Nuclear Non-Proliferation Conference 2010- Jonathon Granoff, Keynote Address

Hello there my name is David Ives i’m the executive director of the albert schweitzer Institute here at Quinnipiac University and it’s a pleasure for me to welcome everybody to this conference I have some housekeeping material chores to do before I before I launch into my remarks we we’ve been planning this conference entitled building up or breaking down the future of the nuclear non-proliferation treaty for several several months and we’re grateful that all of you came and to our speakers and they’ll be introduced throughout the day I would like to point out that for everybody in the general audience we’re having a lunch for you up in up near where you registered so feel free to hang around and and and and have a have a nice little lunch that’s up there and also the bathrooms are up near the registration booth area so you should feel free to go and use those when you need to the there’s a great deal of materials over there to the right some from the Schweitzer Institute many from the global security Institute that are extremely important and well-written and give you a whole very good idea of what what some of the issues are related to nuclear weapons and nuclear testing so please feel free to take them and and and hopefully read them later I’d like to thank the law school for co-sponsoring this event this rightsir Institute and in the law school have been looking for ways to cooperate in since the Schweitzer Institute came on campus and we’re pleased now that we have two major projects this one with a nuclear weapons and also some work that we do together in Nicaragua in terms of humanitarian values I’d like to thank Brad Saxton the Dean of the law school for his support for this I really would like to also thank Jeff Meyer where’s Jeff over there for his his work on this and I’d like to thank my director of programs Aaron Peck who’s sitting in the back there you have to wave higher than that there you go who did a lot of work for this also and especially the ones that did the most work was the law school Human Rights Club so I would like to thank them and I would ask that and all those that are here from the Human Rights Club the law school to please stand and be recognized or at least raise your hand or something over there there’s three over there and a couple over there and say thank you to them my remarks will be will be brief but I wanted to give you a context for this for this whole program the Albert Schweitzer Institute has been a part of Quinnipiac University for a little over eight years now in that time the Albert Schweitzer Institute has grown extensively in terms of its programs and has become pretty well known on an international basis we have sent over 500 students and faculty on humanitarian trips to Nicaragua and Guatemala and Barbados and Gabon where we have built school classrooms water systems and gardens along with training teachers in culturally appropriate teaching methodologies providing occupational and therapy and physical therapy for disabled people helped small businesses grow their businesses and worked with veterans troubled by post-traumatic stress syndrome we also have organized conferences at the UN on peace in Central America with Secretary General Ban ki-moon and conferences at Quinnipiac with the 1991 Nobel Peace Prize laureate Rigoberta menchĂș on racism gender issues and the problems facing indigenous people and with President Carter on the 50th anniversary of dr. dr. Schweitzer’s call for an end of nuclear testing among many other things however one of the most important things about which dr. Schweitzer is not well known has I think as I think he should be is his opposition to nuclear testing and weapons and hence this conference it is my pleasure and honor to represent dr. Schweitzer at the 19 1952 Nobel Peace Prize laureate on an international basis he was known as a prominent theologian philosopher and an expert on the organ music of Johann Johann Sebastian Bach indeed he gave many concerts and lectures on these subjects throughout Europe throughout his life and I often compare his fame to that of Bono of the rock group u2 indeed at a summit for Nobel Peace Prize laureates in Paris last year I told bono that he reminded me of Schweitzer due to his excellence in music and his dedication to humanitarian values his response was cool very extensive conversation however

Schweitzer left all of his fame in Europe when he decided to become a medical doctor and work in what is now the country of Gabon and what was then at the beginning of the 20th century French Equatorial Africa he lived and worked in the town called Lam Bahraini for 50 years and even became more famous for his humanitarian example in Africa and for what he felt was his most important contribution to the world the idea of reverence for life from the German I understand that the word reverence translates more accurately to the English word ah which conveys a sense of wonder for all life plant animal and human it is tough to kill another human being if you think of another human being with a sense of wonder and amazement however in 1957 Schweitzer decided through the influence of his friend Albert Einstein and Norman Cousins to strongly oppose nuclear testing and nuclear weapons with the help of the Nobel Peace Prize Committee and radio Oslo he delivered three radio addresses broadcast throughout Europe in which he described and detailed the problems of nuclear testing I think we all need to be reminded of the horror of nuclear war or even an explosion of one of these weapons ISM most people I feel are very complacent about these awful devices annex excerpt from his radio address follows the explosion of an atomic bomb creates an inconceivable inconceivably large number of exceedingly small particles of radioactive elements which decay like uranium or radium some of these particles decay very quickly others more slowly and some of them extraordinarily slowly the strongest of these elements ceased to exist only ten seconds after that after the detonation of a bomb but but in this short time they have killed a great number of people in a circumference circumference of several miles of these elements some exit four hours some for weeks or months or years or millions of years undergoing continuous decay they float in the high strata of air as clouds of radioactive dust the heavy particles fall down first the lighter ones will stay in the air for a longer time or come down with rain or snow how long that will take before everything carried up in the air by the explosions which have taken place until now no one can say with any certainty according to some estimates the earliest this will be will be 30 or 40 years from now and Schweitzer was speaking in about 1957 Schweitzer was not only concerned about nuclear fallout but the moral implications of a decision to use nuclear devices he quoted an English MP who said with good reason he who uses atomic weapons become subject to a fate of of B namely when it stings it will perish inevitably for having made use of its sting he who uses atomic weapons to defend freedom would become subject to a similar fate later on in his life he commented on the fact that the world came close to nuclear war over the Cuban Missile Crisis and over the construction of the Berlin Wall in an open letter to the United States Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara Schweitzer who was very concerned that McNamara had been given authority to authority to launch nuclear strikes in response to the Berlin crisis writes the following a war fought with atomic weapons is something so horrible that not even military people or the scientists concerned with the real significance of atomic weapons can have a full notion about it first of all it no longer has the character of war war up to now has meant that through the use of weapons territory can be conquered or can be defended against enemies a war with atomic weapons is very different during such a war no territorial fortress can be conquered nor can any territory or fortress be defended the only possibility is mutual senseless unlimited destruction this destruction will take place over vast territory and fast territories and far over the borders of combatants because of the terrible explosions fires and a terrible poisoning of the atmosphere and soil a great part of many populations will perish fully atomic war has nothing to do with two natures two nations but with the whole of humanity other Nobel Peace Prize laureates have chimed in to support the elimination of nuclear weapons and have specific recommendations to make at a summit of Nobel Peace Prize laureates in Gwangju South Korea in 2006 the laureates made the following statement if we are to have stability we must have justice this means the same rules apply to all where this principle is violated disaster is risked in this regard we point to the failure of the nuclear weapon states to fulfill their bargain contained in the

nuclear non-proliferation treaty to negotiate the new universal and elimination of nuclear weapons to pursue a nuclear weapons-free Korean Peninsula or Middle East or Southeast Asia without credible commitment to universal nuclear nuclear disarmament is akin to a parent trying to persuade his teenagers not to smoke while puffing on a cigar there are steps available to make progress in this area and they include one completing the treaty with full verification mechanisms cutting off further production of highly enriched uranium or plutonium for weapons purposes to Universal ratification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty now ruled ratified by a hundred and seventy-six Nations three taking the Arsenal’s of Russia and the US of hair-trigger launch on warning high alert for illegally confirmed pledges by all states with nuclear weapons never to use them first and five making cuts in the US and Russia’s arsenal irreversible and verifiable returning to rate two Schweitzer’s radio addresses he concludes one of them by saying the following the awareness that we are all human beings together has become lost in war and through politics we have reached the point of regarding each other only as members of people either allied with us or against us in our approach prejudice sympathy or antipathy are all conditioned by that now we must rediscover the fact that we altogether our human beings and that we must strive to concede to each other what moral capacity we have only in this way can we begin to believe that in other people’s as well as in ourselves there there will arise the need for a news new spirit which can be the beginning of feeling of a feeling of mutual trustworthiness towards each other Schweitzer goes on to say and remember this as 1957 and the words are still applicable today that quote it would become of immense importance if the United States in this hour of Destiny could decide in favor of renouncing atomic weapons to remove the possibility of an eventual outbreak of atomic war the theory of peace through terrifying and opponent by greater armament can now only heighten the danger of war unquote I am pleased and proud that President Obama is finally paying attention to watch to Schweitzer’s call for a ninja Newt to the dangers of nuclear war and testing however I am not at all pleased that there seems to be momentum building now to build to spend billions of dollars I’m making a new generation of nuclear weapons even while trying to eliminate them I am considering going one step farther in supporting countries like Costa Rica and Malaysia which have called for a new nuclear weapons convention entirely to address these thorny issues however today I hope that all of you will join me and the people on the various panels to make sure that the nuclear non-proliferation treaty builds up and does not under any circumstances break down thank you one more housekeeping detail before I introduce our keynote speaker Henry Lowen Dorf this here can you wave Henry and Henry has some petitions over there to be signed that are anti nuclear weapons in nature but you can read them when you’re there so thank you for if you want to see them at some point um it’s my pleasure to introduce our keynote speaker today I first met Jonathan in Rome at a summit of Nobel Peace Prize laureates about six years ago and Jonathan was running around trying to make sure the summit went well and still had time to make comments to me and show his interest in me as the first timer there actually helped me get on the dais and give a speech which I really appreciated at the time Jonathan is an attorney author and international advocate emphasizing the legal ethical and spiritual dimensions of human development and security with a specific focus on advancing the rule of law to address the threats posed by nuclear weapons he is the president of the global of security Institute senior adviser to the American Bar Association’s Committee on arms control in national security and the co-chair of the American Bar Association Blue Ribbon Task Force on nuclear non-proliferation he is senior advisor to the Nobel Peace Prize Nobel Peace Laureate summit and has served as vice president and UN representative of the lawyers Alliance for world security he serves on numerous governing and advisory boards including the American Bar Association international law section lawyers Committee on nuclear policy the Fortune Forum the Jane Goodall Institute the bipartisan security group and the middle powers initiative just a few things that he does I personally have learned a lot from Jonathan about the issue of nuclear non-proliferation spirituality and I hope you here today will feel the same

way without further ado I’d like to present my friend Jonathan Granoff I think that was an adequate keynote actually I’m I’m gonna begin with some quotes from Albert Schweitzer as well too because I think that he is truly a compass point for morality for our time man is a clever animal who behaves like an imbecile let us dare to face the situation man has become Superman he is Superman because he not only has at his disposal innate physical forces but also commands thanks to scientific and technological advances the latent forces of nature which he can now put to his own use however the Superman suffers from a fatal flaw he has failed to rise to the level of superhuman reason which should match that of his superhuman strength he requires such reason to put this vast power to solely reasonable and useful ends and not to destructive and murderous ones because he lacks it the conquest conquests of science and technology become a mortal danger to him rather than a blessing so it is it is appropriate that the law school and the Albert Schweitzer Institute should partner in this because it is precisely this problem that he addresses as a moral dilemma that needs to be addressed with a legal solution there is no military solution to dealing with the threats posed by nuclear weapons and it is not sufficient to just have the sentiment which we’ve heard expressed by the President of the United States that we should get rid of them we need the tools of morality and law to actually accomplish this task and that’s why the nuclear non-proliferation treaty is so important and why it is a worthy focus of our discussion today but before we get to the treaty I want to put some humanity into the subject matter Schweitzer said we’ve talked for decades with an ever increasing light mindedness about war and conquest as if these were merely operations of a chessboard so I’d like to begin by reading some of the testimony of the mayor of Hiroshima mayor Heroica when he testified before the International Court of Justice which in the 1990s addressed the issue of the legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons the mayor said the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki shattered all war precedent the mind-numbing damage these weapons wrought shook the foundations of human existence the dropping of the nuclear weapon is a problem that must be addressed globally history is written by the victors thus the heinous massacre that was her Oshima has been handed down to us as a perfectly justified act of war as a result for over 50 years we’ve never directly confronted the full implications of this horrifying act for the future of the human race hence we are still forced to live under the enormous threat of nuclear weapons beneath the atomic bombs must monstrous mushroom cloud human skin was burned raw crying for water human beings died in desperate agony with thoughts of these victims as the starting point it is incumbent upon us to think about the nuclear age and the relationship between human beings and nuclear weapons the unique characteristic of the atomic bombing was that the enormous destruction was instantaneous and universal old young male female soldiers civilians the killing was utterly indiscriminate the entire city was exposed to the compound and devastating effects of the thermal rays shockwave blasts and radiation above all we must focus on the fact that the human misery caused by the atomic bomb is different from that caused by conventional weapons human bodies were burned by the Thermal rays and high-temperature fires broken and lacerated by the blast and insidiously attacked by radiation these forms of damage compounded and amplified each other and the name given to the combination was a bomb disease the bomb reduced Hiroshima to an inhuman state utterly beyond human ability to express or imagine I feel frustrated and not being able to express this

completely in my testimony about the tragedy of the atomic bombing it is clear that the use of nuclear weapons which caused indiscriminate mass murder that leaves survivors to suffer for decades is a violation of international law in a book that’s recently been released called the last train from hiroshima there’s a very sort of a I think this is a very graphic and compelling description of an eyewitness testimony the author describes the so-called ant walking alligators that survivors saw everywhere were men and women who were now eyeless and faceless with their heads transformed into blackened alligator hides displaying red holes and indicating mouths the alligator people did not scream their mouths could not form the sounds the noise they made was worse than screaming they uttered a continuous murmur like locusts on a midsummer night one man staggering uncharged stumps of legs was carrying a dead baby upside down I recently was in Hiroshima at the Peace Center and met with the current mayor mayor Akiba who is the head of a mayor’s for peace initiative with now has over 3,000 cities in fact the United States Conference of Mayors has endorsed their program which for the mayor from Akron Ohio is their spokesperson I mean we’re talking mayor’s who realize that their cities are targets and they don’t like it and it’s it I mean it’s striking to me that the pornography of the trivial that dominates our media doesn’t give publicity to our own mayor’s and thus and thus we don’t have a overflowing audience year because the issue is really neglected but in Hiroshi um it’s not neglected and I went to a service while I was there we’re in a buddhist center once a month on the sixth of each month they remember the people who passed on august 6 1945 and the the the buddhist priests who who ran the place told me his own personal story in which he said that he was about 11 years old when the bomb went off and that morning he had gone into a tunnel to play with some of his friends and when he came out everything was gone it was very compelling to me because there i was in the city that he was talking about that just a short while ago i mean it was just he said everything was gone all of his family was killed his friends were all killed but it was just in an instant you know and that one day when in the city was a it was a beautiful sunny day and they came out and it was all gone and that night I walked the streets of Hiroshima and Hiroshi Shima is an amazing experience I would encourage everyone to go there as a pilgrimage as a pilgrimage to the to the transformative moment of our time and what I saw was a vibrant dynamic creative City people were at was said it’s totally safe it’s one of the safest cities in the world and people are out too it’s like it’s like a European city and that people are out till very late and there’s a whole section of the town with restaurants and clubs and nightclubs very creative and it’s a very dynamic business community and I’d read from wise people that one should see the divine in the ordinary daily lives of our daily life you know raising a family having a job just getting up and being human to your neighbors is really an expression of something very exalted and Albert Schweitzer wrote extensively about this point about seeing about seeing the divine in everyday life and I had never I’d intellectually had wanted to see it but I saw it for the first time in her Oshima I saw that these people had faced the had faced the of hell they’d face what hell is and had chosen life and I just found that to be so inspiring and it reaffirmed my commitment to this this which I believe to be the essential litmus test of our time at that term was conveyed to me by then Senator Robert Kennedy when I was interning in Washington in the 1960s and he spoke to a bunch of interns and told us about what really happened in the Cuban Missile Crisis and how close we came to destruction and he said it was the moral litmus test moral and practical litmus test of our time that if we fail on this issue all other issues fail so when the World Court addressed the issue it addressed what the mayor of Hiroshima ended his testimony was calling it a violation of international law and what the court said was that the court was divided as to whether under all circumstances the use of a nuclear weapon would be illegal it said it was generally illegal but

they couldn’t decide whether it would be illegal of a country in a state of absolute existential threat that an absolute exigent circumstance and under such circumstances they they said however that that there was an an absolute need to comply with customary humanitarian international law which prohibits the use of a weapon incapable of distinguishing between combatants and civilians it must adhere to the principle of protecting neutral States that it must be proportionate to the attack that the state has suffered it must not cause permanent damage to the environment nor unnecessary suffering so one of the judges objected to that decision said he couldn’t see judge where Amon Tree couldn’t see that any use of a nuclear weapon could possibly be compliant with all this and the British lawyers argued well well hypothetically you could drop a bomb as a depth charge in in the in the oceans or in the Gobi Desert somewhere but that’s not really the way that what the weapons are targeted they’re targeted at cities and they’re targeted at people and and it’s simply impossible possible to control the the radiation that fallout in space and time so it’s impossible to protect neutral states it’s impossible to distinguish between combatants and civilians so the court was divided on on on the principle at international law so so fundamentally rests on the importance of state keeping the state as an entity so the way the court resolved it was they unanimously agreed that there was a duty to negotiate to completion illegal instruments or instrument abolishing nuclear weapons and that’s the that’s that’s the state of the highest court in the world’s pronouncement on the subject and I think it’s it’s been you know neglected it hasn’t been argued it hasn’t been debated in the public in the United States nor has the fundamental morality of nuclear weapons most of the dialogue we hear is we have to make sure that the bad guys don’t get the weapons even people like Sam Nunn who’s come out for nuclear abolition speculates that what drives him is if if there was a bomb used on an American city he said well what he said he was thinks what what could I have done to prevent that but the fundamental issue for me is the willingness of anybody whether they’re Russians or Americans to use this device that that I’m worried about what would happen the day after we would use it and kill hundreds of millions of innocent people what would we be as a country what will we be as a people what would we be as a civilization I mean what does it mean to be focused on your nation’s security I get my gas from a Russian concession when my computer doesn’t work I’m on the phone with a kid from Bangalore and our money is backed up by debt by loans from China we you know my shirt was made in Malaysia and we live in one world and the idea that we would risk all in everything well let me state at the George Kenan not known to be a left-wing radical ban the bomber the American diplomat who originated the Cold War containment policy to the Soviet Union George Kenan said the readiness to use nuclear weapons against other human beings against people we do not know whom we’ve never seen and whose guilt or innocence is not for us to establish and in so doing to place in jeopardy the natural structure upon which all civilization rests as though the safety and perceived interest of our own generation we’re more important than everything that has taken place or could take place in civilization this is nothing less than a presumption a blasphemy an indignity an indignity of monstrous dimensions offered to God that’s George Kenan and I find that kind of moral moral testimony for me very compelling and that the nuclear venture is I think that we need to start focusing not on the possessor of the weapon so much as the nature of the weapon itself the nature that weapon is so extraordinarily horrific it remains abhorrent in anybody’s hands let me give an example of how I think of it and and

and I think you might find this clarifying there is a a treaty banning biological weapons universally banning biological weapons no imagine if that treaty said that polio and smallpox are banned and prohibited from anybody anybody’s use but there are nine countries that are so responsible moral and trustworthy that we will allow them to use the plague as a weapon to maintain international peace and security well obviously that would be morally incomprehensible but it would be practically incomprehensible it would be unsustainable because of its lack of equity because human beings talk any seven-year-old about the nature of fairness and they’ll tell you you have to be fair you have to treat other people the way you want to be treated and if you don’t treat people the way you want to be treated you have a problem and that’s the underlying problem of our current dilemma but there is a treaty that in a sense addresses this problem it’s called the nuclear non-proliferation treaty and it really is a marvelous instrument it arose because the Intelligence Estimates during the 1960’s reported that by the end of the 70s there would be 25 to 30 states with nuclear weapons integrated into their national Arsenal’s and ready for use the treaty came into force in 1970 and I just want to pause for a second that’s when Richard Nixon was president and the INF treaty that wiped out an entire class of weapons was negotiated by Republican leadership the Chemical Weapons Convention was negotiated by Republican leadership the START treaty Republican leadership the the the fact that we have reached a partisan impasse on arms control now is a distortion of the historical record historically oddly enough enormous amounts of progress were made during Republican administrations and I remind all of us that Ronald Reagan was a nuclear weapons abolitionist so the idea that progress on arms control non-proliferation and disarmament is a partisan or a democratic party issue is really not historically accurate so the treaty came into force in 1970 and is effectively constrained proliferation because of the success of the NPT we’ve escaped a nightmarish alternative world in which dozens of nuclear weapons States make every local issue into a global crisis and ambassador Thomas Graham Jr who led the u.s. negotiating team in 1995 at the treaties review an extension conference said in explaining the core bargain in exchange for a commitment from the non-nuclear weapon states today 182 nations not to develop or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons and to submit to international safeguards intended to verify compliance with the commitment article 2 of the treaty the NPT nuclear weapons States promised unfettered access to peaceful nuclear technologies nuclear power reactors and nuclear nuclear medicine article 4 and pledged to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear arsenals article 6 during the negotiations that created the NPT several prominent non-nuclear weapon states Germany Italy and Sweden for example refused to allow the treaty to be permanent and so they argued that after 25 years the treaty needed to be reviewed to be determined whether it would be indefinitely extended extended for a a period of time or terminated so in 1995 all 100 and then 187 parties to the treaty came together and negotiated the extension of the treaty an indefinite extension was obtained but of course like any bargaining there were there was a quiz a quid quid pro quos and part of that bargaining was contained in the what were called principles and objectives of nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament and these were if politically binding commitments of all of the states and these were promises that the United States made to induce the indefinite extension of the treaty and these included a comprehensive test-ban treaty an affirmation of our commitment to pursue nuclear disarmament commenced negotiations for a treaty to stop the

production of nuclear bombs materials sharply reduced global nuclear arsenals encouraged the creation of nuclear weapons free zones vigorously work to make the treaty universe so by bringing in Israel Pakistan and India enhance IAEA safeguards and reinforced the negative security assurances to non-nuclear weapon states that they would not be threatened with nuclear weapons additionally it was committed that every five years the treaty would be reviewed to be determined whether these commitments toward disarmament were being fulfilled or not so in 2000 which was the first review conference I would say that was a high-water mark and really it was a landmark successful international conference in which 13 practical steps reaffirming many of the statements that were made in 95 were reaffirmed they also added the print which you’ll hear later about today from some of the technical experts who were here and by the way David I want to commend you and really bringing an extraordinary group of experts I mean this is this is a conference I I live and breathe this issue this is a conference I would have come to just to hear some of the other people that are here I’m looking in this row right right here with Nick and John and honson and and May I mean these are these are people that I would I would come to here many of the top top people so in in in 2000 another very important commitment was also made the principle of irreversibility to applied it to nuclear disarmament so that the idea was that the cuts that are taking place between Russia and the United States should be made irreversible and language that even strengthened the statement of commitment to disarmament quote an unequivocal undertaking by the nuclear weapons States to accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals as per article 6 so that it wasn’t just the pursuit of the ultimate elimination but it was an unequivocal undertaking to accomplish it what do we have now we have in the world today Russia has between 13 and 14 thousand nuclear weapons the United States has between ten and eleven thousand China has about a hundred and thirty France around three hundred the United Kingdom around one hundred and sixty Israel around eighty the 50 Pakistan 60 North Korea maybe 10 so you can note there that there’s two countries with about 95% of the Arsenal’s and let me remind you that the Arsenal’s the size of the Arsenal’s the the kind of weapons we’re talking about are not not the size of her Oshima and Nagasaki most of the Arsenal’s are are most of the Arsenal’s are art you know are the trigger the General Lee Butler told me that the triggering devices on most of the weapons are the size of what was on her Oshima Nagasaki so Maharashtra Nagasaki was about fifteen thousand tons of TNT 15 kilotons we have bombs in the Megaton range now million tons most of the bombs are between 150 and 300 kilotons which is 10 to 20 times the size of Hiroshima and we have no idea what would happen to the climate if a few hundred of these went off but many scientists are saying that that would basically end civilization so when you when you talk about these numbers of the you know tens of thousands of them over 20,000 of them it just boggles the imagination that we would continue this venture at the cost last year of over 50 billion dollars to keep the Arsenal going and when you realize the inspection regime of the IAEA has never spent more than 130 million in a year to do all the inspections in the world and we spend more than that a day we the United States alone on the nuclear arsenal it’s really shocking but I I think that we need to go back to the the moral and existential threat of the weapons not just the complexity of the treaties not just the the great danger that that entities terrorists or state some states that couldn’t be deterred could get them but the very danger of their very existence the I call it the ups factor oops we forgot about that and it is simply well let me quote general Butler who was and who was in charge of the targeting and readiness that one point of the whole arsenal he was commander of the US strategic nuclear forces during the 1990s he says it’s more chilling than anything you can imagine that’s a quote he notes a litany of near catastrophes missiles that quoting him missiles that blew up in their silos and ejected their nuclear warheads outside

the confines of the silo b-52 aircraft that collided with tankers and scattered nuclear weapons across the coast and into the offshore seas of Spain a b-52 bomber with nuclear weapons aboard that crashed in North Carolina a nun investigation it was discovered then on one of those weapons six of the seven safety devices that prevent a nuclear explosion had failed as a result of the crash there are dozens of such incidents nuclear missile Laden submarines that experience catastrophic accidents and now lie at the bottom of the ocean in 1995 there was a weather satellite sent off the coast of Norway and the Russians were told that this was a weather satellite but it didn’t go up the command and control so when it went off it looked like it was a Trident launch and the and and the message was brought to then president Boris Yeltsin that the Russia Russia was under attack and he had less than 10 minutes to make a decision as to whether this was a mistake or or or or an actual attack in which case the the Russian Arsenal could be under attack this their fear would be that the first volley would hit their weapon so he’d have to shoot them off before they got hit and he had very little time thank God he wasn’t drunk and thank God the trajectory became clear that it was not headed toward Moscow it was just a weather satellite not a trident launch Sean on June 30th US command posts indicate a June 3rd 1980 US command post indicated a Soviet attack launch cruise for Minuteman missiles were given preliminary launch warnings and bomber aircraft manned was that we were talking like less than a 15 minute time period computer displays showed two missiles attacking then none and then 200 a simple computer chip had malfunctioned recent mishaps should cause continuing concern for example on August 30th 2007 a USB 50 du bomber was mistakenly armed with six nuclear warheads and flown for more than three hours across the United States without without sufficient command and control supervision on October 19 2007 the Department of Defense and Air Force released a report that concluded handling standards and procedures had not been followed subsequently four commanders were relieved of their commands numerous personnel were disciplined and in the wake of this and other incidents Secretary of Air Force Michael Wynne and chief of staff of the Air Force General Michael Mosley resigned think of India and Pakistan and the level of command and control that they have and we are all downwind and we know how diligent American armed forces are in protecting these materials and they are diligent and yet human errors are part of the human condition we are not supermen as Albert Schweitzer a pond even under the best of circumstances are not unique to the United States On February 3rd 2009 the Vanguard a British Royal Navy nuclear submarine and the triumph on a French nuclear vessel collided in the Atlantic Ocean both carry nuclear warheads and were on routine patrol defense officials said they were unable to see each other and they just had a collision they made a mistake Ronald Reagan admitted quote six minutes to decide how to respond to a blip on a radar scope and decide whether to Unleashed Armageddon how could any one apply reason at such a time and that’s the situation that we have today and it is simply not realistic nor really moral to think that biaxin are to design these weapons won’t eventually be used as long as exist and the most powerful stimulant to them is the fact that the most powerful nations claim that they need to have them for their security now the arguments against progress on disarmament I think have become strange and burlesque one of the arguments we’re hearing now from those who extol the virtues of nuclear weapons is that if the United States makes progress on the disarmament agenda it will stimulate proliferation amongst our friends and allies and I mean that’s truly Orwellian and it is completely bolide by the facts they ignore Westerwelle Germany’s foreign minister who called for the recently called for withdrawal of oral

all NATO nuclear weapons from German salt soil within four years to make progress on the disarmament agenda he said it would set in a good example when it comes to disarmament or Japanese Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama praising President Obama’s global disarmament initiative went further by suggesting that Washington force where the use of nuclear weapons except in response to a nuclear attack such a no first use posture would dramatically lower the role of nuclear weapons and military planning and I had the privilege of meeting with foreign minister Okada in December in Japan and found out that he had actually drafted when he before he came into office he had drafted a model treaty on making North East Asia a nuclear weapons free zone and is encouraging parliamentarians in his country to work with parliamentarians in South Korea and and make progress on that additionally he wrote a letter which is there’s a press conference today in in in Tokyo and he wrote a letter to foreign minister fraud to Secretary of State Clinton stating clearly Japan’s encouragement of progress on disarmament so I wonder what these countries are that people like senator kyl are saying will become nuclear weapon States if we make progress I mean I’m waiting for them to actually name names instead of just creating irrational fears and lies frankly these are lies the facts contradict the statements and and yet they go they remain unrebutted because we really just don’t have we don’t have a sufficient platform for these issues even the Nobel laureates have have a hard time getting this message out and I want to read from on my conclusion here I’m going to read from what the Nobel Peace Laureate said in what the Rome declaration on this subject actually I’m gonna put a graphic up before I read what they said and then until an anecdote recently David and I were in Berlin we were in Berlin at the last summit of the Nobel Peace Laureates and I had the privilege of being asked to be on a panel with Willem de Klerk yeah you put it up all right Willem de Klerk and Mikhail Gorbachev which is you know pretty pretty cool right I mean so I said on behalf of maybe billions of people president de Klerk for your courage in standing up and tearing down the horrible wall of racism and apartheid and your courage and doing that god bless you and thank you and President Gorbachev in this room today there are many people who have made history but it’s fair to say that you saved history and the night before they’d had these huge celebrations Hillary Clinton was there and all these heads of state and from Europe were there celebrating the taking down of the Berlin Wall and and I got to say to President Gorbachev you know thank you for your courage and helping to tear down that wall and then I said and now it’s time and then I had I had this this blown up into a a banner seven by fourteen feet that came out was was held aloft by these students from from the University of Heidelberg and there were several hundred students in the audience because there were celebrities there and and they came out with this banner and then I got to say and now it’s time to tear down this wall because this wall represents a wall on the planet Earth where on Monday we’re asking countries to forsake short-term economic opportunity for long term environmental responsibility to protect the global Commons if one country can dump in the oceans everyone can dump under their flag we need a universal norm to protect the oceans to protect the climate we even found in Davos discussion two years ago when that people wanted to discuss controlling the global casino derivative instruments and betting on currency transactions and all of that they were laughed off the stage but now that is the discussion how do you control the global casino how do you set global norms for the financial markets so and and and we know the Millennium Development Goals will not be met in addressing the immoral and gross disparities of wealth on the planet unless we have global norms and an international regime is impossible to dress our the the the needs of Main Street Wall Street and no Street and to

address protecting the global Commons of the living systems we depend upon the oceans the climate on Monday and then on tuesday explain to all but nine countries that they are second class security citizens that that that we claim a greater right to security with and to brandish these weapons than they have I just don’t see how the cooperation can be forthcoming unless there’s a norm a norm on security that unless we start really living up to the principles embodied in the UN Charter unless we unless we move in that direction and it’s and the business community is there that’s the IRA that’s the irony especially for people who are confirmed leftists who think that money is distorting everything the fact is the business community has woven together a global global legal regime that is actually working you can franchise anywhere in the world you can have a letter of credit in kuala lumpur and be completely certain that it’s going to be honored here in here in central connecticut we have the the lawyers of the world have helped create a truly cooperative functioning system of communications of travel and a finance and business and so when people say oh it’s how would we do it well it’s already taking place where it hasn’t taken place is in the minds of military planners and in the minds of the bureaucracies and businesses that have an interest in perpetuating this madness but the person on the street understands that we are certainly not existential enemies of Russia I mean what does anybody here realize I mean the that we are we are we have the ability not the ability we have the training we have people trained to be willing upon orders to annihilate all of the people in the major cities of Russia in a half an hour and they similarly have people trained and have weapons pointed at us right now and a half an hour could all be gone it’s it’s over our heads and we’re not existential enemies by any stretch of the imagination China China China they have no economy without us they’re our bank so that Nobel laureate said we Nobel Peace Laureates and laureate organizations gathered in Rome Italy have for years been deeply disturbed by the lack of public attention and political will at the highest levels of state paid to the need to eliminate nuclear weapons there are over at the time there are over 22,000 of these device is threatening civilization with over 95% in the hands of Russia in the u.s this danger threatens everyone and every person must work to eliminate this risk before it eliminates us we oppose the proliferation of nuclear weapons to any state we’re faced each day with a new crisis in proliferation exemplified by concerns resort regarding North Korea and Iran however our focus must be on the weapons themselves for the only sustainable resolution to gain security is the universal elimination of nuclear weapons the failure to address the nuclear threat and to strengthen existing treaty obligations to work for nuclear weapons abolition shreds the fabric of cooperative security a world with nuclear haves and have-nots is fragmented and unstable effect underscored by the current threats of proliferation in such an environment cooperation fails nations are unable to address effectively the real threats of poverty environmental degradation and nuclear catastrophe nuclear weapons are more of a problem than any problem they seek to solve in the hands of anyone the weapons themselves remain an unacceptable morally reprehensible impractical and dangerous risk the use of a nuclear weapon against a state without nuclear weapons is patently immoral use against a state with nuclear weapons is also suicidal these weapons have no value against terrorists or criminals progress toward a safer future is not thwart Adama lack of practical threat reducing options the problem is a lack of political will as Nobel Peace Prize laureates we commit to work collectively to achieve the elimination of nuclear weapons which we believe are unworthy of civilization we’ve heard the impassioned warning from the mayor of Hiroshima and the survivors of the atomic bombs and join with the thousands of cities around the world including

Rome calling all nations especially those with nuclear weapons to immediately commence negotiations to obtain their legally verifiable elimination in past years we’ve set forth practical steps which David so aptly set forth the test ban D alerting lower strengthening IAEA safeguards for example we issue a serious warning that without such efforts the nuclear test ban treaty the nuclear non-proliferation treaty could corrode opening the way for dozens of states to become nuclear armed a frightening prospect the NPT is a bargain in which non-proliferation is obtained on the promise of nuclear weapons States to negotiate the elimination of the weapons there is a fundamental dilemma which must end nuclear weapons States want to keep their weapons indefinitely and at the same time condemn others who would attempt to acquire them this is unsustainable the current situation is more dangerous than the Cold War we’re gravely concerned regarding several current developments such as NPT stakeholders enabling rather than constraining proliferation modernization of nuclear weapon systems the aspiration to weaponize space thus making arms control and disarmament on earth more difficult and the declared policy of terrorist organizations to obtain nuclear weapons given the critical nature of the situation we pledge to challenge persuading and inspire heads of state to fulfill the moral and legal obligation they share with every citizen to free us from this threat as Nobel laureates conscience requires us to raise our voices inspire you mankind demand change and we call upon the citizens of the world that’s you and I to join in this work so I want to conclude and just say that the nuclear weapon when you look at the technology of it it is mysterious and wondrous beyond imagination that particles that can’t be perceived with your five senses that make up the very building blocks of matter that hold the fabric of the form of the mystery of creation together when split asunder release power unimaginable to the human mind within one one thousandth of a second three times the heat of the face of the Sun that this power is in human hands people with no more wisdom than the person sitting next to you machines which we have created upon which we now depend to prevent these devices from being used the mystery I believe that gave us the power to unleash this kind of destruction I believe has also given us the power to control it to work together and to use the gift of science and technology to bring us to the point that Albert Schweitzer so powerfully said reverence for life that is even more mysterious in my opinion and more powerful than the gifts of Science and Technology and that begins that reverence for life begins in every one of our hearts and I believe if that reverence is awakened in anybody one of the first issues they’re going to want to work on is eliminating the arrogance of brandishing nuclear weapons and I pray that we become those people who have that reverence for life and step forward with the Nobel Peace Laureates and people like Albert Schweitzer and get rid of nuclear weapons thank you very much you