magnetic field, taken by the Van Allen Probes, which are in space in orbit around the Earth I’m going to ask you some questions to begin with So who here, by a show of hands, knew that space has radiation in it? Oh, fantastic You’ve all read my talk title [LAUGHTER] I knew it, because that’s what my PhD is in Now, who knew that space is not a complete void? Yeah! This is great My job’s done And I can go home It’s not a complete void Compared to the air that we breathe, it’s empty But there are particles there There are a few of them The solar wind is an example It flows from the sun particles with enough energy to leave the gravity of the sun’s surface or eject it into space And they travel at speeds of about 400 kilometres per second It’s really fast particles with a lot of energy However, there are so few of these particles that when I blow– [BLOWS] –in the air, that is 1,000 times stronger than the solar wind Now, my final question is, who knew that there is weather in space? Yeah! This is great There is weather in space These conditions are variable These particles can vary in energy and location And this weather can cause big issues for our technologies and space We are so reliant on infrastructure, like satellites nowadays And it is actually on the UK National Risk Assessment This is data from the 2015 Risk Assessment done by the UK government And we can see lots of different risks to the UK on these panels And each risk has a score for impact And it has a likelihood of happening, as well And we can see that pandemic influenza is the biggest risk to UK, because it has a high impact And it’s very likely to happen But severe space weather is actually really high on this Risk Register, as well One of the effects of space weather is the Aurora, this beautiful light show And this is the Aurora australis, a scene from the International Space Station It’s these energetic particles, which rain down into our atmosphere and create these lights But not all of the effects are quite so beautiful as this This is a test done to spacecraft electronics by the European Space Agency And they fired radiation at their circuits And they became so hot that the components melted And you can even see that That’s tiny, minuscule And as technology has progressed, our circuit boards, as we saw on the last talk, are getting smaller and smaller And they need less and less current And this means that radiation has a higher and higher impact What can also happen is a general charging of a spacecraft radiation comes around and gathers around it until there is a big discharge of electricity like static And this can also damage our spacecraft But it is a risk to astronaut health, as well We all know that we are susceptible to radiation in our bodies So we need to be aware of this risk for human spaceflight But it’s not just astronauts, who are susceptible to this radiation from space If you’re going over the pole at a high altitude in an aircraft and there is a big radiation storm, you can be exposed to this radiation from space, as well There are other effects, such as communication blackouts And GPS also gets disrupted If you’re wandering around on Google Maps, you won’t notice it

But if you’re trying to drill, oil at very high precision, then it matters And what can also happen are currents flow through the Earth’s crust And this can heat up our power grids and cause blackouts for hours at a time But the topic of today for me is radiation and how it matters for spaceflight But what is radiation? Radiation is light, an electromagnetic wave Or it can be a particle– an electron or a proton or an ion But the only type of radiation that we need to be really worried about is ionising radiation Now, this is radiation with enough energy to impart its own energy onto matter, and it excites electrons out of those molecules Are we gonna switch? There we go We experience radiation everyday It’s in the air that we breathe in radon If you’re lucky enough to have a granite worktop in your kitchen, you get a higher dose of radiation than everyone else And if you eat a lot of bananas in your kitchen, you’ll also get a high dose of radiation But everyone, everyday, experiences radiation from space And this isn’t the way of cosmic radiation So in supernova explosions in space, these particles are accelerated extremely fast, and may travel from the star or from all the galaxies even and come through our atmosphere And in our upper atmosphere, they interact with the molecules And this creates a cascade of chemical interactions which rain down to the surface of the earth And these particles, which result from these interactions, are still very energetic So that’s what we feel on the ground And we’ve known about this radiation for a very long time, because we can feel it So when the US sent the first satellites into space, Explorer 1, it had a Geiger counter on board so it could count the amount of radiation directly from space But they had an issue And that was, that no one put a tape recorder on board So the only time that they could get this data was if Explorer 1 was flying over your head and you had a receiver on the ground, and you could take the measurements And sometimes they would get a normal count of radiation, sometimes it was an extremely high count, and sometimes, mysteriously, there were no counts at all And unfortunately, Explorer 2 did not make it to space But Explorer 3 did, and they put a tape recorder on board so they could record that entire orbit of radiation And it was James Van Allen who mapped out this radiation and realised that below 1100 kilometres, you had a normal radiation count Above this was where you either had very high counts or no counts at all And they realised, it wasn’t that there were no counts, it was that there were so many counts that their instrument had completely saturated And this is the first figure in scientific literature of the radiation belts, and this really excites me It’s now the Van Allen Belts And the circle on the left is the earth, and the shaded regions are the regions where they mapped high levels of radiation In a more public-friendly picture, they drew them as shells around the earth There’s an inner belt, close to Earth, and there’s outer belt And there’s a mysterious slot region in between them as well But how can radiation become trapped in the first place? Well, the answer to that is magnetic fields So we’ve all done this experiment– we have a dipolar magnet, put it on a piece of paper with iron filings, and they line up to that magnetic field You can see it And this is similar to particles which are charged They interact with that magnetic field And the earth is giant dipolar magnet There’s iron, molten, in our core, which swishes and swirls

And that creates a dynamo effect and generates this huge magnetic field, and that can trap particles Before Van Allen and his team discovered the belts, it was actually understood that these particles interacted with our magnetic field The first person was Kristian Birkeland who took a magnetic ball, which was very similar to the earth’s magnetic field, and he shot electrons at it And he saw it glow, just like the aurora He created an aurora in his lab But he did not quite understand the mathematics of it So it was supervisor– I wish my supervisor would do this for me– who figured out the particles’ motion in this magnetic field So I’m going to show you an animation In a steady magnetic field, which is shown by the blue lines, a particle spirals around in a circular motion But if this magnetic field gets stronger, like where the lines converge, the particle is reflected from that region of high field strength, and it comes back at you He also realised that if you have two regions of a strong magnetic field, you can trap a particle, because they bounce between these two regions of high field strength It was called Carl Stromer who then looked at relativistic particles in a dipolar field Because if you have a degree in physics, you know there are no magnetic monopoles– at least, we’ve not found any yet So it’s very similar to a magnetic bottle At the poles of the earth our magnetic field gets stronger, and the particles bounce back and forth But as well as this motion, they drift around the earth at the same time Almost like they’re in orbit, but it’s like a magnetic field And this creates that shell of radiation which Van Allen observed Now, I like this man– Nicholas Christofilos He was an elevator engineer from Athens, and he had a strong interest in magnetic fields and particles And he discovered strong beam focusing technique, which is now used in particle collider experiments And he wrote to scientists in the US to tell them of his discovery, but it was never published And the scientific community were none the wiser, until someone else independently discovered this effect And he did get the recognition in the end But because of this, he was invited to the US to be a scientist And something he was really interested in was an Astron thermonuclear device What is this? you ask Because I hadn’t heard of it It’s where you have wanted these magnetic bottles with a strong piece of field at either end, and you trap your plasma– so your electrons and your protons– in this bottle And it gets heated until nuclear fusion can occur And the way that he wanted to test this was with the Earth’s magnetic field, a natural magnetic bottle, and with a nuclear bomb [LAUGHTER] And nuclear bomb creates this very high energy– this radiation And if you set it off in Earth’s magnetic field, far away from Earth, then these particles can become trapped And this experiment was improved, and it was planned to take be taken out in 1958 But in the meantime, they discovered the natural radiation belts Which was great for the science, because they knew it could happen, that these particles can become trapped So they went ahead with their experiment And something I found interesting in my research of this was that James Van Allen himself, the discoverer of the radiation belts, was involved in this project And he wrote to the US government to tell them that this experiment should not be a secret Because, in the eyes of the world, the US would be “Sputniked” by the Soviets So, the next year, they made this test public They set the nuclear bomb off and created a detectable radiation belt artificially And they expected that it would last maybe a few days, but it lasted a few weeks

So this radiation lasts longer than they thought And Nicholas actually had another theory And that was that if you fill space near Earth with enough radiation, it would damage the electronics in a nuclear warhead so it wouldn’t be able to detonate In the next few years, the US and the USSR filled space with lots of radiation during the Cold War Now, this is Starfish Prime nuclear test, and this was done above the Pacific And the flash, in the right image, is of that nuclear bomb from Honolulu On the left, more interestingly for me, is the aurora above Hawaii When this bomb exploded, there were so many particles that it went into the atmosphere and created the aurora And apparently, there were many hotels in Hawaii who held “rainbow bomb parties” on their roofs to see the spectacular light show But it wasn’t all fun and games, there were numerous satellites which were completely lost and irrecoverable because of the radiation damage to their electronics And the artificial radiation belt that they create, it lasted so long, that years after the tests, there were still high concerns for the astronauts health and safety from this new radiation belt that they created But by the time that the Apollo missions came along, it had decayed enough, and the US decided that it was a risk that they will take But back to the science So we know that there’s an inner belt an outer belt, but we don’t really know where they come from Well, the inner belt is mostly made of protons And this is created in the cosmic ray Albedo neutron decay, which is quite a mouthful And in the same shower, that raining down of particles in the atmosphere from that cosmic ray, you can get one neutron which goes up, not down, and it escapes into space And because it’s not a charged particle, it doesn’t see all magnetic fields So it can fly freely until it decays, because neutrons are very unstable And it creates an electron, a proton, and an antineutrino And the proton gets most of the energy, and it spirals around the magnetic field and becomes trapped, creating the inner belt. But the electrons, which we can see by the warm colours in this image, showing where we have high levels of radiation, are much more dynamic than this They’re not created in the same way And we see, sometimes, belts get really small, and sometimes they expand really big And the structures are changing constantly And this is what I, as a scientist, am trying to understand We’re trying to forecast these changes And to understand them, we need to look at the sun So the sun has a very strong magnetic field But it’s not a dipole like Earth’s It gets all twisted on the surface And like an elastic band, it gets so twisted that eventually it snaps in what’s known to me as a magnetic explosion, but to everyone else it’s a Coronal Mass Ejection, or CME So these magnetic explosions snap, and they take all of that trapped particles and eject it into space And then all of these particles fly towards us on Earth But we have a magnetic field to protect us This is great It’s dipolar, but it becomes contorted by the solar wind, as you can see And as the coronal mass ejection reaches Earth, it imparts its energy It loads all this energy into our magnetic field until eventually our magnetic field becomes so stressed that we get a geomagnetic storm Now, this is another magnetic explosion where there’s a reconfiguration of our magnetic field It’ll happen now And when this happens, solar wind particles are allowed into our magnetic field, and they are energised And they come closer to the Earth by diffusion, and they become relativistic And that’s how we get the electrons in the radiation belts But I still haven’t explained this gap in between the belts

This is the region called the slot, region, where there is no radiation And we have to look at wave particle interaction So much like the magnetic field interacts with the electrons and protons, electromagnetic waves can do the same So this is one example of one of these waves You have a lightning storm at the ground, and an electromagnetic wave comes up, and it’s guided by our magnetic field, until it reaches the radiation belts in space and it interacts with particles there And that changes their trajectory, so that they no longer see that strong magnetic field at the pole, and they can interact with our atmosphere And then we lose them If there are enough of these wave particle interactions, then we get a gap in our radiation belt, where the particles are drained In the ’90s, our understanding of the radiation belts were changed SAMPEX was a mission which was launched, and they discovered that the solar wind particles coming in during a geomagnetic storm were not energised enough to create the radiation belts So we had to use wave particle interactions to explain this as well Now, we’re looking at a magnetic field, constant in the background, and there are two particles piling around it And there’s a wave that comes in, and you can see it gaining energy It’s getting faster and faster So this wave is giving that particle energy until it becomes radiation And the Van Allen probes– my personal favourite mission– was launched in 2012, and they found evidence for these wave particle interactions And they measured these waves Now, there are whole zoo of waves in our magnetic field And whilst they’re not sound like we know sound, they have a frequency So we can play this frequency and listen to it And for this part, I’m going to need a volunteer who has a good singing voice You still want to sing, Ford? [INAUDIBLE] Yeah, you can do it We can do it together OK Can you speak to the microphone Is it on? Yeah OK So one of the waves is called plasmaspheric hiss What do you think that sounds like? [HISSES] Yeah I’ll play it for you, and we’ll see if you got it right [HISSING SOUND] Pretty good, right? Did a Good job It’s a hiss sound, but it’s kind of undulating Does it sound like the sea? Yeah Yeah It’s like waves in the sea OK The next wave that I want you to make the sound of is called a whistler-mode wave Can you whistle? [WHISTLES] That’s perfect Let me play it [SPACEY WHISTLING SOUND] That was really good Well done This sounds like you’re in a battle in space, right? That’s the last wave That’s the chorus line What do you think a chorus wave sounds like? [VOCALISING] Ah You have a beautiful voice Could we thank him? [APPLAUSE] [SPACE SOUNDS CONTINUE] We can hear that wave in the background– the chorus-wave It’s like a– [MIMICS SLIDE WHISTLE] It’s actually named after morning chorus for the sound of the buds in the morning [SPACE SOUNDS MIXED WITH HISSES AND WHISTLES] That’s them altogether So the Van Allen probes also made another discovery, and that was a third radiation belt So we know that we accelerate electrons and we lose them into the atmosphere But occasionally, the rate that we lose them is not enough to catch up with the acceleration And every now and then, we get a third, transient belt

But there’s so much about the radiation belts that we still don’t understand, and that’s what I’m working on But the radiation belts themselves are a risk to humans– but a small risk And today’s talk– well, not the talk, but the day, is about the Apollo missions Each Apollo astronaut had a radiation monitor on their body Because, yes, they were worried about the radiation belts and the dosage And when the astronauts returned to Earth, they detected levels from this instrument of about a chest X-ray, which isn’t a big danger to us But the radiation belts are not the only radiation in space We’re looking at the sun right now, and we’re going to look at some events called the 2003 Halloween Storms And it started by a solar storm, and then it created a geomagnetic storm, and there was a radiation storm So we’re looking at the sun through a philtre, which is why it looks green We’re just seeing one wavelength of light And you can see these flashes as they go off And those are solar flares And the solar flares are putting energy into the magnetic field of the sun And eventually, so much energy is put into them, that there are these explosions of magnetic field– these coronal mass ejections Now, I’m not a solar physicist, and I can just see some small explosions on the surface of the sun So I like to look at a different view I’ll just pause that This is a coronagraph So we have the same green picture of the sun in the centre, for scale, and the round disc is, essentially, an artificial eclipse We’re blocking out the light from the sun And all of the blue is the sun’s light scattering off plasma So the more plasmid that we have– the more electrons and protons– the brighter it appears And we can see these explosions blasting into space You can see them And there’s a really big one that’s going to come, and it appears as a halo Now, I’m going to play this again, because I enjoy the video You don’t have to worry about the ones which look like loops so much When you have to worry is when it looks like a halo from the whole sun, because that’s coming directly at you Now, we saw this whiteout effect We saw the white flashes Does anyone know what those are? What do you think they are? Radioactive particles Exactly They’re radiation They’re these energetic particles which are imparting their energy on that camera Well done When the astronauts were on the moon, when they closed their eyes, they saw lights like this in their vision And that’s the radiation that they saw hitting their retina And the sun is a huge particle accelerator They create this huge amount of radiation during these storms And it’s this radiation that was the biggest risk to the astronauts on the Apollo missions So what the astronauts were doing that was so dangerous was leaving our magnetic field These are little particles in that coronal mass ejection that’s being fired at the Earth, and we can see they don’t reach us on the Earth They’re guided away from our magnetic field So our magnetic field can trap and create some radiation, but that radiation is very easy to avoid We just don’t go through it, or go through it very quickly, which is what the Apollo missions did You leave the magnetic field, and you’re exposed to this radiation And we work on forecasting when these particle events will occur But it’s very difficult And a lot of people say that the Apollo missions were extremely lucky Now, this is a picture from Apollo 16 And not long after they were on the moon, there was one of these events If they’d been on the moon at the time, they would have suffered acute radiation sickness They would have had to immediately leave, come back to Earth to receive medical care, which

could have been lifesaving, if they’d made it back at all But there are ways that we can protect ourselves We can shield our spacecraft, And we can go underground on the moon, which is probably what we’ll do if we ever have a moon base But what I think is most important is understanding how to forecast these events– looking at the sun, looking at the interactions of this space whether Thank you [APPLAUSE]

Every Car in the Cars Universe RANKED

– I love the movie “Cars.” It’s got racing, it’s got romance It’s got my favorite band of all time, Rascal Flatts It’s also got a whole heck of a lot of cars with eyes and tongues for some reason Funny looking This iconic franchise introduced an entire generation of kids to cars So today I’m gonna rank every car in the “Car” series according to my impeccable taste We’re gonna dissect the expansive world of cars, even talk some conspiracy theories Spoiler alert, there some pretty weird ones out there (upbeat music) Big old thank you to our friends at Omaze for sponsoring today’s episode of Wheelhouse We’ve partnered with Omaze yet again, to give away this bad-ass 2018 Dodge Demon with taxes and shipping included, plus $20,000 (loud bang) – I hear you’re giving away a badass Dodge Demon? One that can do 0 to 60 in 2.1 seconds, and can do a quarter mile in nine? – It’s not the time right now, Doug – A monster so hellish it comes stocked with drag tires even through NHRA banned it from drag racing? Oh, I can smell the demonness! – Actually this demon supports a really good cause Every donation you make helps the Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, the same place that helped our pal, James Pumphrey and saved his life – We’re not allowed in hospitals anymore, but it’s not what you think, all right? – Well, good luck to you Head on over to omaze.com/donutmedia for your own chance to win Now, let’s get back to the show – Hey can you tell me what this does? Is that French? (demon slurps) – Just a quick note up top This list excludes tractors, boats, planes, and background characters The cars on this list are ones with notable speaking roles, plus one or two fun ones that we couldn’t leave off the list Our amazing writer, Laurie compiled all the cars into a list I rank them, and Joe is going to bring me the list right now Let’s get started Starting off our list of number 80 is Stanley the founder of Radiator Springs Number 79 RV Arvy Motorhome It’s a play on words, RV Just named him RV Kind of lazy Number 78 though three 74 is the lemon gang Number 73 Faregame I think is a fair lane Ford Fairlane, maybe Number 72, Roscoe Number 71, Miss Fritter Number 70 is Sir Harley Gassup He hangs out with the queen and he’s actually modeled off of a Tatra ’87 That’s a pretty unknown car that took some pretty deep knowledge Number 69, the queen based off of a Rolls Royce Phantom Four, number 68 and 67 are Professor Z’s henchman named Grem and Acer based off of AMC Gremlin and AMC Pacer And number 66, we got two cars sharing a slot Professor Zundapp and Miles Axlerod, the villains of “Cars 2.” I thought the reveal of Miles as the real villain was really weak and kind of predictable, and Professor’s Zundapp is very interesting concept, but just didn’t really work for me, just like the “Cars 2” overall didn’t really work for me So that’s why they share number 66 Number 65 with Leland Turbo Weird name Number 64, Ivan the tow truck, and at number 63 is Otis He’s the only lemon in “Cars 2” that isn’t a bad guy, either Continuing on our list at number 62, Luke Pettlework He’s the King’s pit guy All right. Number 61 We’ve got Mel Dorado obviously based off the 1967 Cadillac El Dorado He’s one of the only characters that wears glasses, which I really like Next up on the list, number 60 is Sterling, who is voiced by Nathan Fillion Great actor He’s based on the BMW 2000 CS His side profile is actually very recognizable I’m not even a BMW guy, and I knew right away that it was a Beamer Number 59 we got Pope Pinion IV, he’s based on a US-spec BMW He’s the Pope He wears a big old mider, I like to take a moment here to talk about the confusing and flawed logic of the world of “Cars,” okay It’s a hotly debated topic and there are several theories out there regarding the dark truths of the humanless world Lightening McQueen and his pals live in So let’s start there with the lack of humans John Lasseter was determined that in this world, the cars are the humans, but it’s clear from context clues in the movies like door handles, human built landmarks, and the presence of a Catholic Pope and TSA lines that humans were a part of things in this world, at least to some point So what happened to them? Creative director of the “Cars” world, Jay Ward, who also wrote a top secret document called “The World of Cars Owner’s Manual” offered a theory in 2017 and it’s pretty dark for Disney He stated quotes, “If you think about this, we have autonomous car technology coming in right now It’s getting to the point where you can sit back in the car and it drives itself Imagine in the near future where the cars keep getting smarter and smarter and after one day they just go,

why do we need human beings anymore? They’re just slowing us down It’s just extra weight Let’s get rid of them.” But the car takes on the personality of the last person who drove it Whoa – It’s a conspiracy, man! – One flaw in that theory is that there are a lot of old cars in the “Cars” universe that are not self-driving at all So that doesn’t really make any sense There’s a lot of crazy theories about “Cars” out there of you want to get sucked into it, including like their anatomy and the fact that they pee oil and eat sushi and all that I don’t really want to talk about it on this video, but it’s certainly out there if you’re interested Now back to the list Number 58 is Kori Turbowitz She’s just based on the 97 Ford Puma, she’s spunky and upbeat, and has that press sticker And number 57, we’ve got David Hobbscap like hubcap, but voiced by David Hops, commentator, he was a former F1 driver, he’s based on a Jaguar E type and his voice is super recognizable – Well, I think you need to clean your windshield – Then you’ve also got Brent Mustangberger right next to him He’s a 64 and a half Mustang coupe voiced by Brent Musburger, also a sports commentator Very funny Then we’ve got Natalie Certain, Shannon Spokes, Tomber who’s based on a reliant Regal three wheeler Number 52, we’ve got Danny Swervez voiced by Daniel Suarez He’s a next gen driver in “Cars 3.” Then we’ve got Brick Yardley, Bobby Swift, Cal Weathers voice like Kyle Petty at number 49 These are all stock cars that get blown out by the next gen cars in “Cars 3.” Three, even in “Cars” one, it’s pretty amazing that they’re able to get so many car personalities for the “Cars” franchise and by “Cars 3,” It had grown so much that getting drivers like Kyle Petty and Daniel Suarez, kind of a no brainer Number 48, we got Mama Topolino And then right in front of her it’s Uncle Topolino, who’s based on a 1937 Fiat 500 Topolino He’s a great character It’s super fun Number 46, we’ve got Mia and Tia which what does that spell? Mia Tia, or Miata They’re NA Miatas, huge Lightning McQueen fans – (together) We’re like you’re biggest fans! – They come back through the franchise Oh yeah, they flash their pop-up headlights I don’t know if that’s an adult joke or something Kind of weird And number 45 and 44, we’ve got the minivan couple that comes and goes throughout the franchise It’s Van and Mini Van is based on a Ford Windstar and Mini is based on a Dodge Caravan Number 43 it’s Jay Limo with an enormous chin kind of looks like a Lincoln Town Car a little bit, voiced by Jay Leno Probably wouldn’t have been in a Pixar movie if it wasn’t about cars He wouldn’t come out of that garage unless it was for more cars Next up we got Junior at number 42 voiced by who else, but Dale Earnhardt Jr You can kind of always tell when an athlete is doing a voiceover line because their delivery is super flat – Good luck in your last race You should have been an inspiration to me – But you know what? Dale did his best Next up at number 41 is Sven, obviously influenced by Arnold Sven is a Humvee He’s got like a Mohawk on top, which is super funny At Number 40, we have Mater And yes, I know Mater is like super iconic Kids love him He’s got a funny voice – He did what in his cup? – I think he’s kind of obnoxious I think he works great as like a side character, but to base the entirety of “Cars 2” around Mater was such a misstep Number 39, you got Red, who I don’t know if he has any lines in the movie, but he’s the firetruck of Radiator Springs He’s always watering his plants, and I think that’s just cute Number 38., you got the Sheriff who’s based on the 1949 Mercury, it’s got a Flathead V8, which is sick and he’s a little ornery One of my favorite details of Sheriff is his grill is also as mustache, which is great Next step at 37, Sarge, who is of course a Willys Jeep, his license plate reads 41WW2, which is the same year that the US involved itself in World War II Speaking of Easter eggs, I’ll talk about more One of the coolest things about this franchise is the sheer amount of Easter eggs packed into it The leading tire company in these films is called Light Year and it’s both a nod to Buzz Lightyear and Goodyear Take a closer look and you can see etchings on the side of the tires that read “sector forward gamma quad,” which is where Buzz Lightyear himself is from They’re actually a few “Toy Story” shout outs in “Cars” like Dinoco, it’s the gas station in “Toy Story,” And it’s all over the “Cars” movies, and you can catch the Pizza Planet truck, which shows up in almost every Pixar movie, outside the track on race day in the first “Cars” movie Lightning McQueen’s number, 95 is a reference to the year “Toy Story” was released The car’s license plates also contain a lot of fun Easter eggs Luigi is a diehard Ferrari fan and his license plate reads the coordinates for the Ferrari plant in Italy, and Fillmore’s plate is the birthday of George Carlin who voices our favorite stony VW van The VW beetles in this world are little flies In “Cars 3” the character Smokey is named after legendary auto mechanic and team owner Smokey Yunick Could also be interpreted as a nod to Smokey Ngata, but I think Yunick is probably way more likely These are just some of my favorites,

ff you know any other coolest Easter in the “Cars” movies, let me know in the comments Now let’s get back to the list – C’mon! Let’s go! – Number 36, one of my favorite characters of Radiator Springs is Lizzie Of course, the Tin Lizzie, the Ford model T two-door sedan She knew Stanley, was in love with Stanley, she suffers from a bit of memory loss Number 35, Fillmore the Volkswagen Type 2 Bus He makes his organic fuel man, and he has some funny bumper stickers like “Save 2D animation.” Number 34, Ramon voiced by Cheech Marin The low rider changes his color all the time based off of 1959 Chevy Impala Number 33, we got Flo based on 1957 Motorama Show Car with also some elements of a 1951 Buick LeSabre Flo has like the best business in Radiator Springs in my opinion, she’s got the cafe At number 32 got Michael Schumacher as a Ferrari I put him at number 32, not at a disrespect, but because 32 was his racing number when he first started formula one in 1991 31 through 28 is the tuner gang in “Cars” One that pretty much put the whole plot in motion after they like scare Mack off the road You have DJ who’s like the SCion xB You got Boost, who’s kind of like an S14 He’s kinda like an amalgamation of a bunch of Nissans mixed together And you got Wingo, who kind of like a Eclipse, like a second gen Eclipse He’s a kind of like a reference to “Fast and Furious.” And then he got my favorite of that tuner gang, Snotrod, who is basically like a Challenger, and when he sneezes, his exhaust comes out of his headers and he’s got a big old blower I love that I wonder if cars are born with blowers or if that’s like a nose piercing or something I dunno 27 and 26, you’ve got the Rusteaze reps, these guys are voiced by Ray and Tom Maglizzio AKA Click and Clack from NPR’s Car Talk, iconic radio program, still the number one car podcast in the world I will be chasing them for the rest, I guess Check out Past Gas Dusty is a Dodge A100 van and Rusty is a 63 Dodge Dart So, you know, I love those guys I’m a huge Mopar guy Number 25, you got Mario Andretti as his Holman-Moody Ford Fairlane This is what Andretti drove in the 1967 Daytona 500 Super cool that they also got Mario in here Cool guy He drove me one time (cars revving) Can’t believe that happened Number 24, he got Rod Redline, voiced by Bruce Campbell He’s kind of like a Mustang Challenger hybrid Challenger in the front, Mustang in the back Oh yeah I’ve kind of wished this guy had more screen time, cause he looks really cool, and Bruce Campbell is kind of a legend, but he dies are horrific death in a children’s movie, so cool Number 23, Holly Shiftwell She kind of looks like a Jaguar XJ 220 I think she’s like a good character in “Cars 2.” Number 22 through 19 is Doc’s old gang back in his hometown You got Junior Moon who was a 1940 Ford Coupe voice by Jr Johnson, who is actually the guy who discovered drafting in NASCAR It’s amazing Then you’ve got River Scott who’s based off of Wendell Scott, the first African-American to win a NASCAR race If you want to learn more about him, check out Past Gas Then we got Louis Nash, voiced by esteemed character actress, Margo Martindale She’s in 1950 Nash Ambassador, she’s based off Luis Smith, who is the first woman to be inducted in the Motor Sports Hall of Fame She won 38 races between 1947 and 1956 She also had some crazy crashes One crash, she had 48 stitches and four pins in her left knee, pretty gnarly This car shows just how much research the team did while making “Cars.” So let’s talk more about that While I was rewatching all three of these movies back to back, one thing I couldn’t help but wonder is how Pixar animators tackled this gigantic task of creating an entire world for anthropomorphic cars In the early stages of bringing his concept to life, director John Lasseter knew that he wanted the cars to be expressive like humans, but still move and look like real cars In order to make this a reality, the animators had to employ some never before seen techniques One of the biggest challenges they faced was creating the shiny gloss texture of the cars They needed to be reflective of the environment around them to bring the world to life in a very visually appealing and realistic way Pixar had never had to do that before So for the first time Pixar used a rendering technique called Raytracing that would add accurate reflections to the characters in “Cars” to every scene of the movie A similar yet primitive version of Raytracing was what made the original Gran Turismo so unique back in the mid nineties John Lasseter also wanted the movie to be accurate and authentic for all of us cars and racing enthusiasts out there All the animators spent a few days at race tracks with real race cars and went on guided tours of the historic Route 66, which sounds like heaven for Boomers Sound engineers also visited racetracks all over the US to catch authentic track sounds, awesome When it came time to cast the movie,

they really pulled out the big guns, real racers, sports broadcasters, and reporters were cast to make the movie feel authentic for all the racing fans that would inevitably watch the movie I mean, as we said, Dale Earnhardt Jr. was in there We had Mario Andretti, Jr Johnson They got ahold of everyone from the racing world Even if it was just for one line Yes, we all love Owen Wilson, and some of us loved Larry the Cable Guy, even though Mater is very annoying, but the real heroes of “Cars” are the folks behind the scenes Back to the list! Number 19, you have Smokey who was Doc Hudson’s mentor, a 1946 Hudson pickup, which I love All right, we’re getting closer We’re at number 18 It’s Luigi, who is a 1959 Fiat 500 He owns the tire shop He’s bilingual in Italian and English Love Luigi Number 17, Cruz Ramirez from “Cars 3,” she’s got a lot of different sports car elements to her She’s kind of like a FRS almost She’s Lightning’s trainer in “Cars 3,” And I think she’s actually a really great character, starts off kind of like overeager and all that, but as the movie progresses, you really start to like her and then she wins that last race and it’s a great moment Number 16, Bob Cutlass and number 15 Darryl Cartrip These guys are in every “Cars” movie, of course voiced by Bob Costas and Darrell Waltrip, two legendary sports casters Number 14, 13, and 12 are the other cars competing against Lightning McQueen in the World Grand Prix in “Cars 2.” You got Miguel Camino, which is a hilarious name He’s kind of just like a generic sports car, and he got Raul Caroule who’s based on a Citroen C4 World Rally car, particularly Sebastian Lobe’s Citroen C4 WRC car, and then you’ve got Jeff Gorvette, he’s a C6 Corvette It’s pretty lazy pun, but he’s also voiced by Jeff Gordon Pretty awesome Number 11, you’ve got Lewis Hamilton In “Cars 2,” he kind of looks like a McLaren, and then in “Cars 3,” he’s like voice assistant – What about Hamilton? – [Hamilton] Hamilton here – Who’s Hamilton? – I love that they have Lewis Hamilton I put him this high on the list because he’s the GOAT You know what I’m saying? All right, we’re down to the final 10 cars of the “Cars” franchise I think if you take all 10 of these cars and put them together in a single image, you’re like, Oh yeah, that’s the essence of “Cars.” So let’s get into it At number 10, you got Guido, pit guy of Radiator Springs He’s inspired by a BMW Isetta, he’s got little forklift arms, which isn’t very Isetta of him, but anyway, he can do anything He’s a one man pit crew, fastest little hands in the west And I just loved Guido so much The only English that he knows is pit stop, which I think is great – Pit stop! – Number nine is I think the strongest antagonist of the car series, Jackson Storm, the next gen car that comes in and changes the entire game He’s not evil He’s just really good, and just kind of pushes Lightning McQueen to his limits Sure, he’s a little gaslighty, but I think he’s just really cocky cause he knows he’s the best I mean, he’s voiced by Armie Hammer and he’s kind of like a Lamant car, kind of resembles a Cadillac Cien Number eight, you got Finn Mcmissile who is voiced by Michael Kane, he’s a Aston Martin DB5, is a classic Bond car, he’s got guns for some reason, but he’s also got a lot of gadgets He’s a really likable character Michael Kane really brings a lot of presence to Finn Mcmissile Number seven, you’ve got Sally Carrera Lightning’s love interest She’s always supporting him through everything She’s based on a 2002 996-series Porsche 911 Carrera, hence her last name you can tell Porsche had a lot of control over her appearance because Sally of all the cars in the series probably looks the most like the car that she’s based off of She was originally going to be a Mustang, but then they opted for a more like feminine look of the Porsche over a Mustang Number six, one of the best characters in the entire franchise, Chick Hicks He’s based on the Buick Grand National, voiced by the amazing Michael Keaton He’s just so cocky And I just love him Great character and great design Really captures that old school NASCAR look Number five, Lightening McQueen Very generic looking stock car He’s not number one, even though he is the main character of the series because not a lot of growth throughout the series in my opinion He’s kind of just the same kind of jerk to Mater in every movie and never really learns So that’s why he’s at number five, but of course we couldn’t have this franchise without him – Kapow! – At number four, my favorite character from “Cars 2” and one of the funniest in the “Cars” series, is Francesco Bernoulli, voiced by John Turturro He’s an F1 car He’s named after the Bernoulli principle, which basically lets cars be sucked to the ground or lets planes fly Just a great character I kind of wish they didn’t make him like fully Italian colors, cause that’s kind of stereotypical, I think Bernoulli is a great name because it’s an Easter egg that kids probably don’t understand and maybe some adults, but it shows the team’s attention to detail – My mama is right here Mama! – All right, our top three cars At number three is Mack I love Mack, voiced by John Ratzenberger,

based on like an 80s era Mack semi-truck He’s got some of the best lines in the series and he’s just so lovable, like he’s this big lovable goof He did fall asleep on the road, but that was Lightning’s fault Just incredibly loyal to Lightning McQueen and a very positive guy and just great character design as well John Ratzenberger has been in pretty much every Pixar movie as demonstrated at the end of “Cars” One when he’s watching Pixar movies at the drive-in theater – What kind of cut-rate production is this? – Number two and number 2.5 Number 2.5, we got Lynda Weathers, and at number two, you got the King AKA Strip weathers Linda is a 74 Town and Country station wagon, and the King is of course a 1970 Plymouth Superbird One of my favorite cars in the entire world I think it’s amazing that they got Richard Petty to be in this movie, and I wouldn’t have chose a better car to demonstrate a legendary character like Richard Petty or the King in the “Cars” universe He’s a seven time piston cup champion The King’s crash seems to be based on Richard Petty’s Daytona 500 ’88 crash, which is a cool detail And I just loved the grabber blue paint job and that his wife matches and they’re together because they’re always together on screen – I would be nothing without you – All right, number one My number one pick is Doc Hudson Voiced by Paul Newman, he’s based off the 1951 Hudson Hornet, which is a real car He’s just like a great mentor to Lightning McQueen Turn left to go right, such a great piece of advice Paul Newman himself was a very accomplished race car driver, loved racing So it’s very appropriate that he voiced Doc I just love Doc so much Maybe it is my fifties car patina love that influenced that pick, but I really think that he is certainly one of the most complex characters in the “Cars” franchise, but also has one of the coolest designs as well and just imports a lot of knowledge on Lightning McQueen And for that reason he is number one – You got a lot of stuff, kid All right So that’s my list I hope you guys liked it Let me know what you think of it in the comments I had a lot of fun making this one I hope you liked it as well Follow Donut on all social media @donutmedia, follow me at Nolan Day Sykes, please consider subscribing and check out our Donut Underground You get access to a discord server, behind the scenes videos, you get early access to merch and special stickers It’s for the hardcore doughnut fans out there So check that out Be kind I’ll see you next time

(AV04392) What the chemist found in Pandora's box 2/2

declaring that they didn’t know what to do with the first world war helped this problem because in 1950 chlorine was introduced as a war gas on the western front by the germans they were the british were not long behind parents so they’re just as good solvents as their parents were since the beginning of the 19th century the solvents have increasibly come to be carbon tetrachloride and other related materials all chlorinated hydrocarbons the real boon in using up that chlorine though was the automobile about 1920 tetraethyl lead was introduced gasoline as an antinoc agent this was developed by thomas midgley of of general motors corporation tetraethyl lead does not contain any chlorine but it’s made from ethyl chloride ethyl chloride is the material i said was one of the two chlorinated hydrocarbons described before 1800 it’s made from alcohol and hydrochloric acid that material with lead are the raw materials for tetraethyl lead now this tetraethylead in your engine leaves a lay a coating of of lead on the engine and that has to be removed it’s removed with what’s called a scavenger the material that will dissolve this lead while it’s freshly deposited and hot the best scavenger turned out to be ethylene chloride the dutch liquid which is the other substance chlorinated hydrocarbon that i said was known before eighteen hundred about 1926 they began to introduce glycol antifreeze glycol antifreeze is also made from ethylene chloride in 1928 midgley who worked for the general motors corporation and was actually a mechanical engineer developed the refrigerant known as freon which has been universal ever since in modern refrigerating plants that is a that is a compound in which some of the chlorine some of the hydrogen in methane has been replaced by chlorine and some by fluorine which is a compound that’s related to chlorine i think it’s time to get that slide back i hope that i can remove a few confusions first of all this here is the reaction done by basil valentine before 1600 there’s alcohol with which some of you are probably familiar hydrochloric acid and you get what i call here monochlorobenzene monochloroethane i’m not sure that’s what i called it before but anyway i’m not going to want to worry about that these things all have several names unfortunately the number two refers to the reaction between chlorine and ethylene which you see up at the top there in which those double bonds have been removed by being filled in with chlorine ch2cl ch2clch2cl which of course can also be written c2 h4 cl2 uh well here’s chloroform which i’ve already described here’s carbon tetrachloride you see they are they’re derived from that simplest hydrocarbon that i had on the top these two are also used in dry and dry cleaning very extensively now and they have a double bond in them but you can see that various quantities of h have been replaced by cl in this case three out of four in this case four out of four yeah can you get it up a little higher thank you that’s far enough uh this uh now here are the fluorocarbons the compounds i just mentioned which have both fluorine and chlorine in them including this freon refrigerant it’s a strange kind of a compound majorly must have been an extraordinarily clever man to have figured out some of the things he did apparently the uh the reason he comes up with it came up with this is because in a refrigerant you want something that has just the right boiling point so you can keep boiling it and condensing it easily at about room temperature you also want something that’s non-toxic so if it leaks out into the room it won’t kill you the these compounds that initially guessed the compound of this kind would fill a bill he made some and they actually worked

they should be called they’re called fluorocarbons that’s what he called them but that implies that it’s all fluorine but there’s both chlorine and fluorine so that’s a misnomer but that’s what they call them so that’s what i’ll call them finally as also we can get rid of this chart once and for all item eight here i don’t know how well you can see this i guess i’ll just have to hope is it focusable uh a number eight seems to be pretty bad i can hardly see it myself there we go that’s better thank you ch2 and then there’s a double bond chcl for some reason that’s called vental chloride you notice that it really is related to these things not very different one point i want to make here is how simple all these things are i’m sure you know how complicated organic molecules are nowadays that you see in textbooks but these things are about as simple as they can get dental chloride you’ve probably heard of too well that’s what it is and i’ll come back to it in a few minutes thanks may i have the light please well so the problem is on the way to solution uh at least the automobile and the ex the replacement of inflammable by non-inflammable solvents went a long ways to solve the chlorine problem but then the second world war ensured the solution of the chlorine problem about 1940 somebody discovered that freon this material which i just described as refrigerant if you put it in a sealed can with a liquid you pick up the can with your hand the freon or the fluorocarbon evaporates produces pressure inside the can and you can squirt the fluid out the aerosol can had been invented it was first used to spray medicines in american troops used by the american troops in the pacific war since then the use of it must be all too familiar to you also in the second world war they attempted to make artificial rubber and succeeded in doing so among the artificial among the materials they tried to use were chlorinated hydrocarbons like vinyl chloride which polymerized that means that the under certain physical conditions the molecules connect in long chains and become solid materials names like thiaco neoprene were the names of artificial rubbers during second world war and the most well-known of them was vinyl chloride they were not very much like rubber sometimes but they were used for plastics vinyl chloride came out of the war as one of the most widely used plastics making phonographs car seat covers almost all car seat covers are made out of vinyl chloride plastic electric insulation and so on this material ventilated had been discovered in 1835 and this application not made until 1940 over 100 years later 1942 ddt was introduced as an insecticide that is a chlorinated hydrocarbon a little more complicated than these but it had been known since 1874. it was a miracle pesticide it’s been followed up by a lot of others by 1970 we read outcries in the chemical literature about the sodium problem this alkali industry is now operated mainly to produce chlorine and there are not enough uses for sodium to uh make it economical so this is the current worry the per capita consumption of chlorine in the united states in 1935 was three and a half pounds that’s 1935. 1955 it was 41 pounds 1975 is 100 pounds 55 percent of the salt made in this country and we have by far the world’s largest production is used to make chlorine prime that’s the primary purpose of producing the salt is to produce chlorine and of that chlorine the number the proportion which is estimated to go into chlorine added hydrocarbons is estimated up to 70 percent these are data from recent years the united states consumption of vinyl chloride in 1973 was five and a half billion pounds ethylene chloride the dutch liquid eight billion pounds made in 1973 these are billions in 19 as early as 1960 670 million aerosol cans were manufactured in the united states during the generation between 18 1930 and 1960 the per capita consumption of

all of these things together solvents plastics pesticides only the ones containing chlorine increased on an average of nearly 20 times 20 fold that is to say in 1960 we were using 20 times as much of these things as we were in 1930 so muskrat you see has been vindicated chemical research is useful after all what was the matter with those 19th century chemists well one thing that was the matter with them might have been that they thought in using the chlorinated hydrocarbons to develop a theory of organic chemistry they were actually making them useful and it wasn’t necessary to do more another thing that must be said of the 19 early 19th century chemist that they were very short time about two generations away from alchemy and they were not very anxious to get back into the kind of muddled mysticism and empiricism which they were trying to free chemistry from chemistry was hardly a science before the 19th century the followers of musprat the practical chemists the practical chemical engineers certainly did not accomplish much in the solution to the chlorine problem during the rest of the 19th century in fact they accomplished so little that that may have something to do with why chemical engineering became an academic discipline in the 20th century instead of purely something you go out and learn by working in the works the educated engineer of the 20th century is the person who’s responsible for these marvelous marvelously useful things but of course you got them from reading all books written by chemists of nearly 100 years earlier the most important thing to say about it well uh before i i come to that i i would say something that’s probably not necessary to say because you must know it if you don’t know it you should check up on yourself ddt has proven to have so many harmful side effects that has been more or less banned in 1975 the james river in virginia and much of of chesapeake bay were poisoned by something called capone which is another chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide in 1976 a town called mata north of milan in italy was abandoned because it was an explosion of something called tcdd something called pcb has been coming down the hudson river and is the second most polluting material in the sea along the atlantic coast these acronyms and trade names all cover chlorinated hydrocarbons and as a matter of fact here is this morning’s washington post i read on the airplane you probably can’t read that from here but the top line says chloroform in northern virginia water exceeds safety level that’s why i said that i i didn’t know whether i really needed to go into this this one is an interesting wrinkle i must say it seems that the chlorination of the drinking water in northern virginia is encountering encountering meth and methane which is generated by sewage which is also getting in drinking water of northern virginia and the two of them together are making chloroforms the solvents the solvents those solvents that are not exploding are evaporating into the atmosphere at approximately the same rate as they’re being manufactured today the aerosol their fluorocarbons are charged with threatening the survival of the ozone layer to which they ascend the solids like vinyl chloride resins end up as indigestible junk because they’re not biodegradable or if they are heated strongly they disintegrate to form chlorine hydrochloric acid and fosgene a couple of workmen were killed in a washington building recently when an electrical shortage occurred in a high voltage line the heat disintegrated the insulation which is vinyl chloride and produced chlorine hydrochloric acid and phosgene

however once that’s all pointed out it needs also to be pointed out the ddt stopped the insect plagues when i was young i spent my summer vacations in south dakota in the 30s and i remember the grasshoppers coming over the hill in a solid cloud i remember i think it was something called chinch bug that destroyed the iowa corn crop on a number of occasions there’s the other side of it ddt stopped them probably not permanently but anyone who remembers those uh the insects that infected this region in the 30s will go a little slow in criticizing at least criticizing the people who tried ddt furthermore the chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents did prevent fire the plastics have replaced metals which would have probably run out before now if they hadn’t now one factor i think so i don’t think there is much point in pursuing who is to be praised and who’s to be blamed for this but there is something i want to conclude with which i think is worth thinking about the factor here is one of scale it seems to me it’s the scale on which everything is done today and i want to introduce my few remarks about that with a quotation from galileo the celebrated father of the scientific revolution who wrote a famous book in 1838 called two new sciences the two new sciences one of them was mechanics he is the in that book he gives a mathematical expression for following the behavior of falling bodies like stones and that is is probably the first step in the famous scientific revolution of the 17th century that’s what this book is used for but there’s another science in that book strength of materials we call it the he studied what it took to break a beam the the venetian dockyard was famous for its huge cranes and so galileo writes about that and he begins that book with some words like the following which i’ll paraphrase there are is the dialogue between two people called salviadi and segreto salviati says experience with a famous arsenal in venice seems to me to open a large field of to speculative minds and particularly in that area which is called mechanics because they have so many different kinds of machines then segredo says indeed i’ve sometimes been thrown into confusion and have despaired of understanding how some things can happen that i see there salviati you mean when we were trying to comprehend the reason why they make the sustaining apparatus supports blocks and other things so much larger around those huge galleys than they do around little boats segreto i do mean that and particularly what we’ve noticed that i have always considered to be an idle notion of the common people that one cannot reason from the small to the large because so many mechanical devices succeed on a small scale that cannot succeed in great size now all reasonings about mechanics have their foundations in geometry and i don’t see why largeness and smallness make any difficult any difference in things like circles they don’t change big circles don’t have different properties than small circles so why should big cranes in dockyards have different properties than small cranes and big weights than small weights and large scale the small scale well there is an answer to that in the science of applied mechanics when a crane it’s a complicated answer but just to give you a rough idea when the crane gets too big the weight of the crane itself becomes a factor in the whole operation you’re performing but you will have no difficulty i think in thinking of cases where somebody has made a model of something that worked fine that wouldn’t work in full size many people flew airplanes models before anyone ever succeed in flying a full-scale airplane for example well that’s i think is what is going on in our society the cyclotron laboratory is not just a bigger physics laboratory there’s something about it that’s different in kind a hospital using instrumental diagnosis is not just an enlargement of the family physician a scientific society with 160 000 members is not just an enlarged version of the royal

society of london a corporation is not just a big company and a war machine is not just a big army we might like to go back to the string and sealing wax laboratory the country doctor small business or the cavalry we can’t do it because they’re too many of us there were about a billion people in the world in 1800 when malthus was explaining why it couldn’t accommodate anymore in 1907 there were about a billion six a hundred million in 1960 there were three billion 220 million people that’s an increase in scale too everything is increased in scale and i think that to solve problems which need to be solved obviously it would help if we could manage to think or discover or do research on what the significance is of the increasing scale rather than go back and try and find the hero who developed something you like or the villain who develops who introduced something you don’t like they weren’t heroes or villains they couldn’t foresee the future any better than we can they couldn’t foresee the scale on which all these things are done and so i it as an approach to the study of the questions of which this seminar is concerned and my justification for introducing the chlorinated hydrocarbons is i think they’re a very striking example of the problem thank you the space that a person would archetype when you start thinking it is change scale well in that case the the impressive thing of course is changing from a 20-fold increase in the use of chlorine in this in a short period of time is the uh thought-provoking part of it the question of how much chlorine the the where the world can stand or or better how much how many man-made materials can the world stand these are man-made materials all of them and uh except chlorine itself and how much of that can the earth stand well i my guess i don’t know that’s the kind of thing the environmental protection agency is very likely to give somebody a grant for uh it’s uh but that you can even raise such raise such questions is uh a suggestion that that one ought to start thinking about because there are all sorts of aspects of this that that lead to that conclusion i i don’t know whether i’ve answered your question or not have i probably as well yeah as far as the 100 consumption of a hundred pound of chlorine per person is concerned the only significant thing about it i think is that it’s about 20 times as much as people were consuming a generation earlier a timeline between some of the hydrocarbons invented in the 19th century and which did not come to the earth until 1948 1941 is just also um a dimension of of um the present days that things get um put into production almost as soon as they’re invented yeah they’re all kind of this is sort of interesting from the point of view of time lags i don’t think it fits any theory i ever heard about time lags i’ve heard papers where people say in the 19th century the time lag was such and such in the 20th century is reduced to some other very small number well maybe so this case suggests that that the uh the time lag i don’t think represents much of anything it was it was the chlorine problem needed

to be solved and when the chlorine problem needed to be solved they went back in those old books and found these century-old substances they also found that the chemist had described their property those the chemists who made them in the first place said the more chlorine you put in the less inflammable it gets what was needed was for somebody to say we ought to have you know non-inflammable solvents but they went on using inflammable solvents through the 19th century and one wonders if they ever would have introduced non-inflammable solvents if it hadn’t been for the chlorine salesman who had all this chlorine to get rid of i mean i’ve got not got much better explanation than that to offer i have no theory about time lag i don’t see any there the chlorine problem of the 20th century is surely what brought all these immense uses into being they gave an incentive in other words we should expect a proliferation of sodium products as well products are generally biodegradable as far as i know but uh i don’t know that i could say any more than that about what we should do this schwingler school of chemistry for seed problems with inventing these sort of non-natural substances like like we’re talking about now i’m sorry would you say it again i guess i found the swindler school the people who objected to making the idol garments oh the objection to the hydrocarbons was not to making them it was to the affront that this whole this whole method a theory of organic chemistry gave to the traditional theory this was a typical inter-academic fight the traditional theory was that all compounds organic or otherwise consists of a positive part and a negative part and this chlorine the work was being done with chlorinated hydrocarbons seemed to contradict it because chlorine which was negative was replacing hydrogen which is positive this was a kind of an internal matter no no that uh there’s nothing about that in there it was simply an insult to the fathers of the science who had posed the old theory that was being replaced nothing more to it than that they were made in small quantities until these things began to be produced in enormous quantities the questions didn’t exist i mean nobody would get up and denounce dtt if only small amounts of it were being used there’d be no reason to yeah yeah sure scale that we live in the world dominated by scale but we reason about this world in terms of a world that’s gone not very long gone only about maybe 30 40 years ago but now hardly anything happens unless it happens on an enormous scale from the hula hoop to rock music to chlorinated hydrocarbons it’s worldwide on a mass scale and it becomes a different phenomenon that’s my argument sometimes the definition between what is natural and unnatural isn’t always obvious we forget for example in the case of thorim that there is a world where there’s lots of foreign right here on earth and that’s under the ocean under the ocean in the ocean well it exists there are sodium chloride no not all there are many pile melons any plants in the ocean indeed have chlorinated hydrocarbons in them is that so i didn’t know it are they edible most of them be very toxic to us but they must do something for me in their in their own society of mass problems and overreaction to them is something we have to live with today that the german canvas of the last century that has enjoyed just insulting each other in journals didn’t have and i think there are many examples of this in modern science modern scholarship that we face i think recombinant dna is one case where society as a whole is running scared and so they’re going

to put i think much too strict regulations on what a person can do or the use of of drugs of various kinds even in fairly innocuous ways now are under such a bureaucratic shield that it takes years to be able to inject a rat with some anesthetic because you have to about all of the the permissions from the federal government down to the city of ames to be able to do that so i think this this fact of backlash which has existed in all societies is with us in a very pernicious form today that is because there is a problem over which the scientist or the scholar has no control there tends to be over regulation of the scientists and over regulation of his creative efforts and i think if we’re talking about technology and society this is a problem which i don’t think many people are facing now that is of stifling creative effort because everybody’s running scared well i don’t think there’s any doubt that is the case and what i’m suggesting is a you

Week 1-Lecture 1

So welcome to this course on mechanisms in organic reactions I would be your instructor for this course My name is Professor Nandita Madhavan I am from IIT Bombay You can find more about me on the course webpage and also on my department webpage . So my interest is in general in organic synthesis and in this course we would be looking at a large number of organic reactions So when you think of organic reactions typically these are reactions involving chemistry of carbon compounds So if I give you a very simple reaction, any organic reaction So what you would see is, this is a very simple substitution reaction and you might have seen this in your 12th standard textbooks So if I have, say, an alkyl chloride and I react it with a hydroxide ion, I end up getting an alcohol Correct? So you might have seen this in your 12th standard textbooks So now what I want to ask you is for this particular reaction or for that matter any other reaction that you have seen what do you understand by the term reaction mechanism? So what I would like you to do is you can pause the video for a bit, take out a sheet of paper and write something which comes in your mind when you think of the term reaction mechanism So you can go ahead and do that exercise So when I do the same exercise in my classes some of the responses that I get are – a reaction mechanism is something which describes the pathway of a reaction, it also tells you how the reaction takes place Now to give you a little bit more detail into definitions, one can define a reaction mechanism as actual changes undergone by reacting molecules to reach the product state or sometimes people talk about chemical steps necessary for one molecule to be transformed to another So essentially if you’re thinking of going from say destination A to destination B, you can even think of traveling by road to one destination to another, reaction mechanism essentially is something similar where your two destinations are your reactant and your product and the road essentially is your reaction mechanism Now having said this, I want you to think about one more question Now that I know a reaction is it possible for me to say with 100% confidence that this is the only mechanism for that reaction? So this is another question where I want you to think about it for like 30 seconds Now, what you would see is one can propose what you would call a most probable mechanism but it is not definitely possible to say with 100% confidence that this is the only mechanism for the reaction Again, just like I told you for the earlier example of going from destination A to B, you can take one road to reach from A to B, but that might not be the only road You might have different roads which take you from A to B. So you can say with 100% confidence that this might be the fastest road to reach from A to B but what you cannot say with 100% confidence is this is the only road to reach from A to B So now what we will be doing in this course is, we would figure out ways for you to propose a reasonable mechanism for a given organic reaction and how you would check whether this mechanism works by designing experiments Now again if I give you the example of going from destination A to destination B. Suppose there are 2 of you, you and your friend and you have this discussion-you say that to reach from destination A to B the quickest way is to take a bus especially if you want to reach at 5:00 p.m So now let us assume your friend says no, no, no, the quickest way to reach from destination A to B is a train, again at 5:00 p.m. because as you know traffic conditions vary Now how will you both check who is correct? The best way to do that would be at 5:00 p.m one of you goes by the bus and the other person goes by the train The same thing with the reaction mechanism So if you want to check whether the mechanism you are proposing is correct, what you would need to do is design experiments which tell you which would be a reasonable mechanism

Now once you do the experiment, what would you check? Does this match the hypothesis? So in the example I had given earlier you would check who would reach faster, you or your friend who took the bus or the train Now if you find that your hypothesis matches the experiment then you can say this is the most probable mechanism So in your case whoever reaches faster their hypothesis was correct alright? Now if it does not match what you would do is you would again go back, propose a new reaction mechanism and again check the hypothesis with experiments So that is how this goes So this is a continuous cycle You start with a reaction mechanism, you check the hypothesis, if it works, great, if it does not work you keep repeating the cycle until you get a good mechanism Now for this to work in the first place you need to be sure that you are able to, a) propose a reasonable mechanism and b) design experiments to figure out if this mechanism is correct So the learning outcomes for this course is, by the end of this course you should be able to propose or write a mechanism for a given organic reaction So we would be giving you tools to help you write a reasonable mechanism for a given organic reaction and the other thing is you should be able to design at least some basic experiments to determine whether your reaction mechanism is correct or not So with this let us chart into what we were telling earlier, how you would be able to propose a reasonable mechanism and check the hypothesis with the experiment So the first part is proposing a reasonable mechanism So now if I were to broadly classify organic reactions, so what you see here on this slide is that I have used a very very basic classification of reactions It is not overly complicated and you will also not see many structures here So one type of mechanism is a polar mechanism So now in a polar mechanism just like the name suggests, you have two intermediates which are charged so one would be positively charged and the other would be negatively charged and they would come together to give your product The second one is a radical mechanism So now in the radical mechanism you do not have charged intermediates, what you have is radicals which would come together to give you your product and the third one which is concerted reactions, in these reactions all the bonding changes occur at the same time So essentially there are no intermediates involved in these reactions So what we will be doing is we would be looking at each of these mechanisms a little bit in detail So that you have a general picture of how these reactions work So coming to the first one which is a polar reaction so polar reaction is one where a negative region of one molecule reacts with a positive region of another molecule So essentially you have charged intermediates you can have a positively charged intermediate reacting with the negatively charged intermediates So many textbooks you will see terms like nucleophile, electrophile, Lewis base, Lewis acid, donor, acceptor Essentially, what all that means is you have some electron rich species and some electron deficient species So since we are talking about organic reactions which essentially involve carbon, if I were to look at carbon and another species now if X right, now if X is carbon so if you are thinking of C-C what you see is both of these atoms would take the electrons of the bond in a similar fashion to each other So now if you have two atoms- C, X where X has a greater tendency to pull electrons to itself, now what will happen is X will end up having a small electron density over itself and carbon will have less electron density with itself So even with a neutral molecule what you end up generating is a small positive charge and a small negative charge Alright? Which is very essential for polar reactions So what we need to look at is what are ways in which there is this kind of a charge buildup in organic molecules So there are three effects which you would have come across even in your 12th standard books, they are inductive effect, resonance effect and hyperconjugation So when you talk about inductive effect it is essentially the phenomenon of withdrawing electrons through sigma bonds and here comes a very important concept of electronegativity

So I had shown you in the previous slide where you can have essentially, so you can have this right? so now if X is an electronegative atom, what electronegative means is that X has a greater tendency to pull electrons towards itself from this bond that I have drawn here Now as it pulls electrons what you end up getting is you end up getting a delta negative or a small negative charge and a delta positive which is a small positive charge on the carbon Alright? so it is essentially imagine if you have two friends standing next to each other and you have a bag of chocolates the stronger one would end up pulling it pulling more of the chocolates towards themselves So similarly here, instead of chocolates we are talking about electrons So if X is more electronegative it will tend to grab more electrons towards itself and as you know electrons are negatively charged hence you get a delta-, now so that you can compare like two friends I said one is stronger to compare which is more electronegative there is a scale called as Pauling scale and what Pauling scale does is it ranks atoms based on their electronegativity So shown here is I have just shown you a few atoms you can look at it in any textbook you would get the Pauling scale for all atoms and as the number goes up the electronegativity increases So as you must have studied in your 12th the most electronegative atom here is your fluorine So it has the greatest electronegativity value of 4 on the Pauling scale Now related to fluorine if I were to compare, carbon has a lower electronegativity of 2.5 Correct? Now hydrogen has now a lower electronegativity of 2.1, so if you imagine a bond which has a carbon attached to a fluorine or a chloride for that matter what would happen is because this is more electronegative you would see essentially a situation like this where you have delta- on Cl and delta+ on carbon Now it is not important for you to actually remember all these numbers but what is very important for you just like the two friends I told you about you need to remember which is more electronegative So what is more important is understanding the relative electronegativity and this is something which you must have studied in 12th along the periodic table as you go down the row the electronegativity increases which is why fluorine is the most electronegative atom there So as you go there electronegativity increases Similarly as you go down, the group electronegativity decreases which is why chlorine is less electronegative as compared to fluorine So one thing you need to remember is when you talk about inductive effect it is only the pulling of electrons through sigma bond, so it has to be through a bond Alright? Not in space Now having this concept in mind let us try to do a sort of game or an exercise together and I will help you out with this Now I have shown you a table here and this concept is called as group electronegativity So instead of one atom what we think is suppose we have again I will try to draw it out to you so that it makes sense to you Suppose we have carbon, alright? And we have this group attached to it whatever I have shown you here alright I am just calling it Gr for group, so as I change the group how does the electronegativity change And as I said relative values are very important so I have given you the value for methyl So for methyl the value is 2.3 So now what I want you to do is as you can see I have given you a list of groups on this table, you can press the pause button on your video and take out a sheet of paper and then try to figure out as you see in these groups, for example here I have CH2 Cl, CHCl2 and CF3.Alright? Let us first look at these 3 and then I want you to figure out how the relative electronegativity would be and I will give you some time to work this out or you can take your own time by just pressing the pause button on your video So now let us see if your answer matches with what we have here You need not have the correct answer exactly So what I want you to understand is as I go down here what is happening is that the electronegativity is increasing, right? And I want you to now think about if for those of you who did not get the correct answer

for this, I want you to again look at this trend and try to again think why could this be a trend Now to give you a hint as I am increasing, as I am going down this table the number of halogen atoms increasing, so here I have 1 Cl, here I have 2 Cls and here I have 3 fluorines Alright? So this is a hint I am giving to you Now let us look at the next group The next group has phenyl, right? An alkene and an alkyne All of these are now attached to the carbon and we are trying to figure out the relative electronegativity of these groups Again you can press the pause button and try to work this out So let us check our answers So what you would see is compared to methyl and even to the alkyl chlorides what you see is, if you compare CH2Cl with the phenyl what you see is, the phenyl is more electronegative and what you would see is both of these are almost equal Whereas, if I have a C triple bond C the electronegativity again increases Alright? So these two are almost equal and what you would notice now is in the last set where I have NH3+, NO2 and OH, so this is the last set what you would see is here you have the maximum electronegativity values Now why is this so? So what I would like you to do is look carefully at these trends and try to understand it yourself before I explain it to you because that would be more effective for you Alright? So what I would like you to do is I would like you to see and understand the trends that are given here Alright? And the hint I am trying to give you is that remember we are only talking about withdrawing electrons through sigma bonds Alright? So now to understand these trends, now that you have had some time to think about it what you see is when you go to phenyl and the alkene, both of these are sp2 hybridized So these are both sp2 hybridized as you see the percent s character increases that means the nucleus has a greater tendency to grab the electrons because the percent s character has increased which is why it is more electronegative Remember the stronger friend? So in this case the nucleus percentage is increasing, the s, I am sorry, the s character is increasing in the nucleus so it can grab electrons So the biggest effect you can see is now when I have an sp hybridization, the electronegativity goes up Now in all these cases where I have NH3, NO2, OH a common mistake which students do and I see this even in my classroom is that they confuse this with another effect where the lone pairs actually play a role But in this case as I told you again we are only talking about the effect through the sigma bond So here what you would only look at is the electronegativity difference So nitrogen and oxygen are more electronegative than carbon which is why they have a greater value of electronegativity of 3.8 and 3.4 Of course in this case the value is very high because you are talking about a charged species So now that we have some idea of the inductive effect, another effect, now in this effect, the lone pairs play a very important role This effect is called as resonance effect So resonance effect is where you have multiple Lewis structures for the same compound and you must have seen this again in your books, so what you must have seen would be benzene, so if you have benzene you would have seen an arrow like this shown to depict resonance and these would be the two resonance structures of benzene and the actual structure is actually shown as the hybrid of both the resonance structures So the actual structure is the hybrid of both the resonance structures and in some books the actual structure is shown as a circle to show that all these electrons are moving along These are very useful for conjugated systems So conjugated systems mean systems for example where I have say a positive charge here

So a resonance structure for this would be, also it involves p orbitals so a lot of times what you would see is you would have structures, so this is the structure of an intermediate, a resonance structure of that would be, now do you actually need to memorize all these structures to be able to write multiple Lewis structures? No These are very logical and you just need to remember how to show movement of electrons Right? So one way or the convention to show movement of electrons is what is called as arrow or electron pushing This depicts movements of electrons or electron pairs So how do you show the movement of electrons? This is very useful in writing multiple Lewis structures in a very systematic way So the arrow pushing or electron pushing depicts movement of electrons in a way such that you go from an electron rich species which is your source, and to the sink which is electron poor right Just like it suggests source means it has lot of electrons, sink means it is very poor and you show it by a double-headed arrow, so double-headed arrow indicates you have two electrons moving So now if I were to look at the structures that I showed you before, if I have, so here it is very clear what your source is, it is these pi electrons So you start by drawing an arrow from the source to your sink So now that these electrons move this carbon becomes electron deficient, so what you end up getting is you end up forming a new double bond and a positive charge here Make sure you draw the direction as I have shown you here, otherwise it would be incorrect You can also think of the earlier structure which I showed you CH2-, so here this would be your source, so the source will come here Now carbon cannot have so many electrons so it will push the electrons onto oxygen So your resonance structure would be alright? So you can try practicing this arrow pushing, picking up any examples from textbooks where they show you multiple resonance structures Just remember that there are some rules that you need to remember; only electrons move around when you look at the Lewis structures The nuclei have to be in the same position, so similar to the example that I had given you earlier, suppose I take and then I write another structure, now what has happened is the hydrogen has moved here, so these two are not resonant structures So be very careful when you write resonant structures Also remember that the net charge of the structures remains same Right? So in the previous example what we had seen is the only difference was that a negative charge had moved from a carbon to an oxygen, but the net charge will remain same which is logical because only electrons are moving So if you write a resonance structure for a neutral molecule if you have a resonance structure which shows some sort of charge then you know that you have made some mistake in drawing the Lewis structure The other thing you need to remember is some structures are more favorable and contribute more For example if I have so now I can write resonance structures where

alright, I can also write a resonance structure where I have that would be if I were to push electrons where I am pushing in the reverse direction Now out of these 3 structures, so I have structure 1, structure 2, structure 3 This would be the most stable because they result much charge separation Now between these 2 this structure would be more favorable because you have a negative charge on an electronegative atom, whereas here you have a positive charge on an electronegative atom So it will be a very minor contributor Alright? The other thing is resonance involves delocalization or sharing of electrons As you see in all these cases it is either pi bonds or lone pair of electrons which move So all the atoms must be in one plane and this is an example which you would have seen in your textbooks where if you have a molecule like this because of sterics this molecule is not planar, so no delocalization Alright? And of course whenever you write all these structures you have to ensure that you remember the octet rule For example if I were to write the structure so if I were to write the resonance structure of this one plausible resonance structure could be again because we are moving from this center, I generate a positive charge here Now I cannot push any more electrons on to nitrogen because I would be violating the octet rule Alright? So these are the rules for resonance and as I said some structures contribute more than the other So before we stop this lecture what I would like you to do is, I would like you to do this as a mini homework where you try to draw plausible resonance structures for the three molecules that you see on the screen and what you should figure out is which resonance structure will contribute more for each of these molecules So remember the rules of resonance which I showed you in the earlier slide and use the concept of arrow pushing to clearly show each of the resonance structures If you have any doubts you can take this up in the discussion forum, but initially I would like each of you to spend the effort yourself in trying to write all possible resonance structures for the following molecules and find out which resonance structures will contribute more So thank you and we will see you in the next lecture where we will look at answers to this problem

Egiaren Hazia Dokumentala

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ekin vaya bien tamaño está el dato com bueno ahora vamos a ver las carteras lorenzo roa ikusiko dubuc y sabana con orden ya que podemos sacar usted duda ctera de sacar la cartera a un psicólogo en member en otras una grilla dago española esta persona persona un índice nada mohamed moulud mohamed lamin my money aún le tengo guisaban adecuada bigarren fosa en caudé hablen en go y sabana cada curva hago hoy al alza todo ya lo retan auto para todo en venta ahora indicó es de bukit desde es una bolsa de plástico out plástico es compulsa banda ante la columna norte es una gripa te enganchado en ser by tocaba rue plastifica tuta lago por desmarca y gusten de zintan imprimatura chiriquí codutti que usted coser dagoen barruan tales total es de un móvil por tu estadía plásticos como bolsas o bagdad por chacho am en un chico de rugby vamos a enseñar a criar a su chico de un documento ahora mira mango dijo tirarlo todo esto en vendió se maquilla dios sáhara que está checo al deán bandera española daba dio norte es un águila y nacional a metas como cual deán español marriaga nombre y senna mohamed abdalahi ramtane mohamed lamin gauna lenin o quizás a la cual un número uno ir a ganar sean usted co extintas o nice anda mingar llena de saber tu en zenit arte consciencia para arte con dos lugares y a [Música] ahora indique eres sentiste en documento oro y tapen en un dosis [Música] o rembe este tristura arena dorios grandes tesoros al tour corp esto para tu juez que no la coaster vengo mental de técnico harén lanari esker ahora y basta i [Música] aguiar envía que está ezinbestekoa baliza de guixar de arena barry loera y kit seco gatas karma tuba de nostián y dos en ourense ni tarte korengal de badoo ezagutu verdura king zerger tattoo den quedó tan honda webber world one horrela bakarrik egin alishang o duela con dolo a afapredesa preso eta desagertu saharaui en sen itarte cohen elkarteak talde profesional bat y de ilusión mendebalde corsa jara yo ataco taldea osatzen duten aranzadi y ciencia elkarteak euskal herriko unibertsitatea eta eua instituto acc guztion artean plural de saharaui an técnica antropológico x e in the learning windows que tacurú turn it usted documental honetan aunque estudian industria que en su general de esa virtual como nissan sites que eneko sus nuevas su tensión y tarte cuec horregatik y sin se metan un seven seas tico laguntza status jot en tal de ari usted cambian de inmediatamente con marchó and mary seco a ver en vídeo y novatech y es a quienes hasta un acto para tu sitúen eta sí avisa to be a ver tan bueno hindús que está destinado a que está y lüthi grava

que tacos o valencia rita salieran en españa cuyo viaje mar o poco a resistir el de la agresión ya y unida kilómetro conseguir tu familia soldado taller a fuerza de nauta con niña también a la edad de ser es cañita con la voluntad con motivación humanitario a blue lagoon maite han de saber tpa de un taco sufrimiento a pirates en jarrai donde la cocinita arte cuec guaita más estudio de mi cristiano mémora o reta angustia en shear marco coherente mar y frente polisario ari atanasio batió en era julián y estatura de la bolsa y en se mide y brusco informació había chaco torres game etengabe co giza eskubideen un rack etaria may era hemático irte envidia que ser katia está tu billete por año y se atenderá la cuesta vida en un raqueta que eres saharaui ar en contra industria está web y scooby dente frontera compró sexual erne cowen así en xàbia [Música] y por sentir sin duda o saques de aucas al ser ideal él sintió es angustia dominique monnet espero que no en arén un escolar o bella suposa siendo cura itxaropena hay en la goma y tangled udi tus de la co sufrís en jarras inducen gure anaya rebecq habían ezagutu codo tela con hundir en hay ejido hay en corpus mire usted es de riego recuerda son agua que va bestia haré algo al debate shindo unesco vida y yo vi a best uac izateko eskubidea de insertar el orden al día de la cob proceso oso ming arrieta gogo rare en usted scalia ausentarte cohen itxaropen etic datos hay en la gu maite aguerrido top h conducen itxaropena valle terry saharaui a que real de ocupa tuétano chita colchas o breaking bad egiteko dueño maya metalera que ha dejado en los teatros sus cuadros en orc es ser que sindicó cuando maite de es un persona baten se me baten a nawja ha tenido está en más te va tenga alsea comondú enviando una orden que a social zone tan premiadas verde una edad elias chacour eskubidea sergas tattoo zénica 7 justicia equidad y allá arriba justicia o recurre saharauis a eran bombear doña rita es república saharaui co herritarrak mesa la eta es best ela ccoo arriba tenso youtube sana angustiado indar rezar tu eta gure eskubideak hurra tú y tu en el real debaten guau y me comenta un menorca que era suave cadivi der y carnada mendebalde cosa gear en lurralde ocupa tu ex visitando te dices q vida en un rack y zagharián usted como horregatik a mayer aja riverside biotech a becker y away guztiei esta muy lujosa arena ardura da

[Música] [Aplausos] [Música] [Aplausos] te amo [Música] no no e sí y tú [Música] t no no no ahora [Música] [Música]

Mole de olla.- Encamisados.- Chiiles chipotles en adobo.- Pollo caramelizado al chipotle

muy buenas noches que nos acompañen el día de hoy yo soy manny y bienvenidos a cocinemos juntos la verdad es un placer que me acompaña hoy es martes casero y ese es socios que me encanta la verdad recuerda esos sabores de la casa cuando uno llega de la escuela y vuelve a esta sociedad de vídeo oa este delicioso mole de olla oa unos chiles chipotles adobados recién hechos o un pollito con chipotle bueno todas las veces de donde en el día de hoy a quien cocine mos juntos eleven es un placer que me acompañen aldea prepara estos deliciosos platillos muy buenos días que yo haya dorado éstas qué gusto me da saludarlos el día de hoy no saben que es martes y me gusta ver nos gusta abrazarlos y saludarlos muy buenos días caminan y muy buenos días cocina están comiendo los del humano imaginada y que creen que soy yo por ahí su hermosa deliciosa y finísima cause de mi querida y adorada para nada para la conquista de un ratoncito muy feliz de la vida mani agradeciéndole a dios otro día de vida otro día que estoy aquí contigo la celebración es con mucho hay que con el maní perfectamente más bien adiós gracias por permitirnos entradas a sus hogares en otro momento mirando bien a su recámara a donde más a la tengo valor ahora leal desayunando al de salud haga la sala de la cocina al comedor ya veces hasta la cama no y esta mañana por supuesto en nuestra exitosa repetición que tenemos a las cuatro y media llegue lo dijeron también van a ver yo quiero agradecerles de verdad a toda esta maravillosa gente porque la verdad no saben el éxito que es el programa en la noche es mucho éxito gracias a ustedes los de la mañana que nos acompañan todos los días a la asociación pero que es en la noche a la 1 y media ya las 4 y media y la verdad es que yo siempre los balones y media para el otro día me tenía su baby enfermita la niña de entre la fiebre cita y los inicios con la dama más dice que me lo vuelvo a venta de buen amor muchísimas gracias a la gente que nos quiere tanto y que la verdad son muy correspondido escribe verás muchas gracias y pues aquí manny lista para lo que me digas que haya que hacer bueno hacer un molde veo ya muy fácil de hacer voy a hacer unos chiles chipotles en adobo y voy a hacer un pollo caramelizado al chipotle y tengo de invitado a un súper chic él es el chef david zetina tengo a lourdes aponte y a dalia domínguez desde mérida yucatán es como una tortillita y luego evitó que una visita y luego lechuguita me oiga y sabe que y está facilísimo de eso porque muchas veces de repente la gente haya tenido que vaciar ese platillo yucateco y pedro solís y exacta y de repente no es bueno los inglés después el chef david se tomó la molestia de hacer un batido totalmente yucateco pero que un ingrediente podemos encontrar aquí hay libertad hito en el supuesto que ríe su abogado se lo vamos a empezar este bolero ya pero antes la comunidad de personas que están cumpleaños los cumpleaños ya en y liliana hernández padilla mano un favor podría solicitar me en fortis por mis posibilidades y también alicia yáñez a nivel día me podría solicitar y suma y verde hayan cumple 27 primavera springs springfield y muchas gracias excelente tu programa muchísimas gracias de corazón a gloria romina casa muy bien ti y saludos yo quiero mandar a esta niña diana mayra cuevas en la mamá de jacqueline y jacqueline llega tarde del trabajo y su mamá la espera viendo nuestro programa muchísimas gracias a veces hemos muchísimo no saben cuánto hay tema ni público ya toda la gente que nos escribe en facebook siguiendo en twitter pajarito el pajarito azul realmente muchísimas gracias la verdad yo tienes un poco más me tiene el twitter y la verdad está muy divertido la verdad si también tienen todos me parezco a que el chavo del ocho’ sr tiene un millón el minuto ya tenía 2006 pero yo quiero tener voy a hacer mi twitter y sabes que está divertido porque tú verás detalles que para administrarnos los días twittean chiste

cines y eso está está padrísimo porque nuestra escrita diversión y algún chiste y tarde y esto se aclaró una sonrisa es muy agradeció vaya a enfrentar me asusté no tengo 69 años y ya lo tengo todo que no tenías no si no no lo usaba pero si olga sana es que un bajón que se enfrenta yo creo que durante el nacimiento ya lo dije ni modo ya lo dije en mi fecha de nacimiento eres una chica suela eres una chica la exacta para mí ximo es una chiquilla les mando a mi hermana anna de guadalajara algo bueno voy a estar allá ángel salazar me encanta tu risa man y saludos para ciudad juárez a diario me levanto temprano no me cargaría en diseño para mirar por programa yo que trabajo de noche y ya no te miro en la repetición de la onemi al corazón muchísimas dos por vernos y por seguir a la deriva ciudad cuesta todo chihuahua les mandamos un beso y una asonada que nos inviten a cocinar con ustedes la verdad por ejemplo un asado que a gallinas de muy desigual gallina pinta desde sonora me encanta cómo hablan grandotes y grandotes y botes los inviten no por favor llegando también para que más dice que debemos mucho es lo mejor todas esas partes quiere yo quizá para el inviten a comer aunque sea pero si no es chiste manny dice ya tengo a los autores de los chistes porque no nos mandó a quemar yo solita porque la verdad con mi chiste estoy perdida pero ya voy a quemar que me lo manda el autor raimundo valverde castillo oiga señor se está quedando sordo sí pero ya me voy a poner la dieta hay que engordó entendió se está quedando con los peros que está sordo está muy mal haber uno mejor mamá en escuela me dicen que estoy muy feo y la mamá grita mucho el perro está hablando lo mandó a parís que están muy mal vas a empezar a hacer un delicioso mole de olla para estos días casi cargar enrique la tarde está lloviendo a poco se saltó un delicioso muy bien y la verdad está muy fácil de hacer muchísima gente me habrás pedido y lo único nuevo que tenemos en esta esta receta es que miren cómo vamos a conservar los huesitos los huesitos que tienen tuesta novais en su nombre pero algún día yo voy a empezar a dar los nombres de razones porque de repente se pasan en los precios pues dinero lleno un taco de tuétanos 50 pesos la verdad mamani que están bien que nos dijiste pero la verdad no se vale les digo una cosa cuando pueda week estará muy notoria fui y le dije al de la carnicería señor porque no tenemos este ya no venden huesos si sé nada porque ya no nos llegan pero yo el día no me llegaron unos cuantos y el tamaño del fémur de la paz de lava con mucho trote ni con mucho tuétano óyeme imagínate lo que a ellos les sale no no ni luego hay otro restaurante vende el tuétano o sea si les rebajan a la mitad el tuétano el fémur el de la piel de la vaca de la antaño y es una mesa de 150 pesos dice soy m porque saben que luego se les va a regresar y la gente ya no vamos a ir con estarán listas de acuerdo donde mal ni diga donde el señor es usted estoy empezando a freír la carne me gusta tener un poquito de la fritura que estén un poquito ya por supuesto que podemos ver está frito estado la adición y vamos a empezar a licuar cebolla asada en el comal cual sabe el comando en el comal y jitomate y tostadas y de los chiles movidas y chiles anchos en el comal asados tenemos que tener mucho cuidado que no se quemen si se queman por favor de es castell o leves porque porque al final de cuentas amarga y no tenemos que gastar en agua hirviendo pongan en su agua ponga los chiles y por más y no está pero es muy importante lavarlos primero mucha gente asumo que cómo se va a asar el comal se muere por ahí los genes no queda polvo muchas veces les voy a contar un poco la historia mi papá tenía implantada chile guajillo cuando terminaban de cosechando nada más la ventaja por ejemplo hay al campo para que se empezará a secar por aquí puede pasar la culebra la vivo la retra de la corneja el conejo y la liebre que pasa ellos no están controlando sus veces ciudadanos

están sucios y puede estar contaminado es muy importante que siempre que vamos a usar un chile al igual que las verduras en cambiar igual que todo lo pero hay mucha gente que se pasa este parte de salto este paso cuando hacer ok es muy importante si lo hicimos al comal nada más los estamos tantito no los quemen y los vamos a estar hidratando están secos hay dos tipos de secado en el sol o en secadora entonces por favor vamos a hacer van al espacio la corte en esta persona y mi niña listo y estoy empezando a calentar aceite y ya tengo aquí zanahorias calabacitas chayote jotitos epazote y y tengo hola es muy activa está todo muy bien a mi pueblo más es muy duro bien entre más adecuado es mejor yo a mí que no me gusta colar yo prefiero que esté muy bien licuado y si poder este paladear que hay por ahí una semillita que tengo por ahí alguna este las benditas de los chinos me gustan me gusta la variedad de chiles que llevan es muy importante listo aceite muy caliente va a recibir la salsa toman esto que estamos haciendo la en una olla estas hojas son las que se usan para hacer los fondos o caldos son ollas altas y delgadas es muy importante hay algo ahí lo que más me gusta la verdad que me gusta parece que es lo que más disfruto en la cocina casera hacer este tipo de movimiento donde yo veía a mi abuela hacerlo me encantaba vamos a dejar la cocina gracias corazón vamos a abrirla durante unos cuantos minutos podemos ver cómo empieza a saltar salta rapidísimo nada más qué delicia fines de año de los tuétanos lo único que yo que fui lo que puse fue unas pequeñas zanahorias aquí les amarre un hilito para conservar el tuétano y que entonces no se salga está que no ande bailando ahí por toda la distancia y por toda la este por toda la olla no sí porque ya no lo disfruté esto es cuando le llega al comenzar le llega el comenzar muy lindo con su consuelito que se le podemos retirar lo podemos ver ya desde hace sobre llegar muy bien me sentí muy bien verdad mundo no vamos a tener usted en su casa le puede ser por los cuatros minutos también ya tengo mi carne frita aquí ya estaría lista para agregar que no vamos a ver si mi querida de las manzanas como una mini mente como lavar perfectamente lo que decía que las verduras muy bien barberá y regresando vamos a llegar todos estos ingredientes de esta deliciosa mole y otras las frutas y verduras pueden estar contaminadas por gérmenes dañinos pesticidas y suciedad cuando las compramos por eso es recomendable saber cómo hay que lavarlos ya que hacerlo mal puede llevarnos a la pérdida de sus nutrientes para eso es recomendable lavarlas con abundante agua con un puñado de sal y un chorrito de vinagre estos tendrán una acción bactericida todo el proceso no debe ser superior a los 15 o 20 minutos ya que muchas verduras tienen vitaminas hidrosolubles y podrían perder sus propiedades nutricionales si se someten a procesos más largos regreso y usted de su casa por favor de que la cocina un poquito más de tiempo como unos 15 minutos no sólo usted lo sabe aquí por cuestiones de televisión y de tiempos de televisión nos tenemos que apurar un poquito pero que hoy estoy viendo que está rompiendo el punto de ebullición podemos ver el movimiento de las antenas cómo se empieza a mover este movimiento si ésta no salía unas pequeñas burbujas que podemos ver ahí eso se está diciendo que está rompiendo el punto de visión vamos a agregar la carne y al ratito le vamos a agregar unos chollos deliciosos a nuestros que son unas bolitas de masa pero los vamos a

picar tanto de paz otero y la vamos a desfilar con él para cierre y con manny sorpresa lícita de grano y aparte es un plato muy completo al no estar totalmente cumple es un plato master autosuficiente todo es alta con tortilla bueno imágenes de tuétano cuando salga con el sabor de todo que ahora le puede sentir que yo no lo hice usted en su casa puede poner a cocinar estos huesos de tuétano y tenerlos ahí ya listos y es hacer un con un fondo perdón hacia el fondo con esto pero yo como soy al revés a mí me gusta hacer práctica y el sabor no va a variar porque esto van deben soltar carne este es el juguito eso está el sabor entonces la verdad decidí hacerlo como yo lo hago en mi casa para que compartirlo con ustedes era una técnica más profesional pero como sé que a veces no tenemos el tiempo claras hagámoslo cómo lo hacemos rápidamente ok aunque seamos todos vamos a integrar desde aquí está empezando a ser delicioso vamos a agregar cuáles son los que más tiempo de cocción llevan el elote exactamente también imagina vamos a hacer los tuétanos qué te parece si agregamos la imagen en el estrecho conocer exactamente y sin agregar el agua y ya los ejotes las zanahorias tienen menor es de turgencia es mucho más delicada pero la de la calabacita los vamos a esperar un poquito más de tiempo ahí va mi corazón para que estén suaves y en este momento voy a agregar tanta sal quot aquí está un buen ya tenemos la salsa y vamos a mezclar vamos a hervir lento que es indicar violento que vamos a poner a fuego medio y voy a poner ligeramente tapada me olla y así se va a cocinar durante todo el programa vamos a ir un corte comercial y regresando tengo un súper chef invitado en sabinas directo a prepara unos deliciosos encamisados porque ya llegó el chef david zetina también llegó lourdes aponte y dalia iban a cocinar con maní hoy riquísimo todo de mérida verdad pongan y bueno qué tal que desde mérida vienen directamente a cocinemos juntos la verdad eso me tiene impactado y estoy súper agradecida que está la gente de emérito sobre todo con este gran chef que es el ceviche tina tengo a dalia domínguez y ahorita van a conocer a lourdes aponte que viene perfectamente bien vestida como una muñequita yucateca mucho gusto un placer que estés en mi cocina agradecer en mi cocina por supuesto que estés aquí preparando unas tortitas que vamos a hacer cuénteme a unos deliciosos encamisados ayala como yucateca de bajar del avión y bien directamente con seguimos juntos bueno estoy ante una gran feria que fue la feria esta que estuvo la semana pasada se terminó el domingo si es una expo verdad semana de yucatán en méxico eso es una delicia pudimos disfrutar de todo lo que tenían yo no pude ir porque bueno soy medio burris no pude llegar pero supe ahí por gente allegada a mí que estuvo maravilloso unos zapatos que ahorita los van a ver qué tan padrísimo sí bueno no divinas cosas la verdad valió la pena esta maravillosa semana de mérida en méxico y bueno mi querida yo tengo muy apurada tuya empezaste a tiempo sobre todo lo que más fáciles es que este guiso es muy tradicional en yucatán como se llame buena amistad encamisado y tienen que yo y falla busti guau guau qué hermoso no me queremos estar con esa cara con ese mono con esa sonrisa está dividida la base mi pyme tradicional de élite y para todos es tendenciosa es que aparte de todo es muy cómodo verdad yo se dice andar todos los días así por ese calor de medida resto feliz tradicional de las mestizas y eso y eso tú estás en tu casa si ibas a fiestas así y sales a lugares así y eso es decisión sólo vas buscando que la velocidad que combine con el pantalón olvídense de eso yo ya me voy a medida donde no pasa absolutamente nada hicimos las tortillas a mano ya inflan y se le hace un hoyuelo para rellenarlo de huevo de huevo que es muy bien el huevo

también me imagino que no es tanto vamos a hacer nuestra salsa frita de jitomate perfecto vamos a poner un poquito de manteca tuve la siento exactamente decirlo aquí voy a darle metiche ya que me va a poner un total ya para que está haciendo porque también me parece que está haciendo unos menores ya está hecho de residente luego mira pt para el cabello porque está interesantísimo no está cuando una manteca directa desde medida iba a poner cebollita verdad un poco de cebollita y ahorita le vamos a poner s – por favor dale dale despacito para que la gente vaya viendo este signo no como la baldosa lo metió ahí en ese hoyo él muy bien aunque ahorita vaya volveremos ok muy bien y lo vamos a poner ahí perfecto o que escueza gracia se cueza vamos a hacer otro ahorita lo vas a hacer otro de alias y lo que siento que es perfecto para que se llame encarnizado y se puede desayunar se puede almorzar y se puede cenar mejor sobre todo que es algo muy fácil grafo y económico que nuestros amos de casa pueden hacer todos los días para los niños para la familia y bueno fácil para qué pensaste nosotros y qué bueno que la gente de mérida puede acción arias costa rica si la gente méxico la mejor no conocíamos estos encamisados que está haciendo me quiera darle a que están muy fáciles de hacer y está complicado no está fácil hay que echar porque ya hay que echar tortilla la masa de atrás desde mérida por supuesto el chile de esta manera que veo cuando uno le veo es de domi denominación de origen o sea si verdad entonces estamos aquí por los chiles habaneros que tienen que enfrente mi querida dalia estamos viendo lo que está haciendo este es el trabajo es el trabajo pero en la cocina todo será fácilmente cualquiera la haríamos corazón sí claro entonces el jitomate la cebolla como lo hacemos todos en casa así que le pusiste nada más es sumamente manteca manteca de cerdo cebolla un poquito de sal que es perfecta esa sal en el banesto así es sal orgánica desde el estudio sal en grano es exactamente la mejor a poco no me quería hablar de esto es el próximo y david todo no trabajas haya cuentas yo soy el che me discutido del restaurant la tradición la tradición donde está ubicada estamos en santa lucía santa y estamos en por el hotel fiesta americana de media tanto tenemos dos restaurantes sin maravilla y cuál es un plato así que usted es más de tener este restaurant elige el queso relleno que es la de cochinita pibil gente cochinita pibil enterrados la clásica clásica clásica ya no hay más clásica que está ok si en los mitos de valladolid papadzules para un escabeche pavo en relleno negro porque no le está el gobernador de yucatán que nos invite por favor un día pues su por favor porque será muy importante que la gente vea que la ciudad fuera mostrado esta vuelta mérida caminar por este paseo montejo con una temperatura de 40 grados delicioso lo llevas con un abanico aireando te porque te estás muriendo del calor pero es una guía por supuesto que son invitados las cosas hermosas que están en ese paseo montejo las bicis bueno pero qué barbaridad qué hermosa también hay mucha comida árabe verdad sí tenemos muchas funciones europea y deliciosos que ya nos adaptamos es maravilloso y bueno quieres un plato de presentación personó aquí está tu plato de presentación guau podemos ver que era como salió bien washington está buenísimo y aquí ya tiene por supuesto mi querida dorada darle algunos ya listos ya está aquí italia para que todos vayan decorando hacemos la salsa de tomate una vez que empiece la cocción empiece a derretirse aproximadamente unos 15 minutos les puede llevar de 15 a 20 minutos por la altura es cambiar el tiempo que tiene que ver la altura de la ciudad de méxico para absolutamente todas papas los pasteles que unos haces de repente en este en algún lado la temperatura es el hay que cambiar recetas hay que formular de sepas pues es seguir muy chistoso pero nosotros sobre tubos ese inconveniente que los guisos tardan más en conocer pero absolutamente no pasa nada más con es comida mexicana y comida salada recordemos los siempre podemos esperarnos tantito más claro que sí y miren esta salsa ya nada más esa salsa que le termina esté poniendo por favor porque yo veo por ahí dos chiles habaneros ya una vez que empiece se le va a agregar dos o tres chiles para que suelte el sabor y no pican a menos que se reviente o sea no le tengan miedo el sí de manera

precaución qué bueno qué bueno no pueden comer en los últimos cuatro días porque si puede que no pica aunque bien es más vamos a servir un buen y delicioso encamisado para el desayuno para el almuerzo para la cena para lo que quiero que es algo delicioso algo 100% acostumbrado a comer mucho exacto por eso estoy gordo entonces con estos sabores las cocinas mexicanas que tenemos todos engordamos o sea la verdad ni a nada malo que le está poniendo mira estamos a tu lado no sabemos si maya es como acá por el mortero y no te vayas yo vengo me va a pasar no va a pasar no a pasar ya me pase y usted hoy marta hablar los hacemos al carbón o a la leña muy bien pero si no tienen que ronaldinho del problema en el sartén vamos a adorarlo y después para que el saborcito con un poco de naranja agria y sal qué bueno que me hizo la agua la boca creo que no lo comería mucho a probar ya la mejor una pizquita de sal pero bueno aquí está delicioso muchísimo no mucho pero sí para darle sabor agradable sabor a la comida sin chile no es no me gusta la idea de que me platiques y hoy el aliento que haces cuenta tortillas tortillas oye pero es un arte lo puede hacer sí exactamente entonces o no todo tiene una técnica y todo tiene un arte y la práctica hacia él mira claro siendo lento que tan después en la cocina estamos a 46 hasta 50 grados entonces sí me imagino me puedo imaginar muy cansada todo se hace con carbón con mayor que lo hacemos por complacer colector es con esa sonrisa maravillosa añadió que esas tortillas han de saber deliciosa y un por ciento siempre le digo a mis amas de casa que nos acompañan en este programa que se pongan bonitas que se pongan guapas para cocinar porque todo esto que a unos sintiendo y poniéndose encima se va transmitiendo a la cama es posible y se están cocinando parte de bonitas arregla las peinadas guapas con una sonrisa que resalta de toda la república porque aparte que es una cocina de alto nivel éste lo hacemos con amor aquí bueno yo quiero dar la bienvenida por favor en esta muñequita yucateca que tenemos por aquí nada más porque la verdad bien después de estar de cerca y después debe estar este chile habanero ya en el en el mortero quiero presumir está una guapa que parece realmente muñequita veamos qué hermoso traje nada más de una visita y viene ese traje maravilloso es el taque típico verdad si ese es el el traje de gala se llama terno terno es el lujo de nosotros de yucatán yo me acuerdo mucho a la exgobernadora y bet ortega de hecho este es el guiso preferido de nuestra perdida hoy en día nada más y me acuerdo mucho que ella se vestía mucho así no sé si ella portó siempre en ser linda y ese mono hermoso en la cabeza y esas flores los collares todo tan bonito todo tan hermoso como yucateco pues muchísimas gracias mi querida y adorada muñequita yucateca porque si pues esas muñequitos y bueno gracias david pero que crease un beso nada más la parte más difícil que tiene por supuesto que no para que probarme yo voy a hacer esto a darle un beso total ya muchísimas gracias para mí es un placer que este equipo se anime pongan con que no lo voy a probar porque en chile poquitito un poquitito pero bueno y me lo que va a hacer me tengo que un corte comercial pero antes no lo que sí está claro es bueno una semillita hoy en que más lo son conmigo muchísimas delgaditas regresando

unos deliciosos chipotles no todos ahora sí vamos a preparar a continuación unos deliciosos chiles chipotles signado porque va a preparar nuestra querida mani muñoz quien más sino ella ni modo que adivinando los chiles chipotles de nador ahí a mi cara verdad no la que va a ser la competencia ni a clemente ya la costeña espero que hacer unos chiles y pones en adobo en mi casa y son muy fáciles de hacer la verdad esta receta de fiesta tome de una revista que es la de profeco me pareció una muy acertada receta que darle las gracias y le clara su crédito yo siempre que hay una receta y me puedo fusilar exactamente le queda siempre su pleito es de la del este proceso y lo único que me dice ahí es que seamos los ingredientes vamos a adecuar a vengan ya competir a ver perfectamente mediante chiles por supuesto luego repuso hidratar en agua hirviendo y los tengo aquí listo algunos que estaban feos y rotos decidí quitarles el rabito ponemos en una licuadora muy bien poner sal sale cita azúcar porque no tienen te acuerdas que médica está azúcar té azúcar súper dos miembros y clavo de olor muy bien en buques y puré de tomate y vinagre puré de tomate así de sencillo homónimo así es tan fácil cuando tomamos una espátula para que la uses espero de todos y tengo vinagre que no quede nada vinagre blanco vinagre blanco del que tenemos en casa de ese usemos muy bien maní y ese es el átomo es la parte del adobe donde vamos a actuar perfectamente voy a ponerle tanta sal saben si pone un poquito ya le pusimos al claro cuando fuimos a fiscalizar estoy viendo este volar en su lado me voy a estar casi con mi vida ah y lo único que estoy haciendo y freírlas hasta que esté traducida como el estadio a decir mi mamá no tomo ácido fólico cuando me estaba esperando como no noto más como estos eso es todo eso es todo lo que necesitamos vamos a dejar cocinar unos cuantos minutos y yo aquí voy a agregar mis chiles chipotles sencilla hidratados y también lo voy a dejar cocinar durante el programa ok ok chiles chipotles tienen rabito y tienen todo esto os voy a mezclar perfectamente que rim como alemán y vuelve a chile chicos estamos porque me encantan american y con estos chiles chipotles voy a seguir hacer mi siguiente platillo que es un pollo caramelizado con chiles chipotles por supuesto aprovechando que estamos haciendo pero no me equivoco para el corte comercial sin antes presumir él mismo le dio ya lleva y ya tengo estos deliciosos como se llamaban como dijimos las bolitas de masa 88 883 ivancito y vamos a agregar los facciones con 108 y olorosos y contenta más a epazote picado sal y tanta grasa y 8 yo quiere decir que ocho más a yoyo bonita y es momento de poner el hot es que nada más genéricos y vamos a mezclar con mucho cuidado qué va a pasar con la maceta la maceta nos va a ayudar a que empiece a espesar vamos a tardar menos y vamos a esperar para agregar nuestras calabacitas y vamos a un corte comercial y regresando voy a preparar un rico pollo que administrado al chipotle y adriana pero lo interesante del aporte y regrese a su casa ahora sí a continuación vamos a preparar un delicioso pollo caramelizado al tiempo que si lo dice bien caramelizado porque he dado dos y están casi listos para fijarse en los quince minutos más mismo le dio ya está empezando a hervir lo cual me encanta la idea y voy a hacer este delicioso aprovechado muchísimos chiles chipotles voy a hacer unos chiles unos pollitos unos burritos de pollo caramelizados con esta deliciosa salsa que estoy frito y la cebollita puede agregar hemos cavado canela vinagre y salsa cátsup es una especie de banic y fíjense muy bien ya viéndolo bien es como barbie que puede como barbie verdad ok

listo y está mi niña vamos a agregar hemos cavado el azúcar moscabada le va a dar un sabor ahumado acá con canela chiles chipotles al gusto de todos y todos le puse todo mostaza de dijon o mostaza que tengamos en casa porque sí esto es salsa inglesa un saludo a mis compatriotas ingleses que nos ven en el día de hoy plan de huixquilucan de whisky exactamente el parador del domus de wikileaks huixquilucan de windows que yo soy totalmente ajena desde alacant si soy la peña del sur de toda mi vida yo sigo sin sur toda mi vida de la vida o dama ni el sur es bien divertido man y vecina de finísima persona en manila muchas artistas al citi todos arriba yo no sé si les costó más barato todos y arriba todos de verdad y sean una si un conjunto de casas además del ajusco y como que todos forman el país y además faltó yo ya me vaya ahora sí vamos a cenar es delicioso pollo a claro y muchos paracaidistas muchos muchos paracaidismo este un desalojo porque habían invadido pierdas este ceder a esto somos aman esos lugares que están así protegidos hay que hacer bien las compramos nuestra casa y ahora sí que lo que vamos a hacer huele bien ring coma y se acerque a mí me encanta hacer un muy chiquito si a mí me amen lo que más luce se pica por aquí podemos poner los ojos los ajos están en la mina no fue adjudicada el ajo si no me gusta mucho más ninjas el corazón porque sin comer ni modo de ni modo ni modo primera nuestros chiles chipotles cómo van que es rico está line de verdad manny público 8 pudieron estar aquí y apreciar este ha normado pero es tarde con y está rico corazón lo pueden hacer al horno a 350 grados 180 sentidos por a próximamente 45 minutos por favor a que el pollo esté bien conocido determinarse en el horno tú ya puedes sacar con él agarró agarrador de cosas calientes sacar los que ya están listos ya lo estoy viendo ya lo checamos y están listos o disiparía sindicato bananero y haga porque voy a platicar con ella el mole de los 8 años y de la comida de giovini más abierta y la más feliz la más feliz de estar con usted dijo en mano que va realidad así como ya empezó la temporada de lluvia ya apareció ya para hablar decía están saliendo los hongos ya se antojan los caldos calientes el mole de hoy en el mundo y el mole de hoy ya no hay más único platino ya para la comida no hacer mal tiene todo tiene todo absoluta que de hecho ocho hoyos los ocho años son ahora el cuentan la gran maravilla hay un congreso muy pronto en puebla sobre todas las manifestaciones del maíz y la gente piensa tacos tortillas tamales les digo el maíz tiene tantas e infinitas formas hay una forma de usarlo desleído en la más la masa desleída para espesar claro los moldes y la sal es lo creo que es la función que hacen los chochos esa parte de al un delicioso sabor ajustó expresan verdad es como que por más que aunque tengas chiles entonces es un mole yo me imagino que puede ver esto la hoy estaba buscando a ver si podía usar la expresión emulsificantes porque yo uso o asocio a multiplicar con grasa y en realidad lo que social es que cualquier tipo de ingredientes que no se mezcla natural hay un ingrediente multiplicador y eso es el chollo una pequeña bolita de masa proceso que no vi cómo las hiciste pero las nuevos realmente hicimos más etiquetas de sal de grano y está grasa y decir que aún perfecto pero si la hace con el respondido del guisado de puerco de cualquier cosita eso lo que hace es asumir y de multiplicar los ingredientes ese chilito y ese caldito que es agua natural y le da un sabor bueno hay quien los dice que los tienes que freír aparte y ponérselos a las ensaladas no me digas yo soy su biología jamás pero desde hace suena como que bueno yo soy receso el yo es una presencia de masa de maíz en un caldo tradicional de temporada de lluvias donde estamos pues se nos antoja totalmente lo contrario se acabaron los he dicho los agua chiles las ensaladas frescas ya todo lo frío goodbye pero pero te va cuento un poco los del norte tienen un calor te bueno claro es que nosotros estamos en el altiplano entonces es elaborado con que

nuestros veranos de lluvia así es pero los de allá arriba se están muriendo de calor a 40 grados es hora que las fotos de repente meses mani pero porque estás poniendo esto pero después en su arte o mucho setas me voy haciendo una la otra para bueno ahora aún conteniendo calor tuvieron unas ligas fabulosas en monterrey para la ayuda es bueno para esta inundación es un gran acierto esos que se encerraron tres días hoy es día de mole de olla el mole de olla es una expresión tradicional y sima de la cocina donde salió tu sabes de dónde salió desde que matas que moli quiere decir cualquier tipo de salsa molida sigue que tú le echas a un caldo y él es una cocina que cuando llegaron los monjes en el convento a xochimilco les fueron llevando como es la cocina ritual mexicana la parte de esta de la reciprocidad yo te llevo de mis estás chinampas son de cultivo mis frutos mis verduras y los monjes en el pasado pues guardaban un huesito de jamón que habían traído consigo que les había traído a alguien y que y se quedaba para darle sabor al caldo claro le dije claro sabor al caldo y regalar porque un buen caldo es la base de cualquier absolutamente ha dicho pero llegan las verduras a los que ellos no estaban acostumbrados claro el chayote quemara los ejotes y entonces hacen lo mismo quedan sus potajes claro la realidad es que muy probablemente el mole de olla como tal sea un guiso totalmente colonial producto de esta tradición del potaje este vídeo que venía de españa europeo en lo en los conventos casi toda la cocina fue convento a turquía bueno esto no tiene nada que esté bien nada que comer y nada que hacer porque es la persona siendo inventando platillos porque bueno la verdad es lo que hacía lo que pasa es que también tenían la la gran el gran privilegio de la documentación entonces a lo mejor inventado muchas otras cosas de la esquina de documentos y claro eso podría haber pasado y alguien perdió los apuntes por ahí no del bordado y de trabajos maravillosos pero sí hubo a alguien como la cocina nos es tan importante están la garantía de la civilización está nuestros es de todos los días desde al menos tres veces al día entonces es esta cocina la que quedó plasmada cocina virreinal de la cocina conventual y ver la cocina precolombina y mesoamérica es una delicia platicar contigo no tuviese aparezcas tarde una experiencia siempre pero no lo que pasa es que como siempre ella se va y nos prefieren firmar anillos o en malinalco que no se lo puede perder delante están apareciendo sus datos hay una pantalla de verdad no se puede perder porque van a ir con ellas acompañados por ella y de haber plática no es así con un plática de chorche deliciosa aquí conmigo así práctica en su tour es no va como que involucrarnos en este viaje maravilloso y marina alcobas descubriendo lugares maravillosos en el mercado reproducen con los mismos es cotidiana y les digo cuidado porque con eso se abrían corazones la gente es el vidrio más filoso de cristo hoy entonces búsqueda visto platicar contigo la verdad estos textos de estos este del mole de olla de los chollos que más nos puedes contar cuéntame algo más fuerte cuando algunos minutos para ti solita para que me cuentes algo así delicioso es que ahora con estas lluvias es época de caldos desde luego del seco cable y se un caldo esta semana de tiritas de que te directas de setas bueno bonito es chile seco no me digas es lo que ves como el caldo de hongos de la marquesa o el caldo de hongos de cuajimalpa 2 hoy estamos con no somos a pleno vayan a los mercados compren los que sean verifiquen que sean primos nada más no no me estén dos familias a eso como por ejemplo son dos tetas no hay las que son las expendedoras quienes los recolecta porque éste es una actividad que además impulsa la mujer a la mujer rural que va a la sierra norte a recolectar sus amos con sus niños entonces ellas son las que te saben decir quiénes son primos unos de otros porque hay familias que no se estén porque si no se ponen tóxicos ok ya que tiene mucho cuidado ya quienes lo venden lo sabe que los bienes ojalá que nos quieran y luchando millones zetas por todo ellos todos esos se mezclan perfectamente uno cuando va san juan es la cantidad de hongos y ahora te van a estar a muy bajo precio la verdad tenemos que ir esos mercados para yo ya les he contado que compren fibra las fuera de los mercados graves no tiene semana donde el vídeo la gente bajando me paso horas y cuanto más a nivel de suelo más genuino y más fresco es el alimento esa es una tradición mágica de no perder el tour de la zona prehispánica de la de la cadera hacia abajo es tu puesto tenemos que ser escritos vamos llamar a todos un día nos vamos a poner de acuerdo y costo del estadi todos nos vamos a mandar malinalco a pasarla un día contigo me voy feliz es un placer tocar con cinco en grasas para la verdad te quiero mucho y después ha conocido con nosotros y estas cosas en este programa gracias por un corte comercial y dejando tengo la presentación final de todos los precios y santanita trae muy

buenas noticias para nosotros también ahora sí ya nada más falta la presentación final de todos los platillos nuestros amigos de mérida adri y todos los que estuvimos aquí nos queremos despedir de ustedes no se muevan y son en estos amigos de santa anita nos han enviado a beijing 26 y simas vaquillas para regalarles a todo nuestro hotel auditorio si quieres llevarte una de ellas lo único que tienes que hacer en este momento es llamar al teléfono del call center de cadenatres que el 51 28 30 y 90 los y decirnos el nombre de un platillo que preparamos el día de hoy la primera persona que ya me conteste correctamente esta pregunta será la ganadora llamé ya en este momento y bueno quiero dar las gracias a mi que de 80 muchísimas mi querida para obtenerla es un placer y miquel nadal y muchísimo gusto muchísimas gracias que se cosechando tortillas y no hay mejor esto tienes que dejar a mi niña el jueves aquí nos demás y prácticas mañana a trabajar mañana sobre cuídense mucho tengo un excelente martes y qué tal mañana miércoles a las 11 en punto que continuemos juntos d

Maneras de cocinas "Chicharrones" con Lety De Huerta. DE LA CANASTA A TU MESA

11 4 de la mañana muy buenos días cómo están queridas amigas amigos siempre es un gusto y un placer estar con ustedes y hoy les tenemos un programa maravilloso porque acuérdese que tenemos cortesías del hotel hilton en el restaurante los vitrales y hacemos dos preguntas una pregunta compuesta no me hables todo háblame para saludarme para decirme que estás contenta tú también caballero que nos escuchas a ustedes chiquitín es que tenemos una promoción maravillosa en la página web de radio mujer www.puntoradio.com punto mx para que entren vean y participen con un dibujo que ustedes hagan porque está de verdad lindísima la colección yo quisiera ser chiquita todavía que mis hijos tuvieran cinco o seis siete años y que empezarán a leer ya escribir y hoy en nuestra receta le dio rosco de vuelta acompañada de alejandro de toñito de jesse y por supuesto de rossi muñón nuestra productora les tengo una súper maravillosa receta para hacer taquitos lonche cit hosteleras hojaldras rellenas de cochinita pibil se les antoja vamos por la cebollita morada la vamos a disfrutar no le vamos a poner chile habanero para los niños pero para los adultos sí y empezamos con nuestra receta toñito me acompañas con esta deliciosa cochinita pibil saludable y a tu alcance alcance la receta nutritiva toñita vamos con esta receta black loud vamos con esta receta maravillosa cochinita pibil y dejame presumirles que es de una chef que admiro muchísimo que ella es thelma está en la ciudad de mexico capacitadora de un instituto enorme maravilloso con muchísima trascendencia y trayectoria en méxico entonces vamos a compartir esta receta en su nombre dándole crédito a la autora de la receta y que ya la he preparado obviamente bueno uno le quita y le pone de acuerdo a lo que tienen casi la cantidad de carne necesitamos de kilo tres cuartos a dos kilos y cuarto o sea pueden ser dos kilos dos kilos y medio kilo y medio todavía sea que sea un poquito más de kilo y medio y que no sea como tres kilos porque necesitamos ponerle un poquito más entonces el gramaje del de la carne nos ayuda que si vas y compras un kilo 800 está perfecto entonces en eso tú eres libre sin que te pases a tres kilos porque tendríamos que poner más ingredientes dos cucharadas de sal sal de grano siempre la mejor sabor cuatro tazas de jugo de naranja agria o de vinagre blanco suave en el caso de que compremos el vinagre blanco de las marcas que son una parte muy económicas porque el vinagre blanco es el más económico del mercado no se vayan con todo el litro de vinagre en este caso podríamos utilizar jugo de naranja natural del normal que tenemos comprando naranjas porque ahorita por ejemplo no todos los árboles están llenos de naranja agria o ya pasó la temporada de frío entonces vamos a tomar media porción medio litro de naranja y medio litro de vinagre blanco para suavizar el vinagre y para darle también un toquecito más delicado y luego una cucharada de semillas de achiote o bien una cajita de achiote de las que hay muchas marcas en el mercado un cuarto de cucharada de comino un cuarto de cucharada de orégano 12 granos de pimienta negra tres granos de pimienta gorda que la van a comprar ustedes hasta en la tiendita de la esquina en estos sobrecitos se apoyan de la marca borrego cuando éramos pequeños y que había grenetina y chiles y todo es bueno esas marcas que las venden en los supermercados y que uno compran los sobrecitos son muy buenas porque te compras un sobrecito no gastas tanto y tiene pues poquito y si no bueno pues ya saben que mamá con esa santa teresita está muy muy surtida y podemos comprar lo que queramos cuatro dientes de ajo pelados media taza de agua fría para hacer la tipo bueno yucatán cuatro hojas de plátano grandes citas salsa qué vamos a hacerla con media taza de cebolla morada finamente picada 3 chiles habaneros finamente picados esto es como para asustar a todo el mundo media cucharada de sal 2 tercios de taza de jugo de naranja agria y volvemos con la naranja agria pero si no tienen naranja agría jugo de naranja con un poquito de vinagre repito los ingredientes con mucho gusto de kilo 750 grados gramos a 2 kilos y cuarto de

carne de cerdo 2 cucharadas de sal 4 tazas de jugo de naranja agria o vinagre blanco suave una cucharada de semillas de achiote o un paquetito de achiote un cuarto de cucharada de comino un cuarto de cucharada de orégano 12 granos de pimienta negra 3 granos de pimienta gorda 4 dientes de ajo pelados 4 hojas de plátano si no tenemos hojas de plátano y no tenemos oportunidad de ir al mercado he preparado sin hojas de plátano y no pasa nada o sea queda igual de rica no igual pero queda muy buena una media taza de agua fría y para la salsa es con lo que lo que acompañamos la cochinita media taza de cebolla morada picada finamente tres chiles habaneros finamente picados media cucharada de sal de grano y dos tercios de taza de jugo de naranja haré cómo lo vamos a hacer bueno vamos a marinar la carne con sal y dos tazas de jugo de naranja agria o de vinagre blanco suave vamos a refrigerar aproximadamente una hora hora y media no les conviene aquí dejarla toda la noche porque se va a desnaturalizar en la carne entonces solamente de hora hora y media refrigerada vamos a licuar el achiote los cominos el orégano los ajos las pimientas y el resto de jugo de naranja o de vinagre y vamos a tostar ligeramente las hojas de plátano para que sean más manejables más flexibles vamos a precalentar el horno a 160 grados centígrados que es un horno moderado bajo sacamos la carne del refrigerador ponemos en las hojas de plátano nuestro refractario las hojas de plátano haciendo una cama y dándole la oportunidad de poder envolver la carne ponemos la carne marinada todo este este molido ado kvitova cochinita ellas chote por ejemplo ya ya con todo su sabor envolvemos y vamos a meterla al horno la carne va a durar dos horas y media porque tiene que desbaratar se dos horas y media no la vas a ver tu desbaratada pero a la hora que introduzcas el tenedor el cuchillo la palita se va a desbaratar va a quedar suavecita suavecita y entonces la vas a estar volteando con mucho cuidado y esto yo te aconsejo que te pongas unas manoplas abras tu horno perfectamente bien saques un poquito la charola con unas pinzas abran las hojas de plátano bolt y es la carne o si no saques tu refractario sobre tu estufa o en la mesa de trabajo y ahí lo hagas para que ni se te vaya a voltear el el refractario no vayas a hacer cocinero porque la bola que limpia es uno y sobre todo que no te vayas a quemar y cuando estemos haciendo estas preparaciones los niños por favor fuera del alcance del horno y fuera del alcance de la estufa o de las cosas calientes y entonces vamos a dejar esta cochinita bien tapada dándole la vuelta no a las hojas solamente a la carne con todo el jugo de la carne que va a soltar y se va a cocinar en dos horas y media una vez que esté esto desmenuzamos la carne para esto vamos haciendo nuestra salsita mezclando el chile la cebolla el vinagre o jugo de naranja la sazonamos con sal y pimienta y ahí la dejamos una vez que vayamos a servir pues ya acompaña cada quien con la cebollita habrá por ejemplo yo lo que les digo de lo que hago es yo no le pongo chile habanero yo dejo la pura cebolla así porque la verdad no soy tan valiente a mi esposo si cortó al chile habanero en unas tiritas súper finitas y lo dejo aparte y entonces ya él si quiere que se sirva una o dos rebanadas de chile habanero que con el juguito de la cebollita pues ya tienes este saborcito y para los que no somos tan valientes pues nos comemos la cebollita de flema da tal cual no entonces ya que la desmenuza esto da a brest hosteleras puntas de frijolitos pones una buena porción se me está haciendo agua la boca de cochinita pibil la cebollita cierras envuelves en papel de estraza que se ve lindo o en una servilleta gruesa y introduces las tortas en bolsas de papel de estraza y ya las sierras y le puedes poner a la bolsa de papel de estraza por afuera con un marcador felicia del niño o por ejemplo en el caso de mis hijos no gonzalo muchas felicidades te quiero mamá y ya se los mandas al colegio o puedes hacer por ejemplo en los festejos del día del niño tortas con el nombre de cada uno de los de los compañeritos de tu hijo o de los primitos o con que los vayas a festejar y entonces ya sabes que están personalizadas las tortas buenísimas que no quieres bolillo porque los niños son más pequeños que no quieres que sea tan ácido bajarle el jugo de naranja el vinagre y vas a comprar hojaldras hay pequeñitas en las panaderías en los súper y las puedes mandar a hacer y entonces

tienes estos como bocadillos que son 3-4 mordidas y se acaban y no desperdicias y puedes hacer hojaldras más grandes para los adultos y también personalizar me encanta la idea del papel de estraza porque es más ecológico que todos los demás papeles no utilizamos desechables y hacemos una rica 11 20 queridos amigos una disculpa estaba tan emocionada y bueno toño yo rossi todos estábamos así que nos hacía algo a la boca y bueno ya nos ganó el corte comercial pero definitivamente cuando uno está hablando de las cosas que le gustan se te va el tiempo y estás feliz estamos hablando de cuánto de achiote nos pregunta maría bueno acuérdense que nosotros vamos a comprar si tienes la oportunidad de ir al mercado por ejemplo de san juan de dios al mercado corona ir a estas tiendas sería listas bueno a lo mejor te venden la semilla de achiote pero si no tenemos la oportunidad y realmente es tan fácil ir al supermercado y comprar hasta en las tienditas de la esquina estas marcas son dos marcas uno de cajita blanca y otra que tú hay ‘un como hay un cerdito y otra de color amarillo creo fuerte con rojo sin mal no me equivoco si mal no recuerdo y entonces ahí viene por ejemplo media barrita para kilo de carne en este caso como estamos haciendo de kilo y medio kilo tres cuartos a dos kilos y tantos vamos a poner toda la barrita es importante que esté fresco porque hay barritas que ya tenemos mucho tiempo en la des y están súper duras que tenemos que hacer aquí sacas tu barrita para que no lo desperdicies y la dejas pues un buen rato a lo mejor la hora y cuarto hora y media que estás marinando la carne tú dejas el achiote la barrita de achiote en el juguito de naranja para que se vaya ablandando porque si tú quieres licuar y a mí ya me ha pasado la barra dura por más que la tritura es de ver se pone tan dura que hasta las aspas de la licuadora botan o el paquete bota entonces bueno lo que vamos a hacer es dejarla reposar pero tú le por favor las instrucciones y en caso de que quieras la semillita porque la puedes comprar es una cucharada en este caso bueno si quieres el sabor bien refinado bien intenso una cucharada de semillas de achiote una cucharada sopera de preferencia acuérdense que siempre en este programa de la canasta tu mesa les recomendamos que tengan cucharas de medir porque las cucharas de todos los días a veces hay unas muy grandes y otras más chicas unas que son más hondas y otras menos entonces bueno puede variar mililitros o gramos vale la pena que aceptamos hay de plástico que son muy económicas puedes tenerlas y bueno nos piden también que repitamos la receta de la cochinita pibil los ingredientes con muchísimo gusto es de kilo 700 a 2 kilos 2 kilos y medio de carne de cerdo aleta de cerdo pierna lo que quieras lo que te guste dos cucharadas de sal cuatro tazas de jugo de naranja agria o vinagre blanco suave y acuérdense que la mitad de este jugo lo vamos a tener en la carne para marinar y la otra mitad la vamos a tener para licuar con todos los olores vamos a necesitar para ir marinando también la carne una cucharada de semillas de achiote que vamos a poner en este en este vinagre el resto en la licuadora con un cuarto de cucharadita de comino un cuarto de cucharada de orégano 12 gramos granos de pimienta 3 granos de pimienta gorda 4 dientes de ajo pelados 4 hojas de plátano si las podemos comprar si vamos al mercado ya compramos todo bueno la aprovechamos y si no no pasa nada vas a marín a tu carne la vas a poner en tu refractario la cubres con papel aluminio para que no se reseque la salsa vas a hornear a 160 grados por dos horas dos horas y media hasta que la carne quede tan blandita que al introducir un palillo el cuchillo o un tenedor se desbarate y te quede super suavecita para que desmenuzar le para ti no sea ningún problema media taza de agua fría para poder hacer bueno una también una salsita porque cuando desmenuzamos que no nos quede seca que nos quede suavecita jugosa y podamos sentir bueno todo este sabor entre a grito pero también con todo el potencial del achiote y nos va a transportar a yucatán si quiere servirla como plato fuerte hazte una sopa de en una sopa de arroz en este caso puede ser una sopa de arroz amarilla como si estuvieras haciendo paella pero sin ningún ingrediente de paella más que verduritas plátano macho rebanado en diagonal en sesgo y pasados en mantequilla y luego por supuesto servir nuestra sopa de arroz con zanahorias chicharitos a lo mejor trocitos de calabaza y de lote ponemos los los en las rebanadas de plátano hoy se nota que

tengo hambre y servimos este arroz y frijolitos refritos por un lado y la cochinita y para estar ahí a lo mejor no estar calentando tortillas una telera un bolillo bueno lo que ustedes quieran o bien tortillitas del día calientitas si las quieres tortear pues adelante y ya vamos a acompañar nuestra comida con la cebollita inflamada te van a quedar de lips llosa y para los niños pues los vamos a festejar con hojaldras con incluso hasta el pan de hot dog que tanto les gusta untado de frijolitos la carnita los pones hacia el vaporcito y se los vas a mandar envueltos en servilleta en una bolsa de estraza obviamente va a soltar va a soltar juguito entonces puedes meter el el pan ya ya relleno y lo envuelves en servilleta una bolsita de plástico que apenas quepa o sea no tampoco gastar tanto en una bolsa de plástico grande pones en la bolsita de estraza una servilleta extra para que los niños se limpien su boquita y sus manos y entonces ya los envuelves personaliza las bolsitas de estraza y creo que te va a quedar muy lindo este paquetito podemos acompañarlo con algún botecito de agua fresca pues sí es una fruta madura por ejemplo no le añadas azúcar si es agua de limón o alguna horchata bueno pues ya veremos si los niños toman un poquito de azúcar o apenas en cuanto al ese para agradable o si no agua natural que bueno los estamos festejando vale la pena pero si olvidémonos de gastar un dineral en estos en estas bebidas que cuando mis hijos eran chicos no sé si ahora todavía se usen pero no puedo decir nombres pero estas bebidas que hasta le hacían un ojito por abajo y se la pasaban tomándose el ano oa veces lo congelaron y ahí estaban como si fuera un raspado pues sí son cosas que les son agradables a los niños porque tienen colorante y todo qué te parece si tú haces un agüita de limón con chía por ejemplo y le pones unas gotitas de colorante vegetal el grado alimenticio y entonces tenemos una limonada hecha en casa con un poquito de color verde amarillo naranja y a los niños les parecería que están a lo mejor tomando una bebida un comercial por ejemplo que les va a encantar pero es algo hecho por ti y con más pues más nutrientes no porque aquí tiene la vitamina c de limón y si lo hacemos en cuanto nos vamos a ir al colegio en cuanto a va a ser la fiesta pues está también más fresco este juguito y bueno voy a nada más nuestros amigos del hilton están súper ocupados porque saben que hay ahorita un evento muy grande en expo guadalajara y si la realidad no pudieron venir rossi tenemos las cortesías para nuestro público ok entonces bueno vamos a darle la semana que entra hasta que ya las tengamos aquí en la existencia les agradezco mucho y vámonos ahora con un chicharrón que les parece les voy a decir algo que es maravilloso y antes de darles el chicharrón el chicharrón y de carmelo chicharrón les voy a pedir que nos apoyen porque muchos medios de comunicación nos estamos uniendo en guadalajara y la zona conurbada está sucediendo algo maravilloso y es darle la oportunidad a nuestros niños a nuestros niños que están luchando contra el cáncer este terrible mal del siglo 20 y 21 y dios quiera que pudiéramos decir se acaba el cáncer bueno desgraciadamente ahorita no cada día son más pequeños los que pueden tener este cáncer muy en diferentes partes del cuerpo adultos también pero los niños nos preocupan mucho y la estabilidad de los papás tanto emocional como económica nos preocupa mucho una quimioterapia radiaciones desde desgasta a cualquier presupuesto máxime cuando no se tienen los recursos o cuando no estás por ejemplo empleado no tienes estas alternativas de seguro social isss de salubridad seguro popular etcétera etcétera entonces la campaña de ángel es para todos nosotros para nuestros hijos nuestros nietos este 28 29 y 30 de abril hoy ya puedes empezar a donar te invitamos a hacer un arcángel de esperanza para los niños con cáncer ponte las alas ponte las pilas a todo nación para que entre todos ayudemos a terminar el hospital infantil mi esperanza que se está construyendo en nuestra ciudad para brindar atención a niños con cáncer puedes hacer tu donación a partir de 100 pesos al mes o con cargo a tu tarjeta de crédito llamando al 36 40 40 50 anótalo 36 40 40 50 o directamente haciendo tu depósito en las tiendas seven-eleven farmacias guadalajara y banorte a la cuenta seis veces 0 22 22 6 veces 0 y bueno para entenderlo muy bien 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 a nombre del hospital infantil

de la esperanza como hace y también puedes donar a través de internet en la página www.youtube.com hereje vamos a ir a un corte pero regresando te hago la invitación es que queridos amigos tú y yo podemos hacer la diferencia hoy estamos sanos mañana no lo sabemos vuelvo 11 35 estamos de regreso y bueno acuérdense por favor que pues estamos pidiéndoles su colaboración y que pases la voz no te quedes con esta información si tú puedes hacer la diferencia y nos puedes ayudar y si dices bueno yo no me puedo comprometer a donar una vez cada mes pero puedo en este momento hacer una donación ahí viene mi quincena y lejos de irme a lo mejor a comprar pues algo puedo pensar si yo he tenido un familiar sicced de algún niño si hay alguna persona que haya padecido cáncer y sé lo que desgasta la familia o lo que lleva esta enfermedad para los chiquitines pues entonces nos puedes ayudar con 50 20 30 100 pesos mil pesos 500 pesos no sé cada quien sabe lo que marca en su generosidad y misericordia nada más les quisiera yo a decir que dar lo que me sobra pues si está padrísimo pero esa ayuda pero dar y cuando me duele dar porque es un poquito más de lo que yo pudiera eso bueno no tiene precio y no tiene precio para nuestro señor y en este caso hasta para nuestros queridos niños 70% de los cánceres se pueden curar si se detectan tiene en niños y en adultos y sabíamos que los tipos de cáncer más frecuentes en los niños son leucemias linfomas y tumores cerebrales ellos recuerdo a mi primo fernando que murió precisamente de leucemia entonces vamos a apoyar todos y bueno vamos con esta receta de el chicharrón les recomiendo un chicharrón que a mí me gusta que es el chicharrón prensado que no trae grasa que es la carnita y si lo hacemos en una salsita verde muy muy buena y vamos con una salsita deliciosa necesitamos 500 gramos de tomate verde y si puedes conseguir de 1000 para bien lavadito bien lavadito bueno pues muy bien 30 gramos de cebolla en trozos que es un poquito nada más un diente de ajo 3 chilitos serranos asados en un comal junto con los tomates y la cebolla y el diente de ajo y el diente de ajo lo dejas con todo y piel una pieza de chile guajillo que también vamos a hacer en el comal un poquito de cilantro bien lavado y desinfectado lo vamos a picar groseramente una taza de agua una cucharada de sal de grano o un poquito más es a tu gusto aceite para freír en aquellos tiempos se utilizaba el manteca en lo personal yo ya no le pongo ni aceite ni manteca ni nada porque el chicharrón aunque sea súper desgrasado tiene su grasa y si nosotros queremos adornar este chicharrón citó ya sea para que hagamos una taquiza o para que lo comamos como plato fuerte o que lo sirvamos como en muchas ocasiones en los los taqueros nos dicen bueno lo quieren tortilla o lo quieren en plato y entonces bueno tú escoges y lo puedes también decorar guarnición ar con un poquito de cilantro picado un poquito de queso y rebanadas de cebolla te repito ingredientes 500 gramos de tomate verde o de milpa también que es verde bien lavado 30 gramos de cebolla en trozos un diente de ajo 3 chiles serranos un chile guajillo ya sin las semillas y sin el rabo despepitado 80 gramos de cilantro desinfectado picado una taza de agua y sal al gusto y vamos a poner asar todos nuestros ingredientes tomate cebolla ajo los serranos el guajillo y lo que obviamente el cilantro no una vez que estén asado sin quemarse es el chile serrano nos aguanta bien toreado pero el chile guajillo no si el chile guajillo se nos quema que ustedes ya lo vean negro que es lo que va a pasar que nos va a amargar y nos va a dejar de primera un sabor bueno pero cuando ya estemos como saboreando el en boca esta salsita va a tener un ligero sabor o un profundo sabor amargo lo que voy a hacer es una vez que esté todo asadito voy a poner la taza de agua en mi licuadora los rosas los tomates van a estar pues ya apachurrados medio cocidos toda la licuadora licua muy bien o licúa muy bien es correcto decirle a las dos

maneras y entonces voy a poner el cilantro puedo dejar un poquito de cilantro para guarnición ar y pongo el cilantro a mi gusto con sal como muy bien y ya que tengo esta salsita la voy a freír o en el caso de su servidora no la frío pero la voy a calentar y dejo que de un hervor para que todo tome mucho gusto y sabor luego voy en una sartén a poner mi chicharrones que les digo por ejemplo en el mercado de abastos hay una carnicería que tiene el chicharrón delicioso te lo venden incluso está en paquetitos al alto vacío lo pones en tu casa y nadie nada soy media pic y para eso le quitó los gorditos porque no me gusta y dejo la pura carnita y cuando vieran en trozos grandes me como la mitad gijonesa otra mitad en la cazuela y ya que está todo bien doradito voy a añadir la salsa a este chicharrón y dejo que de otro hervor porque porque en este en este caso bueno a mí me gusta como hacer esto pero también pudiera ser para si no lavar tantos trastes que yo ponga mi salsa directamente con el chicharrón no sé porque a mí me gusta hacer la parte y luego ya lo que hago este la dejo que esté ligeramente aguada no tan seca porque si la sirvienta quito es muy aguada pues va a salir pero si la sirve en plato bueno pues si me gusta que tenga un poquito de salsa pongo un poquito de queso pongo unos aros de cebolla y tantito cilantro bueno queda con frijolitos también la misma sopa de arroz que estamos utilizando para la cochinita y aquí puede ser arroz blanco arroz rojo arroz verde aquí arroz verde no porque hablar de verde como que más a levantar tanto pero te queda delicioso quiero también decirles que tengo unas personas conocidas que están solicitando un cocinero cocineras si ustedes por ejemplo necesitan trabajo sabes a la cocina no eres chef no importa pero eres una persona que tiene un sazón increíble dejen los datos a jesse para yo pasarlo a estas personas y a lo mejor se está oportunidad de crecimiento si eres un estudiante de gastronomía pues también hablen por teléfono porque está esta persona que lo necesita tiene varios establecimientos y puedes crecer mucho puedes hacerte cargo entonces pensé en ustedes y le pedí permiso decir en mi programa y a mí me gustaría muchísimo que alguna persona del público que tiene tanta experiencia en la cocina pues se quede con esto no con este trabajo así es que hablen me por teléfono o me pueden localizar en mi facebook con mi nombre y esto sería maravilloso que algunas de ustedes tenga esta oportunidad vamos a dar los teléfonos 31 22 11 90 36 47 18 83 el whatsapp triple 38 22 32 08 acuérdense que estamos en facebook como mujer el sexto sentido en nuestra página digital www punto radio mejor punto com.mx y que estamos pidiéndoles que este viernes sábado y domingo nos sigas porque vamos a estar en vivo transmitiendo junto con fiesta mexicana está maravillosa pues oportunidad de que todos seamos arcángeles de la esperanza y del amor y que el sábado los invitamos a todos con sus niños con sus nietos a palco yo voy a estar ahí transmitiendo de 1 a 2 de la tarde en vivo a todo color y bueno pidiéndoles con todo el corazón que nos apoyen y que nos ayuden cuando uno dice esto uno tiene que ser el primero de poner el ejemplo con lo que tú puedas pero acuérdense que nosotros la poquito aunque sea que nos duela poquito para que en vez de sacar la moneda de cinco pesos pues saques una día 10 o el billetito de 20 o si se puede porque no a lo mejor un poquito de lo que a veces íbamos a comprar que la coquita que las patitas que el pan es hito pues vamos a donarlo porque no sé si mañana alguno de mis hijos yo no lo quiera alguna persona que yo quiero muchísimo está en esta necesidad y ahí voy con otra cosa es un programa de cocina pero también es un programa de familia es un programa de corazón a corazón la hora de campo es nuestra queridísima colabora de microondas está muy delicada de salud ya se los había comentado hace algún mes y medio y la operaron ayer no le pudieron hacer nada porque trae una infección muy severa la vuelven a operar el sábado y la vuelven a reintervenir el martes está desgastada ha tenido una infección les digo entonces necesito y necesitamos y todos la oración por laura y por cada uno de los que conforman su familia por este mundo que está necesitando tanto de tu misericordia de tu amor de tu género hoy por laura hoy por los niños con cáncer tu donación tu esperanza tu amor y vamos con las preguntas del público en este siguiente segmento no se vayan hoy tú puedes hacer la diferencia puedes tener unas alas maravillosas y enormes de ángel está para ti 11 49 estamos de regreso hola rosa

hola a todos nuestros amigos que nos están llamando y escribiendo por whatsapp estoy tratando de contestar lo más rápido posible les agradezco muchísimo el interés de las recetas que mi mamá compartió el día de ayer y bueno nos están haciendo muchas preguntas que no tengo ahorita todos los datos pero marca nos dice que es la harina de espelta y donde la consigo es una harina de trigo especial muy utilizada en europa ustedes la pueden conseguir por ejemplo el mama coneja santa teresita pregunten ahí o pregunten en las tiendas orgánicas también y recuerden que mama coneja santa teresita los esperen manuel acuña 1484 le trabe un lugar súper conocido que podemos hacer nuestros pedidos por whatsapp por teléfono llega rápidamente pagamos y no nos entretenemos el teléfono para el whatsapp es 33 17 65 11 29 33 17 65 11 29 oa los teléfonos de la tienda 38 26 30 16 38 26 30 16 y 38 26 y 894 aceptan tarjetas de crédito abren de lunes a sábado de 8 de la mañana a 8 de la noche están con esta nueva modalidad de entrega a domicilio en la zona que queda cerca pues ahí de mamá coneja santa tere que a lo mejor es por la zona centro la zona minerva la zona niños héroes habla por teléfono pregunta si donde tú vives te lo pueden llevar y apartir creo de 250 pesos no te cobran gastos extras pero bueno todo es como preguntar y acuérdate si quieres semillas achiote vinagre no sé todo lo que se te ocurra ahí lo puedes encontrar hasta comida para las mascotas y bueno vamos con estas recetas que nos digo estas preguntas que tenemos marca arroyo muchísimas gracias marta que bueno marca que me lo dices porque es cierto es como que tengo esa costumbre y a mucha gente no le parece entonces mil gracias y no seas malita qué te parece si me ayudas y cada que te acuerdes y acá que puedas me hablas y me dicen de ti acuérdate y entonces casi casi me voy a poner un hilito en el dedo para recordarlo gracias marta te mando un beso muy grande por tu tono y por el cariño con lo que me estás haciendo esta sugerencia también bueno hasta la de la de es para elena para elena me habla elena spinetta en la receta última de cerdo el creo que bueno vamos a sazonar siempre con pimienta y ahorita lo voy a checar si ustedes pueden de acuerdo el lunes voy a contestar me voy a llevar todo esto no no el lunes mañana qué les parece si la entrada de nuestro programa son todas las respuestas para ustedes que ayer nos escucharon y que como saben que mi mamá está recién operada pues no pude tener la chance de pasar todas de repente le tengo que tener más paciencia ya está me regañan y bueno vamos a me dicen a ver déjenme ver bueno nos preguntan qué cazuelas les recomiendo de acero quirúrgico de acero inoxidable de fondo grueso nada que tenga aluminio las ollas o sartenes de teflón son buenas porque hay preparaciones que son más fáciles de hacer por ejemplo que tengo unas chuletas ahumada así que rápidamente las quiero hacer sin grasa me quedan perfecto y no tengo que a lo mejor esperar tanto tiempo a que se súper caliente de las ollas de acero quirúrgico pero la realidad es que si tenemos acero quirúrgico es mucho mejor es muy costoso sí pero es una inversión para toda la vida entonces valdría la pena que ustedes lo tuvieran y no que incluso hasta estas sartenes de cerámica que se han puesto tan de moda cada rato las estás cambiando porque se descara pelan la realidad es que si se pega a lo mejor las diez primeras cocinadas no no sé pero yo tengo varias y la verdad las acabó tirando porque incluso hasta regalar las me parece que no es digno porque está regalando algo que ya no sirve o sobre todo con lo de teflón hay que tener cuidado en eso amparito pérez nos dice tengo duda de los champiñones acuérdense cuando el champiñón lo compramos en caja que viene súper limpio y lo vas a guisar directamente de la caja si veo que tiene por ahí algún votito de tierra algún granito tomo una servilleta húmeda y los limpio si los compro a granel como acostumbramos a veces en el supermercado que están a un mejor precio que a la hora de la hora si hacen la cuenta te sale lo mismo pero qué vamos a hacer entonces en una coladera de plástico de acero lo que sea bajo el chorro del agua un enjuagada rápida probando con nuestras manos con nuestros dedos rápidamente los champiñones para que corra el agua y no absorban porque son como esponjas son como la berenjena dejan el agua y acaban teniendo una sopa de berenjena o de champiñones y lo que

quiero es que el champiñón tome esta consistencia doradita guisada pero que tenga son blanditos sí pero que no me tengan un caldo por ahí todo por ningún lado entonces rápidamente si es que son a granel no tanto por el champiñón en sí porque realmente el champiñón crece en la sombra no hay fotosíntesis acuérdense y no se yo si por ejemplo pues algún perrito o algún animalito del campo pues a hizo sus necesidades cerca de los champiñones y nada más los recolectan entonces voy a limpiarlos muy bien igual si me los voy a comer en un ceviche pues sí vale la pena les dije una cosa fea pero suele suceder es que yo siempre en el mediano imaginando todo lo que puede pasar y tener mucha precaución sobre todo cuando uno hace comida u ofrece comida a los demás entonces si vale la pena que lo sabemos si vale la pena porque no son en hidroponia por ejemplo que no tienen ninguna suciedad ni ningún ningunas heces fecales ni idea ni de humano ni de animal hasta de pajaritos y entonces vale la pena que hagamos este procedimiento bueno hay unas hay unas personas que siguen hablando a ver que nos escriben pero como que se confunden de cabina dicen mi nombre es rosa zúñiga conozco los productos que son una gran bendición y están a nuestro alcance aunque bueno muchas gracias voy a tomarle voy a pasar los datos a rossi para que lo tomemos en cuenta gracias rosa hola lety bonito día mi mamá me dio unas cazuelas quirúrgicas pero tienen etiqueta al centro y están muy pegadas calientan las rocío calienta las sin que se queme y entonces el pegamento se va a ablandar o con la pistola de pelos y le das un buen rato y luego ya las despega pero el calor obviamente va a ablandar el pegamento y las puedes despegar y si no con agua con un poquito de jabón por ejemplo a hervir con la cazuela y entonces con mucho cuidado si quemarte con unas pinzas ya la vas a retirar suele suceder está en los moldes de pastel que compramos y bueno acuérdense entonces de estas recetas de estas recetas de la cochinita pibil de los chicharrones y si a los niños les gusta el chicharrón citó o si no les gusta pueden decirles carne a menos que quieras comprar el chicharrón botanero de las marcas que también te venden a granel o en estas bolsas de marcas muy conocidas y una receta rapidísima deliciosa triturarlo en la bolsa le haces un agujerito para que el aire no lo haga explotar tritura siguen con tus manos o hasta con un rodillo taka taka taka el chicharrón lo vas a poner en un bowl le vamos a poner crema un crema de vaca buena un poquito si quieres de yogur griego para que tenga un poquito de acidez ahí se me antoja he tomatito picado cebolla picadita puede ser morada o blanca chilitos serrano como si fuera un ceviche pero la camita va a ser el chicharrón revolvemos y le vamos a poner también mayonesa entonces va a tener un sabor sabrosísimo tortillitas calientes y vamos a servir este chicharrón citó que es como una ensaladita que tiene el chicharrón jitomate cebolla cilantro chile un toquecito de sal la crema la mayonesa y un poquito de yogur si tú quieres para no poner tanta crema ni tanta mayonesa tantita mostaza también si tú quieres y ten vemos unos taquitos buenísimos botaneros esta receta es muy vieja la tengo en un recetario de la media crema que ustedes ya conocen y la he preparado algunas veces antes la preparaba más porque ahora igual a veces las tendencias cambian pero vale la pena que lo preparen muy rico en tostaditas así de estas pequeñas o en totopos miren se me antoja vale la pena sabe delicioso y lo puedes hacer tan picante o menos picante como tú quieras casi se acaba nuestro programa yo les quiero por favor recomendar sus oraciones pedirle sus oraciones agradecerles a todos el tono cariñoso que tienen con su servidor y con todo el equipo porque al felicitar nos a nosotros nos felicitan a todo el equipo y también al hacernos sus recomendaciones nos hacen las recomendaciones a todo el equipo gracias a nombre de toño de alejandro de jesse de nuestra director y por supuesto de su servidora de rossi muñoz que nuestra productora y lo que les invitamos es cocinen con el corazón cocinen con el alma no dejen que los productos se desperdicien en el refrigerador o en su frutero en su despensa noten productos en la despensa para que todo sea aprovechado en nuestro hogar y para que tengamos esta bendición de que vayamos utilizando y compartiendo con los que más amamos no dejes la botellita de vino bueno para una ocasión especial la ocasión especial es hoy y es con tu familia soy leticia orozco de huerta muchísimas gracias quédate con la doctora alicia soltero en su programa dentro de ti y mañana todas las respuestas a sus dudas el chile miguelito lo puedes utilizar en la gelatina de mango no recuerdo la cantidad pero mañana entró con todas

estas respuestas para ustedes que dios las bendiga gracias por su cariño para mi mamá las quiero mucho un beso bye

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