Документальный фильм – дизель-поезд ДР1 / DR1 DMU train documentary (with eng subtitles)

This, this is a toy of a DR1 DMU train But this is a museum piece DR1 DMU train But this is a written off DR1A DMU train And this is a working DR1A DMU train And as always, the film will not be about toys or museum pieces but it will be about real DR1 DMU trains Engine starting! In the late 1950s, there was made a decision to build a domestic diesel train, which should compete with the Hungarian D-series diesel train Initially, the Ministry of Railways proposed the development of the train to the Bryansk plant, but they refused because of the lack of experience in building diesel trains The next proposal of the Ministry of Railways was made to the Yegorovsky plant, but they also refused due to a lack of experience Then the Ministry of Railways proposed the development to the Riga Wagon Factory They also did not have the experience in building diesel trains, but the plant was engaged in the construction of electric trains and they decided to accept the assignment And so, there was an order of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on 24 February 1960 the Riga Wagon Factory was commissioned to create the first domestic diesel train For the development of the first diesel train in the RWF, a special design department for diesel trains was created, where 100-120 people worked during the best of times Initially in the project was thought a diesel train with electrical transmission, based on widely known electric trains ER1 But, since they did not come to a common solution to use alternative or direct current, and since it turned out that the diesel train with electrical transmission is, first of all, more difficult to build, and secondly, 50% more expensive than with hydraulic-transmission, it was decided that it is better to build 150 diesel-trains with hydrotransmission for the same money than to build 100 diesel-trains with electricical transmission It is clear that in the conditions of the USSR with mass production throughout the country, it is better to build cheaper but in high volumes As there was no experience for the development of the domestic diesel train, the Ganz-Mavag diesel train D-021 was taken as an example Having studied foreign experience, they prepared a technical design for a four-car diesel train by 1961 The project was reviewed by the commission, approved and it was decided to proceed with the construction of the diesel train The first train was ready in June 1963, and in July they conducted a test run on the line Ozkalni-Ergli It was the diesel train DR1-01 DR1 as a Diesel train built in Riga, type one The first run with passengers took place on the 18th of March 1964 on the Riga-Jelgava line During 1964, the Central Research Institute of the Ministry of Railways carried out traction-operational tests of the second diesel train on the Baltic Railway, which showed satisfactory traction and dynamic properties of a new type of rolling stock Based on the test results, serial production of DR1diesel trains was launched The bodies of the DR1 cars were made in the eurogauge, like the diesel trains D and D1 Similar was also the layout of the train – the cab was in the motor car, behind it was the engine room, then the service vestibule, the passenger vestibule, the passenger compartment and again the passenger vestibule But unlike the D1, , the toilets on the DR1 were originally in the trailer cars It was important for the plant to reduce the axle load, which would allow the use of trains on lower quality tracks Therefore, for the DR1 trains was made an original, light, slim body made by the type of an airplane construction The bodies of motor and trailer wagons are all-bearing

with light metal frames made of bent profiles The weight of the motor car body is only 11 tons Since the car has a carrying body, the corrugated metal profiles have been used for amplification as also on electric trains ER1 At that, the welded seams were also elements of strength of the body Back then it was an innovation and progressive technology, but to date such a technology has become obsolete Factory veterans reminisced about the first car body – when the body was put to the test, during which the body was subjected to a pressure of 100 tons, from the ends of the car, meaning that the car body was pressed, then the manometers did not go over 80 tons, although the hydraulic pumps were working Hence, the supporting structure could not withstand and the body was deformed As a result, they had to redesign the body project and strengthen it by almost 1,5 times There was also a problem with the strength of the body, the car had a length of 25 meters, and according to the then norms, 8 passengers were foreseen per square meter, ie the load from the passengers would be about 25 tons They were afraid that the body would not stand it and would sag But fortunately, this did not happen On the first eight diesel trains, the front end and the cabin were round, as on trains ER1 A control console was installed in the cab and with the throttle that is the same as on the diesel locomotives TE3 True, the very first train had a slightly different throttle, more like to the throttle of an electric train The console panels were painted pale green and were quite large, which is why the cabin was quite confined About the cabin a little bit later In the engine room of the motor car was installed a M756A diesel engine, later M756B with the capacity of 1000 hp and the GDP-1000 hydraulic transmission, developed at the Kaluga Machine-Building Plant at the request of the RWF The starting of the engines was carried out by electric starters ES1 Two generators and three types of current and voltage were used on the diesel train For the control circuits and for charging the batteries, there was a 75 volt generator that was placed on the hydraulic transmission and was driven from it For illumination of the passenger salons were used fluorescent lamps with a voltage of 380V AC, as there were no good lamps for 110V DC For that, a separate diesel generator was installed, which supplied power for the lighting, and through the converter, which made 110V DC from the 380V AC, all other power circuits The diesel generator was installed on the hydraulic transmission in order to save space, next to the additional generator for 75 volts When designing the train, they decided to mount all power units – the diesel engine, hydraulic transmission, compressor and the generators on a separate frame This allowed to complete the installment of the power units before the construction of the body, and later just lift them all at once to the engine room This accelerated the production rate of trains Preheating boilers and a engine cooling system were also located in the engine room under the ceiling I will tell about the the engine room equipment a little bit later In the salons were semi-soft seats, and the lighting, as already mentioned, was with luminescent lamps In the motor car there were 80 seats for passengers, in the trailer car – 128, In the whole train were altogether 416 seats The weight of a motor car was 53,5 tons, trailer car 33,7 tons Constructional speed for the car body was 140 km/h, but since they used in the axle reducers the gears from the D100 diesel engine of the TE3 diesel locomotive their gear ratio allowed to develop the speed of only 120 km/h The width of the DR1 train cars is 3120mm, ie slightly wider than the Hungarian D1 The length of the train was 103 meters and it was equipped with electropneumatic brakes Batteries and a fuel tank are located under the car, closer to the rear bogie The factory’s designer reminisced that since the batteries were for 75 volts, there were not few of them, and as they were quite heavy,

with a total weight of about two tons, then the fuel tank and batteries were moved closer to the rear bogie for better weight distribution Each car had two bogies The motor and supporting bogies of the motor car are similar in design to the the trailer car bogies, with the exception of the drive wheelsets On motor bogies the drive wheelsets have two-stage axial reduction gears The bevel gears were taken from the engine of locomotive TE3 and they were installed until to the last diesel train The diameter of all wheelsets was 950mm According to the constructors of the RWF, when they created the bogie, they were given complete freedom, a flight of fantasy, so to speak There was a whole bunch of schematics of possible bogies, and an unusual bogie with a lower frame was chosen Usually the bogie has its frame above the axle boxes, so in case of a failure a brakeage, the bogie does not fall on the rails In this case, they discarded it The first diesel train DR1-01 had different bogies, but during the tests it was found that such a bogie wasn’t good enough and it had to be modified According to factory constructors, the new bogie turned out to be with a quite simple design, and almost static Many parts of the bogie were tested at the factory, and as a result of the test they found that, and I quote – everything was fine, but if a crack happens to appear here, the bogie quickly would broke and the frame would fall As a result an additional reinforcement was added The constructors had alsoproblems with the suspension of the bogie, where, similarly, they let the imagination fly Everything was fine and beautiful, but when the car body shifted aside, for example on points or in curves, then it did not center back to the middle This problem was solved simply – to the body was welded an elastic limiter, which did not let the body to move far from the center On the DR1 trains were used disc brakes for the very first time in the USSR According to the factory constructors, the disc brakes were the most progressive part of the DR1 trains Each wheelset had two brake discs and each disc has its own brake cylinder he brakepads were made of composite material and were more durable than cast iron pads on ER1, where the pads were changed once in a month, but on the diesel trains they were changed once in every six months In the beginning, they used simple disks, without any grooves The Khabarovsk Institute tested the disc brakes and found out that they overheated and did not have the proper braking effect Later, the disks were perfected with two grooves, so to speak thermo canals, which allowed the heat to be released to the atmosphere faster With the use of disc brakes was one more problem The wheel tread was not cleaned as before, and when it became dirty, the effect of braking and shunting was reduced The train often disappeared from the dispatcher control panels This problem was solved with the help of pads for cleaning the wheel treads – scraper pads We asked the veteran-train drivers Toivo Annus and Peeter Lehtme and from a driver Mart Klaassen, how did the disc brakes of DR1 train differ from the block ones on D1? Well… – Nil! – Yes, cannot be compared There is nothing to talk about The disc brake was a really an uncommon thing for us If before were the Hungarian trains with their block brakes, they came to a stop like behind a tree stump, then the DR1 trains had problems, especially in winter Especially when there were small minus degrees, after the braking the discs were warm, and when there was still a bit of snow fall, it immediately accumulated the snow on the disk and it froze to ice really quickly You never knew if you got a brake or not I remember from my practice as a drivers assistant on the DR1A trains that there were many problems with the brakes during wintertime We asked about them from veteran-drivers Toivo Annus, Peeter Lehtme and Tõnu Sarapuu Well we don’t know, noone spoke about their misfortune or overtakings

But there were quite a lot overtakings from the platvorms –Yes, and those who had hair, the hair stood up before the stations But those, who didn’t have them didn’t also have that problem I had one such particularly terrible occasion in winter when we serviced the train Tallinn-Pärnu-Riga In Latvia, when approaching to Stiene station, where the open line speed was 60 km/h, the track profile before the station was a small hill and then a decent And on the decent the speed, when in idle, began to increase over 60 km/h and I braked a bit to maintain a speed of 60 km/h And suddenly there was no brake effect I added some more pressure to the brake cylinder, soon enough the maximum pressure that can go there, but it felt like the train was only going faster Of course, when looking at the speedometer, , the speed remained the same A small decent kept it at exactly 60 km/h We already saw the stations warning signal – green There was also a small decent in the station, not big, but there was a slight decent And all this time I am braking, but the speed is not dropping The entry signal was yellow, I knew that we are meeting another opposite direction train in the station We are being taken to the main track, the other train to a siding When we passed the warning signal and approached the entry signal, the speed was very slowly decreasing with full braking force In my head was a wish that the oncoming train would get sooner to the station because we were not sure where our train would stop The train drove to where it wanted to go Thankfully soon I saw that the other train had already arrived to the station is entering the siding The stress level went down a bit, but what did not go down was the speed We were already approaching the platform and we had been braking for over 2 km by that time Approaching the platform and the speed was already about 15-20 km/h with maximum braking force And we could not stop the train at the end of the platform where it was supposed to stop We overtook the platform with about one and a half cars I also remember that when the station manager had come out to depart the trains, she had already opened the green light in exit signal by that time and saw that we were overtaking the platform at a low speed she immidiately switched on the red light on her lantern and started to give us a stopping signal In that moment when the stress was as high it could be suddenly it was like a comedy in the very end when we saw that station manager with her lantern We are doing everything that we can and she is giving the stopping signal for us to try to stop the train Finally we stopped of course Until the year 1966, 8 such trains were built, which had many deficiencies After the construction of these eight trains, the main constructor, Kurdyumov, was removed from it’s position as he allowed the connection of electric wires with a simple method of twisting, i.e. twists As a result, there were often fires At least this was the official reason for his removal All the first eight DR1 trains were sent from the Riga factory to Zasulauks depot in Riga Experience from the operation of the first DR1 trains was vividly described by the chief of the Zasulauks depot in his report in 1977

The depot had to endure the full burden of the birth and formation of this first domestic DR1 series diesel train The first train was manufactured by the Riga Wagon Factory and came to the depot for experimental operation in 1963 Apparently, all of those present know what does a first, experimental locomotive mean But about the first DR1 diesel train cannot be said to be first experimental and not even the first domestic production The diesel train was born in the an electrotechnical factory that has no experience with diesel traction and in a newly organized design bureau with not only literally international but also with specialists in almost all military and civilian industries – pilots, tankmen, motorists and only one-fifth close to the railwaymen Accordingly, the diesel engine M756 was taken from the launches preheating boilers, heat exchangers from a tank fire extinguishing system, most of the electrical equipments from an aircraft hydrotransmission was one of the first ones born in our Soviet Union The diesel-aggregate 3E-16A is from a kolkhoz and even the very foundation, the brake, a completely new one – a disc brake it has full wheels, the bogie is brand new with a lower frame The first train could not fly, not swim, not run, was not strong as a tank, and lived on the railway for a very short life 20 000 km Not much better were the seven other trains There wasn’t almost a day without a fire, serious breakdowns and other incidents The cars of these trains are now transferred to the Ministry of Coal Industry and are carrying coal miners Due to the structural deficiencies of the DR1-01 bogies, the train was practically not used Apart from test runs, in operation it made a little more than a dozen runs in operation Although DR1-01 and was listed on the balance of Zasulauks depot, it was almost all the time on the Riga Wagon Factory territory, allegedly on redevelopment In 1967, after almost 5 years of construction, DR1-01 was written off and sent to the Dnepropetrovsk Iron and Steel Works for scrapping But it was not scrapped completely, because in 2017 on the territory of the Krjukov Carriage Works, there was one motor car, though without bogies As of 2017, it is known about the preservation of another motor car of these diesel trains This motor car is from train number 05, which is in partially depleted and rusted condition located in the depot of the Azei loading and transport department of Vostsibugol company in Irkutsk In order to increase the number of seats for passengers, the Ministry of Railways came up with the idea of constructing a train with a diesel engine mounted under the car frame In the middle of 1966, an experimental four-car DR2 diesel train was built by the Riga Wagon Factory, with the power and auxiliary units mounted under the wagon frame, which allowed to increase the useful area of each motor car by 24 seats Together with the designers, or as they were then called, technical artists, they created a new front part of the train so the appearance of DR2 differed from the DR1 a lot Windshields were used the same as on the bus LAZ-695, which were delivered directly from the LAZ factory Under the motor car was placed the 600 hp diesel engine TMZ-201, built by the Sverdlovsk turbomotor plant Hydraulic transmission was GDP-600 that was built again by Kaluga machinebuilding factory according to the order by the Riga plant The bogie construction was the same as on the DR1 trains, but on trailer cars they used for the first time in the USSR a pneumatic suspension instead of cylindrical steel springs On the motor cars pneumatic suspension could not be used because of the large weight of the motor car – the airpads would simply not withstand it In the front ends of motor cars were the automatic couplers СА-3, but the cars of the train were connected with each other by RVZ-type couplers

The acceleration of the train to a speed of 25 km/h was 0.3 m/s2 The constructional speed of the train was 120 km/h The number of seats for passengers in the motor car was 104, in the trailer car -124, in total 456 The diesel train DR2-01 remained as a single copy for many reasons Initially it was thought to make the electrical part as on the DR1 – using two generators But with the difference that both generators would be driven by one diesel engine But, since the diesel engine could not keep the generators’ revolutions constant, this solution was abandoned Then the designers decided to put the generator of alternative current from DR1 into the service tambur of DR2 But such arrangement could not go into operation The second problem was with the diesel engine – it was not yet finalized, and unfortunately, did not go to the series production It was also the opinion of a number of specialists that for a more convenient operation of the diesel engine, it is better to place it inside the car body According to the constructors of the RWF, the train DR2 did not go to the series also because it proved to be not very good during the tests For the under-frame engine, the operating temperature was foreseen from -40 C to +40 C And that at a time when there was neither antifreeze, nor other non-freezing cooling liquid Although the cooling system was covered with a thick layer of thermal insulation, it still froze The diesel engine and hydraulic transmission had low reliability, and the air suspension Well, you understand In short, the DR2 did not meet fully the given requirements As the constructors said, DR2 was an adventure of the Ministry of Railways, that did not consider the real conditions, and it had a great risk of failure That single DR2 that was built was sent to the Zasulauks depot at the beginning of the tests, from where, in 1971, it was sent to the October railway, first to the Rechetnikovo PMS, then to the Pskov PMS, where it transported track workers In the early 1980s the DR2-01 train was excluded from the inventory In 2017, the wagons 013 and 014 were used as warehouses in the Berjozki OPMS Since DR2 was an experimental train and the results of its tests were as they were it was decided to continue the production of DR1 trains Since the first 8 DR1’s were with big deficiencies, the constructors decided that the train design must be greatly modernized As a result, in October 1966 a four-car train DR1-09 was completed, which had the frontal end design like DR2, the classic look of the DR1A train In the literature it is referred to the new DR1 train as DR1M, but the letter M was not shown on the trains Since also this train was designed for operation at air temperatures from -40 C to +40 C, then DR1M-09 was tested in cold Vorkuta, and DR1M-022 in hot Astrakhan In the electrical system, of the modernized DR1, everything was basically the same as in the first eight trains The only technical difference was that for the fire safety reasons, the additional diesel-generator was installed on the other side of the main diesel engine As a result, the engine room was lengthened, and the seats for passengers was decreased to 68 instead of the previous 80 Also in the trailer cars the number of seats decreased to 124 instead of previous 128 There were 384 seats in total In the drivers cab the control console was changed to a more flat panel Simultaneously with the production of DR1 trains, RWF received another assignment from the Ministry of Railways The management of the locomotive traction department of the Ministry of Railways had made a decision on the necessity of the construction and further production of railcars As a result, according to the technical requirements developed by NIIZHT, the Riga Wagon Factory designed in 1968 and constructed in the next year two experimental AR1 railcars for passenger traffic on lines with a low passenger volumes, i.e., about 400-600 passengers a day

Since there was no engine for the railcar in the factory, they decided to use a 4-stroke V-8 JaMZ-238 diesel engine, that had 240 hp which was installed in the small engine room behind the drivers cab But, due to low power, they decided to install two engines As a result, the small railcar had two engine compartments For transmission, the hydromechanical transmission GMP-240 was used, again created at the Kaluga factory on request of RWF As a result, the railcar was symmetrical – in the middle there was a passenger vestibule, on both sides of it were the passenger salons the the engine compartment and the drivers cab In August-September 1969 the railcars were tested under the supervision of RWF workers on the Daugavpils – Krustpils line The mileage of each car on this line was about 5000 km, that is, about 30 times back and forth The body and the bogies were unified with the corresponding nods of the DR1 diesel train The length of the railcar was 26.4 meters, the constructional speed was 100 km/h and the number of seats was 90 The weight of the railcar in the working condition was 59 tons, although according to the technical specifications, this weight should have been within 49-51 tons In May 1970 the railcars were transferred to the Lviv railway, to the Ternopil depot for servicing passengers They were tested with timekeeping operating modes The results of these tests were considered in 1971, and it was decided to return the railcars to the plant to eliminate the identified deficiencies It was required to improve the reliability of hydraulic transmissions, improve the access to them for maintenance and repairs, and also increase their fire safety However, instead the railcars were sent to the October Railway for the transport of workers PMS in Reshetnikovo and Ryabovo For passenger transportation, these railcars were not user any more In the words of the constructors of RWF, both DR2 and AR1 were more of an adventure to the Ministry of Railways The railcar did not go into the series production, because as a result of the tests, it did not match with the foreseen constructional characteristics There was not enough power nor reliability It was was also influenced by the fact that the enterprises of the industry could not fully provide the necessary components In general, the railcar, as well as the DR2 diesel train, did not meet the given requirements fully And in general, there was no special need for them Instead, it was was required to transport a large number of passengers Both the AR1 railcars were written off in 1990 and scrapped in OPMS-Reshetnikovo But lets return back to the DR1 train As for the many lines on which the DR1 diesel trains had to operate, the composition of the four cars was not enough, in 1968 RWF released one six-car train, with the number 021 The six-car trains went the series production from the number 024, and for the previously released four-car trains the factory produced additional trailer cars to make them also into 6-car trains With this, the number of seats increased from 416 to 672 per train The length of the six-car train is 153.6 meters Trains DR1M were produced in the beginning with couple of month pauses And some changes were made already in the beginning of the production Starting from the train DR1-014, the buffer lanterns were installed in a horizontal rectangular boxes, as well as glazing around the headlight and upper buffer lanterns was discarded Also, the second door was removed from the drivers cab to the engine room, which was behind the driver According to the drivers themselves, due to the two doors, the noise in the cab was unbearable And from the number 023 the transition of the automatic doors to the body in the lower part went from smooth to a more sharp, rectangular, shaped Thus, the diesel-trains received the look they have today The DR1 trains were sent from the factory

to the Baltic Railway, to Zasulauks depot, as well as to the Belarusian railway, and to the South railway in Ukraine The last working DR1 trains in Russia were the numbers 011, 017, 022 and 032 The last working DR1 train was in Ukraine, was a two-car train with motor cars from trains 014 and the second one from 016 and it was based in PMS Zhmerinka The updated DR1 was constructed from October 1966 until the May of 1970, with the train numbers from 09 to 029 and from 031 to 053 In total, including also the first eight trains, 52 consists of DR1 trains were produced One motor car of the last DR1 train, with number 053, is preserved in the Baranovichi railway museum To the DR1-030 train in 1969 no auxiliary diesel engines were placed, and the generators were driven by the main diesel engine Starting from the number 054, the plant switched to serial production of the same trains as was number 030, and they received the designation DR1P t.e. privodnoi (directly driven) For illuminating the passenger salons, incandescent lamps were used and therefore the demand for the alternative current was eliminated, and the additional diesel generator was not installed Instead, the STG-7 starter-generator was installed, which provided power supply of 110V DC But since the starter generator STG-7 was used only in the generator mode, the diesel engines had to be started by the electric starters ES1 Also, the 75V generator was installed, for control circuit power supply According to the Riga factory constructors, there were many problems with using the STG Firstly, the starter generator could not operate in the same revolution range as the diesel engine from 850 to 1500 rpm But, in order to avoid problems with gearboxes and other reducing units, which would complicate the already difficult construction even more, the STG was installed directly to the diesel engine crankshaft through a cardan shaft But this meant that the idling speed of the diesel was 850 rpm but the generator was foreseen to operate normally starting from 1050 rpm To solve the problem, RWF ordered the generator manufacturer to make a generator with a minimum working speed of 850 rpm As a result, a generator with a capacity of 41 kW was produced, which prevented the use of any additional electrical systems such as air conditioning or equipment for a restaurant-car In 1971, the Riga factory manufactured the first trailer car with a driver’s cab equipped with all the necessary instruments for controlling the train enabling operation of a diesel train with one motor car Two such head cars were included in the diesel train DR1P-065, that is, the train a was six-car train, but it consisted of two three-car trains Both of these trains accommodated 306 passengers In the same year, 1971, the plant filed an application to obtain a quality mark Documents for certification were prepared in August 1971 The certificate of awarding the Quality Mark was received in December of the same year so from January 1972 all DR1P trains were produced with the Mark of Quality In 1973, the factory produced six more six-car trains with two intermediate wagons with a drivers’ cabin That is, the plant produced 12 three-car trains, which received numbers 400-405 Trains 400-404 received the designation DR1P, but on the diesel train 405 the electrical schematics were changed, and this train received the designation DR1A But about the DR1А’s a bit later The three-car trains were manufactured in order to operate a train with three cars using only one motor car during the wintertime, when passenger volumes decreased But, regarding this use of the three-car trains, the Ministry of Railways had its own point of view

They expressed the opinion that the coupling and uncoupling of trains in the depot would increase the volume of work, and recommended to continue the production of six-car trains But why are these consists numbered as 400? According to the constructors, they counted on the production of 12 diesel-trains in a year And since along diesel trains, the enterprise produced other types of rolling stock, then they took the numbering from the future releases DR1P trains were produced in series from 1970 to 1976, under the numbers from 054 to 122, and also the extraordinary 400-404 From 1 to 3 trains were built in a month, but not every month If to count each three-car train for one independent train, then in altogether 76 DR1P trains were produced The first DR1P was sent to Zasulauks depot in Riga Later, the DR1P trains were sent to Orsha, Baranovichi, Brest, Korosten, Poltava and Belgorod depots But DR1P-121 started to work on the Krasnoyarsk railway, on the tracks of Sayano-Shushenskaya hydropower station The last DR1P trains in regular operation worked in Belarus, in Baranovichi depot, and the last train was number 104 This train was decommissioned and written off in April 2017 But in parallel to the DR1P trains, the plant developed two new projects – diesel trains DR3 and DR4 In 1968-69, RWF developed a draft design of the DR3 diesel train, which was designed for servicing lines from 300 to 500 km, with soft seats and a maximum speed of up to 140 km/h But, as this train stayed only on paper, it was not given the numeral factory index The design of DR4 was developed in the 1970’s and should have been a three-car train, like the trains with numbers 400, with pneumatic suspension and for long distances up to 500km But, like the DR3, it also remained only as a project Since the DR3 and DR4 trains remained as a project, we continue with the more famous series of the DR1 train, with DR1A As said already, in 1973 were built the 400 three-car trains and the last of them, trains with the numbers 405, were slightly different from the others They were not installed with additional generators for 75V on the transmission and all electrical circuits were designed to be on 110V DC There were also no separate electric starters and the starter-generator STG-7 was used as actually foreseen – as a starter In 1976, it was found that such a solution was acceptable and the serial production of DR1A trains was launched As a result, in March 1976, the first six-car DR1A diesel train with the number 123 was completed And since the DR1A train out of all the previously covered series is still in operation, we will look at it closer We will begin from the drivers cab, which is located in the front of the first car Front windows for example are from LAZ bus, but the lateral windows are from plexiglass, which at high speed create quite a lot of noise For the driver and his assistant there are soft swivel seats, with adjustable backrests In addition there was an additional folding seat originally on the side wall of the cabin, on the assistants side To the right from the driver is EPK-150, a radio station, a brake valve and a speedometer Compared to the DR1P, the DR1A has a slightly different control panel On the very first DR1A with the number 405 the console was not yet fully developed, but from the no. 123 was already a classic DR1A console The sonsole is equipped with control units, controlling-measuring instruments and signalling lamps Above them are signalling lamps of faults and pressure gauges For the whistle and horn, the driver and the assistant have a pedal on the floor Pressing it slightly will give a whistle Pressing it harder will give a horn

In addition, under the console is a vigilance pedal, which the driver has to keep pressed down and release it during the vigilance control during the ride Next to the control console is a separate panel with switches for buffer lanterns, and passenger compartment equipment In front of them is located the throttle Also, the cabin has a microphone passenger announcements The revolutions of the diesel engine is controlled by the throttle, which at the beginning was the same as on the locomotives TE3, with positions 0 and 16 working positions It was often joked that positions 0-7 were operated by the driver and positions 8-16 by the assistant Later, from the train number 193, the throttle was changed to a new one, with a round wheel that was more convenient for the driver I wonder, how does the servicing of the train look like from the drivers cab? We asked the drivers of the Tallinn-Väike depot, Mart Klaassen and Tõnu Sarapuu, how was it to work on the DR1A trains? Well, let’s say it in such a way that from the point of view of the assistant, it was not very convenient at the beginning when they came The biggest thing were the oil leaks from the assistants point of view When on the Hungarian trains we completed our cycle during the trip and then only the cabin had to brushed, the engine room had to be cleaned with a rag, under the oil filter under the fuel pump also was a dish You do those and you could basically go home Also the windows had to be cleaned But on the DR1 trains we had a lot more work to do, a new machine and it had to be kept in order When my excellent driver, Toivo Annus, first class driver, a honor railwayman, had a wrench in his hand, then I had to be up to the par with the rag When we started to go from the Hungarian D1 trains to the DR1A’s trains, it was of course interesting in the beginning, as the Hungarians were already physically old and tired and although it was possible to work on them without any special malfunctions, they did occur because they were already so old Everybody were waiting when is their turn work on a new DR1A train And also our time came Before that, of course, we had to go through the training, where to switch something on, how to start, how to stop And of course, the first impression during these trainings was that there was a lot of noise in the driver’s cabin, which was not present on the Hungarian trains It was very difficult to communicate between the driver and the assistant, only with a raised voice Not to mention the noise in the engine room, where it was impossible to speak at all, it was very noisy

On the old Hungarian trains, the engine was under a hood, but here the engine was open and the noise was even stronger as it echoed from the walls of the engine room We learned a few things to do before and after the engine start And the time spent on these activities was enough to How to say we got injured, no matter what you touced, you got injured, scratched yourself somewhere, blood is dripping hit your head in the engine room, sharp edges on levels or at places where they should not be or made in a way that even if a person hits themselves against it, you don’t get the blood out of your head Also in the drivers’ cabin Where ever you touched, it was possible to injure yourself It caused to be particularly cautious, and the first ride was, of course, was very different from the old Hungarian trains, because it feeled like I was in a big bath The cabin was like a round bath and glass It also seemed to be a bit higher than the old Hungarians And very unexpected was that, while driving, the wagons rocked from side to side, like on a swing And that the driver’s seat was not attached to something, they simply had a round plate on the floor And on the points, they might just fall over That taught that you should always be prepared for the unexpected Later we got used to it over time But were there were there any fires and inflammations? We once had at Kiisa station These doors were also such that, they did not hold back much noise, and a flag or some sort of a stick was behind the door, so that the noise would be even a little quieter And at Kiisa station I hear some kicking behind the door Well, I calmly check, the brake is applied and the doors are open, and went to open the door and what I see. How the poor conductor lady came through the flames I do not know But behind her the engine room was in flames Then we started to put it out, of course, we did not have to open the main extinguishing system, we managed to get the flames down ourselves But it had started from the drainage pipe Were there any typical brakedowns and malfunctions? I find that we had a problem that the maintenance was not up to par Naturally a new thing, Later the problems got fixed In the beginning, what broke down… Were the 2nd stage rubber pipes of the compressors Either a better material was found or But that problem went away later Then broke the “VOD” pipes that were made of copper in the beginning But they broke due to the vibration, but later they were replaced with rubber tubes The vibration did not play such a role any more These things got better over time Of course, what else was there, STG cardan shafts sometimes tried to fly away In the the electrical part, it had to be monitored if the contactor did not stay under power after the engine start Sometimes it tryed to throw the voltage up, that was dangerous But there were not so many things, you just had to be attentive What also kept braking down was a pipe under the engine, it would brake It was also such moment that, when the oil leaked out, there is nothing to do, in principle, the diesel is stopped Very Very often were different failures in the electrical schematics

Very often those, that you do not expect Of course over time we got the experience and together with the assistant we solved the problems on the line About the constructional deficiencies there were quite a lot of them There was a time when during some time period the automatic couplers started to wear heavyly and there were spontaneous uncouplings while servicing the passengers I personally had a case once, It happened quite luckyly for us In the middle of the six-car train, no, not in the middle, the motor car uncoupled itself from the first trailer car But it was uncoupled so that the motor car brakes reacted more quickly than the other five wagons, and they were coupled together again at the same place the five cars flew again to the motor cars and coupled themselves back together but the air hoses were uncoupled uncoupled and the cables between the cars were broken Of course, we stopped and looked at what can be done We were late for 15-20 minutes, but we continued our journey But the uncoupling cases were also somewhat more serious, when the motor car uncoupled and traveled several kilometers without brakes before it stopped The 5 cars were left in one place, but the motor car traveled further and the driver could nothing to stop The reason, why this happened, why the brakes did not work on the motorcar, because the back flip valve in the brake system was with such a system, that was not known to draw attention to earlier The back flip valve just did not work when needed and therefore there was almost no brake affect on the motor car And only inertia and track profile reduced the going of the car Until they slowed down and the motor was fully stopped with brake blocks when passengers in the car But maybe the drivers of Tallinn-Väike depot Mart Klaassen and Tõnu Sarapuu have some interesting memories from working on the DR1A trains? I remember a Christmas Eve, we were running on the Haapsalu line with drivers assistant Roots And when we started the engine in Riisipere, the oil pipe that was under the engine broke Oil leaked out and we could not do anything But on the other motor car was a problem that it did not reverse the direction without stopping the engine But in addition to that, it had poor batteries So that there were several problems in one, but somehow we managed to service the line We received a diesel train DR1A-274, a completely new one and it had a structural change in the doors of the driver’s cab and the service compartment The doors were very massive, thick metal ones When we saw that, we immediately gave it a nickname for the armoured doors They were very massive, heavy, but the noise went through them from the engine room to the cab like through paper It was very noisy in the cabs on that train And once during a brake in servicing the train we noticed with the assistant, that in the service compartment next to the engine room was much quiter than in the cab. Meaning that the doors have to be swapped Lets swap the door from the cab to the service compartment and from the service compartment to the cab

With everlasting difficulty, the weather was a hot, there was even hotter in the engine room we took out the screws of the door hinges and removed them from the wall And as a result we found out that the doors were so heavy, that we, being full grown men, were barely able to move them from the cab to the service compartment to attach it there and from the service compartment to the cab And when we started to first install the drivers’ cab door that we took from the service compartment it came out that they are completely different Not the hinges nor the doorway did not fit Visually, the doors are the same, but it turns out that they are hand-crafted, one-by-one the doors were handcrafted like by a carpenter because they were not identical and all our work was down the drain Soon it was already time for the departure, a short line needed to be serviced from Aegviidu to Tapa and we had to drive couple of those sections without a cabin door, because we did not have enough time to install back the door that we removed and took to the service compartment That’s the result, and after that, it was necessary to continue working in that noisy cabin In the partition between the drivers cab and the engine room, unlike the other rolling stock, is a small window through what the driver can look what and where is on fire Since at the moment there is no fire, we can safely continue to the engine room The motor car of the DR1, DR1P and DR1A trains is equipped with a 12-cylinder 4-stroke V-shaped turbocharged diesel engine M-756B That is built at the St. Petersburg Zvezda (The Star) plant The idle speed of the engine is 850 rpm, the maximum is 1500 rpm Diesel M756 was launched to production in 1938 and was installed on torpedo launches Since the diesel was reciprocated from a boat, the diesel was recyclable and designed for high-speed operation But on the train the engine works most of the time on idle, because of which unburned fuel and oil residues accumulated in the exhaust system In order to get rid of these residues and avoid the occurrence of a fire, a separate drainage pipe was installed, which lead the unburned remains below the engine compartment floor where they just drained away to the ground Therefore, the trains often smoked from below, and even there were incidents of fires, as Mart Klaassen told us The DR1 diesel trains had such an accesory – a turning lever for the diesel engine crankshaft, with which the drivers assistant had to turn the crankshaft, if the engine had been stopped for more than 5 hours It was necessary It was necessary just a moment It was necessary to rotate the shaft not less than one full revolution, in order to remove from the cylinders any water or any other inappropriate liquids According to the constructors of the RWF, they chose the M756 1000 hp engine, since at that time and until to the collapse of the USSR there was no other diesel engine suitable for the diesel train, precisely because of its weight and dimensions There was, of course, another option, the M753 engine with a mechanical turbocharger, which was used on shunting locomotives, but the M756 was more powerful, more economical and more rational

The sufficent power was that allowed the factory to start releasing 6-car trains Also, the diesel engine block and cylinder heads are made of silumin, and therefore the weight of the diesel is very low – it weighed just under 2 tons Since the diesel was initially made for boats, for safety reasons it was important that during the operation the oil did not get there where it was not necessary For this reason, a dry crankcase was made That is, the oil reserve is not in the crankcase of the diesel engine, but it is fed into it from a separate oil tank where it is also returned This created a lot of problems for the RWF constructors, because it was necessary to install two oil pumps, a separate tank, pipelines, valves This was not an easy task The oil should not be in the crankcase, because due to the increased oil pressure during engine start, the pipes and elastic connections of the oil pipelines could burst And this was found out only during the operation Therefore, it was necessary, after stopping the diesel engine, to manipulate with the valves, switch on the oil pump and pump oil into the supply tank And all that was done manually, since there was very little automation The first diesel engines had a limited life span, after which the overhaul of the diesel is no longer feasable Since it was not possible to overhaul the engine and it was not very expensive, then after using up the engine resource, it was disposed of and a new one was installed Later, the diesel engine was modified and it was possible to overhaul the diesel engine It did not have to be disposed of after the exhausted engine resource As a transmission was used a two-gear hydraulic transmission GDP-1000, which was created at the Kaluga machine plant specially for the order of RWF By the way it was one of the first hydraulic transmissions in the Soviet Union Since there was a requirement for trains that the axle load should not exceed 20 tons, it was necessary to frequently negotiate with Kaluga plant in order to keep the weight in the required range As a result, a hydrotransmission with the weight of almost 3 tons was developed In general, the transmission turned out not bad, despite the fact that some drivers had problems with reversing, that is, with changing the direction driving The compressor on the train was with one cylinder, but two-stage, and it was taken from an excavator and had of low productivity It took 15 minutes to fill up the main line and reservoirs to 8 atm-s of a six-car train The compressor had a belt drive driven by the diesel engine crankshaft through the hydraulic transmission and therefore worked continuously When the feeding of the train air system was not required, it simply pumped the air to the atmosphere On all DR1 diesel-trains were used also preheating boilers According to RWF constructors, it was taken from a truck, and was not particularly good They were not reliable and and with low productivity But despite this – two boilers were installed in a motor car Since they had a poor ventilation, smoke and often the flames got into the engine room, and they were fire-hazardous Therefore, because of their flaws, especially because of their low productivity, they were not used much The experience of working with these boilers is reminisced by the Tallinn-Väike depot former driver Tõnu Sarapuu and by a current driver Mart Klaassen Once there was a technical training at the depot where I did not participate myself, but other colleagues said that when along with other topics, they also looked at how to use preheating boilers They were located here above the generator Here, two of them, I remember, like black pipes from their construction And those who attended this training

they later laughed at the fact that the exercise was quickly ended because it became so dangerous, that is, there was almost a fire in the engine room Because of that, there was practically no preheating done with these boilers During my practice I did not turn them on not once because they were so dangerous And by the instructor there was also a recommendation not to use them because they were so fire-hazardous I have switched them on once But not with my own driver, he considered them pointless, which was also correct, because we did not let the engine temperature below 40 C But one driver showed his knowledge, and with him we swicthed the boilers on at Rapla once An they worked too We tried once more. We were coming from Haapsalu, and again somewhy with only one working engine and it was getting cold in the cabin And we came up with the idea that lets try to switch on the boilers But noone used them and we did not know in which condition they are? When When the driver went to turn the boilers on, then I looked throw this window into the engine room, and a saw a figure struggling in the flames He did not succeed with them Maybe there was too much fuel coming and when there was the moment of ignition, a small accident happened Of course, these systems were not used regularly and when you do try, then an accident comes quite easily. That, in addition to the fact that we had only one working engine, we had to extinguish a small fire a bit So that is correct that we did not use these boilers The water cooling system also cooled the engine oil and the hydraulic oil Heat from the oil was transferred to the water through heat exchangers, which were also used on trucks To cool the cooling water in the engine room, were used three radiators that were taken from a tank They were located under the ceiling The new arrangement of the cooling fan was special If on locomotives it was usually after the radiators, that is, the fan sucked air through the radiators, then on the DR1 it was the other way around, the air went through the radiators after the fan This solution increased the cooling efficiency The fan had a hydrostatic drive Until the train number 186, the control of the cooling system was manual, which meant that the assistant turned the control screw, with what was changed the amount of oil supplied to the fan motor, thereby changing its speed, as needed for the cooling From the train number 187 an automatic system was installed But it was necessary to remember that it was not allowed to open air valves suddenly, to start of the cooling system, if the temperature was high This led to a sharp jump in oil pressure which bursted the weldings and the entire engine room was covered in oil In the engine room was used for the first time on a rolling stock, a fire extinguishing system with remote controlling, that was taken from airplanes As previously said, on all DR1A diesel trains control and lighting circuits are fed with 110V DC, received from the starter generator when the diesel is running, and from the batteries when the engine is not working In the electrical schematics on all trains are used oil-petrol-resistant wire braiding, which was used also on airplanes, and which could withstand heating up to 90 degrees C – Passing further through the engine room, we get to the service compartment, then into the passenger passage with automatic doors and then into the passenger salon Since the train was designed more for secondary lines, the cars had exits to low platforms For the exiting and entry for passengers from high platforms, a transitional platform was envisaged to the platvorm level, but with the goal of saving metal and labor, it was installed only in the first passages of motor cars

There are double-sided semi-soft seats in the passenger salons a six-seater on the one side of the central passage and a four-seater on the other side The principle is the same as on Hungarian D1 trains, only with soft seats As already said, luminescent lamps were used on DR1 trains to illuminate the salons, but incandescent lamps on DR1P and on DR1A A six-car DR1P and DR1A trains had 632 seats for passengers Until the train at number 145, the toilet was located in a trailer cars, but from the number 146 it was placed in the motor cars with reducing the size of the service compartment In this regard, the number of seats in the trailer car increased from 124 to 128, and the total number of seats in the train increased to 648 On the driver’s cab end of the motor cars were installed the SA-3 automatic couplers without a friction absorber all other automatic couplers of the train have the friction absorbers The train cars are heated using air that is heated by the cooling water of the diesel engine The fan, which pumped heated air into the salons, was under the ceiling of the passenger passage, near the service compartment and the toilet Although the air was taken from outside, but as it was next to the toilet, then during the heating the salons had, lets say, the fragrance of a toilet Also, if passengers smoked in the toilet, then in the salons also smelled after a tobacco smoke In addition to all this, also exhaust gases from the diesel engine got into the salons For example, in 2005 there was an occasion where, with heating with the ventilator, many exhausts got into the salon, and passengers had to be brought to consciousness with the help of ammonia Unlike the Hungarian D and D1 trains, where there were three ventilation ducts, a middle one for blowing the air into the passenger salon, and two side ducts for removing the air, the DR1 had only one large duct only for air blowing the air in There was no air withdrawal The blown in air was removed through the blinds in the automatic doors and through open doors during the entrance and exit of passengers In reality, it went out through the window frames and other defects of assembly The construcotrs said that at that moment of production there were simply no hermetic glass-packet windows In the summertime, when instead of heating the salons needed to be ventilated, additional ventilators were installed on top of the passages, which blowed the air from the outside into the salon In the motor car was installed one, and in the trailer cars were two ventilators About the experience of using them will speak Tõnu Sarapuu It was hot weather, a summer day, very hot in the cars as also outside The passengers opened the windows so that there would some air in the salon as the train went, but with the air came also heavy noise, and it was impossible to talk to each other We arrived to Pärnu, where we had a long resting time And since we knew that these DR1A trains had a system for ventilation, we wanted to make the return trip more confortable for the passengers and decided to turn on the system Of course, before this, it was necessary to test how it worked because we hadn’t heard that anyone had used it, although the technical possibility was Respectively we turned the switches to the appropriate positions, In the passages turned on the brakers that were normally switched off, started the engines and decided to switch the system on, to see if it will work or not And everything started working But However, their working was accompanied by strong vibration in each car. Also in the trailer cars, which is otherwise were completely still The cars were trembling and they made a loud noise And besides, because these systems were never used, all air ducts under the ceiling and where ever they were

were full of dust And a fine black dust flew in all the cars of the whole train Well, naturally we were naturally upset that we could not offer comfort for the passengers, because we wanted for the best, but it turned out that these systems could not be used From those powerful electric motors that powered ventilators above the passages, came such a strong vibration and noise that it was even worse than the noise coming from the open windows during the trip If to combine these two, it would have been totally intolerable Of course, for the rest of the resting time, after switching the system off, we cleaned the seats of all six cars so the passengers could sit somewhere Because there was just so much dust on all the seats And this was the fate of this ventilation system, and I did not hear if anyone else try to use this system But we did such an experiment Well Riga Wagon Factory constantly perfected the design of DR1A diesel trains In January 1985 from the train no 232 were introduced changes in the construction of the braking system of diesel trains, thanks to which the braking distance decreased when braking from 120 km/h to a stop from 1000 to 850 m From the train no 193, the the throttle was changed and some changes were made to the electrical schematics The constructors of the plant acknowledged that the constructional problem with DR1 was an increased vibration at a speed of more than 80 km/h It could be lowered with air suspension, which is not as difficult as they said But this would create a lot of trouble for the depots during their operation, because of frequent maintenance, replacements, and so on According to the normatives of that time, the suspension pillows had to be changed every five years, which became one of the main reasons why they were not installed on DR1 trains There were also many changes on individual trains For example, on the first train DR1A under the number 405, the brake system was improved More precisely an anti-wheelslip device was added, which released some air from the brake cylinder if the wheel was blocked This system was not installed on other trains, but on the train no 405 it has remained to this day One train with some changes was DR1A-144, which had an electric circuit in two modes, a contact-free schematic with semiconductors and another like a ordinary DR1A But, the scheme on semiconductors worked only one trip, on a test run to Saulkrasti, while a short circuit occurred And they discarded this solution, although it partly worked Another distinctive feature of the 144 were the rounded ends of the cars and the friction absorber was a balloon-type, as on passenger cars, that is, the transition souffles were used The couplers were in “pulled” position, that is the train was stretched all the time The train worked in Latvia until 1997-1998 144-3 motor car was written off but 144-1 was sold to the Kaliningrad railway with changing its number to 304-3 The second train that was different from the others, was the DR1A-168, built in 1979 It had the headlight located under the front windows and a driver’s cabin of a faceted form According to one factory veteran, the cabin design was invented at the Ural Technical Institute, and the point was that it would unify the cab with electric trains, for example, the front and side windows But after the square 168, they again made a round cab on the DR1A-169 train Because the new cabin had to be tested In addition to the new cab, another compressor was installed on DR1A-168 and a number of other design changes were made – the arrangement of the instruments in the cabin was slightly different,

the heater was moved under the floor etc As a result, the cabin was poorly heated, were remarks from the locomotive crews The train worked in the Zasulauks depot for a long time – the motor car number 168-1 was removed from service in March 2003 and 168-3 in December 2004, and the trailer cars worked in different trains until January 2006 In December 1987, the factory released a train under the number 267, whose friction absorbers were with a different design This was done to reduce the noise from the automatic coupler when driving on poor track Besides that, the friction absorbers were made the same as on the DR1A-144 As a result, the banging noise of the couplers practically disappeared and the dynamics of the train were improved Also the train had an autopilot device – a system that could be set to the desired speed When the speed decreased, the train accelerated itself, but did not brake when it was exceeded But, this autopilot system nor the new friction absorber was not produced on the later trains Soon the Soviet Union collapsed and the difficult times came even without it Especially, according to the constructor, different friction absorbers on different trains would create problems in the depot during operating It is easier and more confortable to operate and to maintain when all the trains are structurally identical The factory not only made small improvements, but also developed more radical updates For example, in 1987, the technical design of the new diesel train DR5 was complete The DR5 project differed most from the DR1A in the layout of the engine room A big deficiency of the diesel trains was the loud noise in the cabin, as the engine room was just behind the cabin wall Despite the factory’s attempts to reduce noise with additional insulation and door seals, the noise level still remained high On DR5 they decided to place a service passage between the engine room and the cabin, as on electric trains The engine room was not lengthened, the hydraulic transmission was moved to the other side of the diesel engine, under the starter-generator The compressor was changed to a more efficient one and it was connected to the diesel engine crankshaft through the hydraulic sleeve, to the place where the transmission had previously been With the help of the sleeve, the compressor worked only when it was needed, not constantly, as on DR1 Also the placement of the cardans was improved and they became more accessible for repairs and maintenance It was planned to install a new diesel engine of the Sverdlovsk turbomotor plant and the upgraded hydraulic transmission GDP-1000M But also this train remained only as a project In 1990 the factory released a diesel train DR6 for the Cuban Railway Initially, the Cubans wanted to order 16 trains, but since they planned to pay for the trains not with currency but with sugar and bananas, the factory did not spend much resources on the designing and only one train was built The Cuban DR6 was meant for the tropical climate It differed from the serial DR1A diesel trains by a special cadmium coating of almost all metal parts of the train protecting it against high humidity and termites as well as lowered couplers for to the Cuban railway In addition, it was designed for 1435mm gauge track Because of this, it was necessary to remove the second brake disk from the motor bogies, because it did not just fit there any more The DR6 had a square cab, as on DR1A-168, only the headlight was returned to its former position above the windshields, and red buffer lights returned to their usual places The same cab was planned to do on the designed DR5 DR6 was sent to Cuba from Leningrad, since it was not possible to load the train to a ship in Riga And for the transportation to Leningrad, the bogies of the train DR1-021 were used Trace of the train is lost somewhere in the locomotive depot of Luiano in Havana The fate of the train is not known for certain It is known only that the motor car number 1, that is 2501, was damaged in an accident at a level crossing According to unchecked data, the RWF refused to restore the car, and the damaged car was eventually replaced by a diesel locomotive As of 2017,

the fate of only one trailer car of DR6 with the number 5002 is known, which is used for transporting track workers on a maintenance train, which is based at the San Luis station In addition to Cuba, also India was interested in tropical trains, but it did not go further than a request for information In parallel with the DR5 and DR6 projects, the DR1A trains were continued to be built Until November 1990, one train was produced per month, but since 1991 they began to produce one after each month, 7 trains a year In the early 90’s, the Ministry of Railways gave a task of optimization to the Riga Factory The motor car is already heavily loaded, but the trailer car is lightweight and there is practically no equipment on it As a result, in 1994, the model of a double-decker body for a trailer car for DR1A trains was developed Physically it was not built, but there is everything necessary for its creation There were machines for rounded parts of the DR1 cabins, such as forging presses, they were all made manually It was quite a difficult and voluminous process, physically hard, noisy the workers’ hands got tired in earnest And they began to demand a higher salary But after the collapse of the USSR, the RWF had little money and this situation was solved simply – the production of rounded cabins was stopped, and from the number 318, in 1993, the trains left the factory with the same squared cabins as the DR6 The front and side windows of the square cabs were the same as on the ER2 trains The production of DR1A did not prevent the plant from developing further, technically modern series at that time At the middle of the 1990’s, a project of a DR7 diesel train was designed where were foreseen: a Caterpillar diesel engine, air suspension, driver’s cabin made out of fiberglass, improved heat insulation materials cooling fans made of light composite material, changing the layout of the engine room and other But like the DR3, DR4 and DR5, also DR7 remained only on paper In 1996, a technical project of a DR8 train was born, which was almost the usual DR1A, but with the M787 diesel engine and the GDP-1000M hydraulic transmission The first such train was to become DR1A-333, that is, this train and the next were supposed to get the index of DR8 But at the last moment it was decided not to change the index, as it would have to pass certification in Russia, and this was expensive, the plant simply did not have money for this, and the train would have received the designation DR1AM The last train DR1A-332 was built in 1998 and it was in a seven-car train The train worked at the Nikolayevsk alumina refinery and has the mileage of only 80 000 km The train documents were lost and the train was on sale in 2005 at a very low price The construction of train 333 was started, but it was not completed The bodies of all seven cars were standing for a long time at the factory Later, four cars were converted for DRB1 trains, one motor car to Belorusian DR1B, and the second was scrapped to metal According to the contructor, there were plans for the 334th train, but it did not come to that In 1995, only 4 trains were built, in 1996, only 3 trains In 1997, not a single train was produced, and the last train, DR1A-332 rolled out from the plant in 1998 The production of DR1, DR1P and DR1A trains reached a maximum of 15 trains per year, but on average they produced 12 trains a year,

one train per month The trains DR1 for the history of production had four different factory liveries with some changes The first eight round-nosed trains had a dark-grape colors, which changed slightly from the number 03, as well as shades on the tail signals were added Trains from number 09 had a creamy and red color Creamy top, red bottom and a gray roof Later a big neon-red triangle was added on the front part In 1970, from the train number 055, instead of a triangle three neon-red strips appeared In 1982, since the train number 200 the livery was changed – the train became blue-gray and on the side above the windows was a white stripe This livery remained approximately until the end of production, with a few exceptions Estonian trains 224 to 226 and 228 to 230 were painted in 1984 to the livery that was until the 200th train This was according to the order of the Estonian Railway Department Train number 232 was with some technical changes and in its livery the blue color was replaced by red From 1992 to 1993, trains 307 to 317 received the same livery as the previous ones, but instead of gray-blue they were gray-green According to some reports, they went green not because of the spring but because of the deficit of paint after the collapse of the USSR, and the Riga factory got, as it is said that from the military, a tank full of green paint and they decided to use it From the number 318 trains were again gray-blue In the early 1997, according to the order by Latvian and Lithuanian railways, two AR2 railcars were built in RWF with power units under the frame They were fitted with a 310 hp Cummins diesel engine and Voith hydralic transmission In the middle of the railcar was a passage for the passengers, and a toilet from which to the both sides were passenger salons After that a service passage and the drivers’ cab Passenger salons were illuminated with fluorescent lamps The constructional speed was 120 km/h and the number of seats was 76 In the autumn of 2017, AR2-01 operates in Latvia and transports station duty and track workers on the Jelgava-Krustpils line but the Lithuanian AR2 has not been in service since 2013 and is waiting to be written off “Be careful” “The doors are closing” “Next stop is Savelin” In 1997, the Belarusian Railways decided to use the trailer cars of DR1 diesel trains, motor cars of which were decommissioned, to form diesel trains with locomotive traction 2M62 and 2M62U locomotives were used for traction, which were upgraded with the controls of the doors and electrical equipment for the trailer cars These diesel-trains received the designation DRB1 meaning Diesel-train Riga, for Belarusian railways, 1st type but also DRB1m Initially, diesel trains were formed from DR1 trailer cars and two units of locomotives 2M62 or 2M62U However, the capacity of the two-unit locomotive was too much, and instead of one of the locomotive units, a trailer car with a drivers’ cab started to be used, that converted from old decommissioned DR1 motor car, where instead of the engine room was a second passenger compartment Some of the new trains with locomotive traction received the designation DR1Pt, with the majority of the cars in them being cars from DR1 trains with the corresponding numbers In total, 24 trains were formed – 12 trains of the DRB1 series,

7 – DRB1m and 5 – DR1Pt The trains were put into service in Mogilev and Orsha depots In the future, the production of DR1 series diesel trains was continued only in 2005 The modification was produced occording to the order of the Belarusian Railway under the designation DR1B, that is Belorusian Initially, the Riga factory offered DR7 trains to Belarus, but this would mean that Belarus had to certify the new series, which would take time and money Therefore, this proposal was rejected and the RWF built DR1B trains for Belarus, as this is not a new series, but modernization of the already existing series The numbering of these trains did not continue from the previous ones, but began from 500 Trains with numbers 500-514 were built from 2005 to 2008, of which three trains with numbers 500, 501 and 506 were built as six-car trains like DR1A, and the rest – as a three-car trains with a trailer-front car The drivers cab of the DR1B 500-series was distinguished by the renewed design and wide application of plastic and composite materials The salons of these trains were produced in the interregional option and had different comfort-classes – motor cars had the third class, in the trailer cars was the second, or the first class with a buffet In the engine room, everything was almost the same as on the DR1A trains In 2011-2012, another train was built, DR1B-515, with additional head cars The order was filled as a service train for the leadership of the October Railway As a result, two independent consists were formed With this, the number of one of them was changed by adding the number 1 to its beginning The train with number 515 became a two-car train, the one with number 1515 – a three-car train These trains have a number of constructive differences from the trains for the Belarus Railway – the front cars do not have first passenger passages, the doors in the passages are single-sided leaning and sliding as well as other minor changes In total, in the period from 2005 to 2012, 17 trains of DR1B modification were built Usually, the DR1 series diesel trains consisted of two motor cars and four trailer cars. The number of trailer cars could be less, and sometimes more than four For example, the last train, DR1A-332, was built as a seven-car train But in Kazakhstan, in the Prikaspian Mining and Metallurgical Plant were 2 ten-car trains in operation Representatives of the Riga factory came, accompanied the trains along the routes, and gave the go-ahead for such use Just a standard six-car train was not enough It was also possible to work with two consists with controlling them from one cab The first DR1A diesel train in Estonia was no. 224 and it made its first trip on June 16, 1984 The driver was Toivo Annus In general, 18 six-car DR1A trains came to Estonia, which gradually replaced the Hungarian D1 trains We asked from the veteran-drivers of Tallinn-Väike depot, Toivo Annus and Peeter Lehtme, what memories they have with DR1A diesel trains compared to Hungarian D1 trains? The Hungarian one was a bit better than the Riga one because there we did not have problems such as brakes, then the noise there was none, but what the Hungarians had was that sometimes the exhaust fumes got to the cab That was their only flaw And during the winter, the transmission pipes froze we had to defrost them But with the Riga trains we had more trouble, I would say it like that Maybe Toivo has other thoughts?

– The idle valves of the compressors froze on the Hungarians and once a spring broke There was a lot of fuss before the air was pumped up But these have dehumidifiers on them – Indeed – There is enough air – But the compressors are poor on the Riga trains Big one in the engine room Pounding and pounding, frantic noise It does more noise that the diesel engine – And the flip boards broke all the time – Yes, those broke – Constantly change them Honestly, it was a crude train Interesting, were there any brakedowns on the trains? Yes there were On the same one After departing Pärnu towards Mõisaküla, there is a left curve after the bridge Speed is quite decent there and there the right damn front window just fell off Why it came loose I cannot see here but it was attached there with some kind of clamps, but why did it come off? It did not shake, it did not clatter, it did not show any signs of loosening But whizz and it was gone Afterwards the depot chief, Tisler, asked me where the window is I said that it is shattered in the ditch, what’s the point of asking any more To the Zasulauks depot, the Latvian department of the Baltic Railway, were sent the first 23 DR1 trains In total there were 66 different DR1, DR1P and DR1A trains in the Zasulauks depot We asked from a Latvian driver, Edgar Tuminš-Luks about his memories with the DR1A trains The memories All sorts of interesting ones. Remember one of the first, When I still worked as an drivers’ assistant It was in 2001 I don’t remember if it was 1st of October or 1st of November I think it was 1st of November. We were servicing with the driver an express train, Riga-Daugavpils, the Dinaburga it was called like this back then, and it was DR1A-254 Motor car no. 3 was. But we were going the trailer head car in front a trailer car with the drivers’ cab The driver was sitting behind the controls I remember that it was a very stormy weather that day and some kind of works were carried out there it was still a single-track line Alotene-Koknese And I remember that we were going and I saw that the treetops were flexing properly and a passing signal of the opposite direction tipped in front of our cab It was maybe 400 m away from us The speed was also decent, around 110 km/h it was necessary to go fast, there was a tight schedule And the weather was also such wierd snow and rain Of course we applied the emergency brakes immidiately we threw ourself to the floor with the driver, the collision was strong, it felt like the car jumped Some pieces of concrete flew into the cabin, and a woman got injured a bit in the first car The wagon was severely damaged, but it was restored and it is still in operation I have such a memory The first DR1A trains appeared in Lithuania in 1988, to the Vilnius-Diesel depot,

the first train was numbered 275 In total, 10 DR1A trains came to Lithuania, and two additional motor cars, 450 and 451 that were built in Riga factory in 1994 and are used as replacements for withdrawn motor cars In Russia, the DR1A trains operated on the Kaliningrad Railway, where 4 trains arrived from the factory, to the Kaliningrad depot On the South-East railway, in Belgorod depot worked 6 trains DR1P and 5 trains worked on the Kuibyshev Railway in the Sterlitamak depot, including the last train with a round cab, DR1A-317 In Ukraine, on Lviv Railway, in Ternopil and Zdolbunov depots worked 30 DR1A trains, including the last train for public service, DR1A-331 To the South-Western Railway in Ukraine came in total 54 diesel trains, including DR1 and DR1P and they worked in Korosten and Chernigov depots On the Southern Railway, in Poltava and Grebenka depots, were 36 trains, as well as DR1 and DR1P Two trains went to the Donetsk railway, and they worked in Svatovo and Ilovaisk depots The highest number of the DR1 trains of different modifications were received by the Belorussian railway, at the Brest, Gomel, Baranovichi and Orsha depots, totaling about one hundred trains Also 15 trains DR1B in the 2000’s On the Kazakhstan Railway worked 5 DR1A trains in Ekibastuz depot One train, with the number 183, was sold in 1995 from Estonia to Georgia Trains DR1A also managed to work on various industrial railways, quarries and factories For example, in Kazakhstan at the ore mining and processing plant in the city of Aktau were 9 trains DR1A And two trains were at a coal mine in Mezhdurechinsk, Russia Many years of operation revealed the shortcomings of the power units, that is, the diesel engine M756 and the GDP-1000 hydraulic transmission To increase the reliability, many railways began to modernize their diesel trains In Estonia, the DR1A trains were renovated at the Baltic Shipyard, from 1994 to 1996 A total of 20 motor cars were renovated, on which was replaced the diesel engine, transmission, and controlling equipment These cars received the index DR1B In addition, for economy reasons, 10 trailer cars were rebuilt to non-motorized headcars, which made it possible to compose three-car trains with one motor car The modernized motor cars are equipped with a four-stroke 8-cylinder turbocharged MTU diesel engine from Germany Engine power is 745 kW, oil consumption is 10 times less, and engine resource is 72 000 h, which is three times more than the M756B A 3-gear hydraulic transmission was also German-made The rest of the equipment of the modernized motor car DR1B does not differ from the equipment of the original car The Estonian non-motorized head cars differed from the DR1P cars so that there was no service passage behind the cab and the small passenger salon was shorter We asked from an driver from Tallinn-Väike depot, Mart Klaassen, how would he describe the modernized DR1B trains? Well, let’s keep in mind that if the gearbox and engine are other, German-made, it is much better First of all, as compared to DR1A, it does not have a dry crankcase, so we can just start it from a button right away, there is no valve toggling or oil pumping. There is nothing like that Push the button and go. Also the transmission, with three speeds I must admit that the machine is completely normal

Next the DR1A trains were modernized in Lithuania in 1997 The same diesel engine was used on all trains as in Estonia But two different hydraulic transmissions were used Trains with the Ganz-Mavag transmission received the designation DR1AM, and with the Voith transmission the designation DR1AMV The DR1A-300 train, which was renovated in Tallinn in 2008, was upgraded in 2016 using the equipment of two Estonian DR1B motor cars, and two motor cars from train no. 276 were converted to non-motorized head cars, converting the engine room into a bicycle compartment In addition to Estonia and Lithuania, some of the trains were modernized also in Latvia, with reconstructing a part of the trailer also into non-motorized head cars The transmission was a different, a Voith two-stage hydraulic transmission, the controlling equipment was with the use of electronics, as well as the head cars had slight differences The trains received the designation DR1AM Trains were modernized not only for the needs of Latvia itself but also for other countries For example, DR1AM-183 after the modernization was sent to Tbilisi-Passenger depot We asked from a Latvian driver, Edgar Tuminš-Luks, how would he describe the modernized DR1A trains? It is perhaps for me, and I believe that many of our Riga drivers agree, most succesful modernizing of them all Lithuanians modernized, Estonians modernized but ours they are successful, with MTU engines, the hydraulic transmission In the beginning when they came in 1997 We drove without interruptions, stayed in the schedule, they drove very well. There was almost no oil consumption, maybe we added once in a month or in 3 weeks 5 litres The hydrotransmission was not filled for months, there was almost no oil consuption Once in half a year we had to add a little bit In principle the heart of the machine was exchanged, also the transmission, the salon was improved a bit And with that, for not a lot of money the train life was prolonged They were of course made into 3-car trains it was possible to easily couple them, if necessary, 3+3 cars and 9 cars 3+3+3 In principle The most successful modernization according to my view Now, of course, the time has gone by and they are no longer so The consumptions have grown But in overall it is now 2017, they came in 1997 The first modernized train, 267 was modernized 20 years ago, but they still work So in overall I like them In 2004, in the Lviv depot, it was decided to carry out a unique upgrade of the two motor cars of the DR1A-285 diesel train, having formed from them a two-car service diesel train for the management of the Lviv railway Motor cars had undergone major upgrades, during which one of them was converted into a non-motorized head car During the modernization of the wagons new driver cabs were installed, the replacement of windows, doors and passages, the installation of new passages between cars, the re-equipment of the interior of the cabin and passenger compartment and a number of other modernizations Instead of double-sided sliding automatic doors, single-sided turning manual ones were installed The roof of the cars over the former passenger salons was raised to the roof level of the engine room Between the cars was installed a hermetic passage of the “harmonica” type The modernized two-car train began to be used for inspection runs by the management of the Lviv railway

and it was still operating in 2016 In addition to the miracle-train, several more trains were modernized, using the MTU engine and the Ganz-Mavag transmission A part of the DR1 diesel trains of the of the Belarusian register took place at the Lida depot, also with the separation of trains The DR1 and DR1A train were upgraded In the beginning, the designation of the train was changed to DRL1 that is a Diesel train Riga, modernized in Lida, 1st type but it did not stay like this Upgraded trains eventually received the designation MDP meaning Small Diesel Train (Malyj dizel poezd) It is known about the formation of 10 MDP trains numbers from 001 to 010 The design of the cab of motor wagons did not change, The trailer head cars of the MDP trains, except for MDP-010, have the same cabs since they are rebuilt from motor cars MDP trains started to work in Lida and Brest depots In 2005, the RWF produced a promotional booklet of a DR3 train, with technical data and general information, with a MTU diesel engine and Voith transmission, but also this train stayed only on paper In October 2015 in Latvia, at the RWF the already upgraded three-car DR1A trains continued to be modernized The cabs of motor and trailer head cars received a design in the style of the DR1B 500-trains, and the trains themselves got the designation DR1AC without changing the number In the salons were installed soft comfortable seats The salons are equipped with new air conditionig systems and fire alarm systems Modern vacuum toilets, which were placed in intermediate cars were taken in use Also new glass-sliding doors were installed at the enterance to the salon And double sided sliding doors were installed at the entrance to the cars Initially, the Caterpillar diesel engines were planned to be used, which is why the AC designation was given Diesel engines were already bought, but when installing the first engine, it was accidentally found out that the engine does not fit through the opening in the roof to the engine room After many scandals and disputes, they installed MTU engines, but the documentation was already done with the calculation for Caterpillar, and therefore the index AC remained As a transmission was used a Voith hydraulic transmission, as well as a new screw compressor was installed Instead of a starter generator, driven by a main diesel engine, a separate diesel generator was installed, and the diesel engine was started with a separate starter, as the first diesel engine M756 on the DR1 trains had once been In general, the diesel train DR1AC is similar to the “new” DR3 developed in 2005 On September 30, 2016 in Latvian press an article appeared with a title: “Six modernized trains were repaired 57 times in four months”, which says a lot about their reliability and quality We asked from a Latvian driver, Edgar Tuminš-Luks, how would he describe the modernized DR1AC trains? The DR1AC trains have the comfort of another level There are many things that are meant for the locomotive crew, an air conditioned cabin, a small refrigerator was fitted For a summer period it can be said that it is inevitable If you go for long journeys, it sometimes is that when you reach the end station, you need to go back right away, then you can eat something else than sandwiches, and you can have something better, according to your feel Then the control console itself is more ergonomic, the seat is more comfortable, with air suspension, window and mirror heating, it is all very comfortable Computer controlled ancillary equipment

the position of the doors, video surveillance, much more convenient as a whole There are, of course, also disadvantages, but not everything can be thought through completely As it happened, the DR1 trains got into accidents, burned, and sometimes the details of an aircraft gave notice of themselves, the train flew off the track to a field As for example in 1976 when, on a level crossing at the speed of 54 km/h DR1-014 collided with a ZIL truck as a result the motor car flew on a field and in 2006 in Estonia, when on a level crossing the train collided with a panel truck at the speed of 90 km/h the head car and one trailer car flew from the track to a field In both cases, no one from the passengers got injured, DR1-014 was restored but Estonian cars were not restored and they were scrapped to metal In March 1971, at Vangazi station, the diesel train DR1-050 was mistakenly taken by the dispatcher to a track occupied by a freight train, and crashed into its end at a speed of 26 km/h The car was damaged to the extent of a write-off, and 32 passengers were injured In 1972, at the Kangari station on the Riga-Ergli line, the train DR1P-072 crashed On this line, the stations had manual switches, which the locomotive crew had to set themselves During the stop at Kangari station, the driver’s assistant prepared the route in advance, not knowing that from Ergli was arriving a freight train with a stream locomotive When the locomotive driver noticed the incorrect route, it was already too late and there was a collision Motor car 072-3 suffered severely, but since the train was less than a year old, it was decided to restore it Because of the severe damage, the factory produced a new body frame of the motor car, to which the survived parts of the crashed car were installed Therefore, on the car 072-3 there was no large RWF logo, and there were also no covers of the jumper cable sockets In 2018, in Russia and in Estonia, the operation of the DR1A trains has stopped In Russia are operating, only the service DR1B-515 and 1515, and in Estonia, two motor cars are used for hauling the track measurement car as well as private charter-trips There were orders for a discotheque-train, and even for an 8 car-train In February 2017, there was a curious case when after the breakdown of a TEP70 locomotive in Narva with the Moscow-Tallinn train, the diesel train DR1B of two motor cars was used as an auxiliary locomotive According to the driver of the diesel train Mart Klaassen, the train worked normally, without any problems hauled six cars with a locomotive In this way, Azerbaijan was added the list of countries with DR1 trains, where a Belarusian DR1P-403 was sold from the Orsha depot In Azerbaijan, it is used as a train for the railway chief And in 2016, one train from Estonia was also sold to Tajikistan DR1A and its modifications are used in regular service in Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and in Belarus The greatest number of DR1A trains is in Belarus, about 70 trains 6 motor cars are preserved in museums – 032 in the museum of the railways of Russia in St. Petersburg, 045 in the Brest railway museum, 053 in Baranovichi railway museum, 129 in Harkiv, 310 in Samara and 322 in the Kaliningrad railway museum Apart from DR1A-333,

211 DR1A consists were produced in total If to count alse all the other trains of the DR1 series, that is DR1, DR1P, DR1B and the Cuban DR6, 362 trains were built By 2017, only trains DR1A and DR1B have remained in service In total of about 150 trains are operating, including both the first experimental trains DR1A with numbers 405 Diesel trains DR1A were as they were, made from different details, taken from a truck, a tank, an airplane and an excavator There were certainly shortcomings. The constructor of the Riga factory brought out in 2017 17 deficiencies, which they could not solve during the production Among them were, for example, the noise level in the cab, the lack of air conditioning in the driver’s cab due to the lack of hermetic glass-packet windows, the body often began to rust around the windows The latter caused more frequent repairs Since the purpose was a greater passenger capacity, the seating arrangement in the salons was not the best The constructor is very sad for example, that because of the reducers it was not possible to implement the maximum constructional speed of the train 140 km/h But maybe the drivers have something to add about the DR1 trains? It has to be said that this was a very inconvenient construction, an inconvenient diesel train It’s hard to blame anyone who Maybe the political system did not let the constructors work and construct the train as they would have wanted It is hard to say, but it was not meant for people and the surrounding environment, when the oil residues that accumulate in the collector are led into a pipe that leads under the car where the oil and the fuel residues were simply dripping onto the ground It just… when you think about it today it just does not fit in the head how it was possible to come up with it and to produce it in the series As I already repeat myself, one was built, quickly take one thing from here, second thing from another machine, to fill the need to transport 600 people somewhere and that’s it But that it was built for years, on a monthly basis, it does not fit into your head How was it even possible? I would like that the DR1A trains would still stay in use of course how long they will stay, the time will tell But maybe some day… Now many enthusiasts come to ride with a steam locomotive, on a narrow gauge steam locomotive Maybe some day when here are already modern brand new trains, a DR1A train is specially ordered to go somewhere Maybe it will also be interesting then, like a steam locomotive I would say it like that There was not a better one to take from anywhere They had to be accepted and considered as good They also had small differences Some of them was a little bit sharper, some seemed just a bit better As it is with all the machines The faces are the same, but the character is slightly different I cannot add anything. It is a good machine actually I would say, that one should not spit on them. These machines have been giving us work for quite a long time and quite a lot of passengers have been serviced with them Whatever the quality of them is, if you are careful yourself, you can drive on them very well