The Speedometer of Life: Daily Stress, Health, and Well-Being with David Almeida

our speaker for today is David Almeida might met a year ago on a Penn State campus I was visiting there and he gave a talk that was to me so impressive that I said I really must bring David here to our series and to David his currently professor human development college at Penn State University he’s been on the faculty at the University of Arizona as well as at the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan prior to being prior to going to Penn State well known in the scientific community before his organ adult development he’s also made his mark in researching specific populations and contexts such as the workplace family interaction with some parenting children his research has shown that minor yet frequent occurrences of small disturbing events rather than focus this stuff may be really important to our trajectory and that’s important I think he’s gonna be talking about today and I love this title speedometer white daily stress health and well-being although I I described it in fact convening when i announced it as the speedometer why I’ve taken your foot off the gas pedal and that did seem to get a bit of interest from our faculty at least so Dave love when you’re here the top of my talk has to do with how minor sort of mundane features of stressful daily life events can have an impact on our health and well-being and because I’m a developmental psychologist I become interested in looking at how stress and daily stresses are associated with the with the aging process and so hopefully that’ll become clear as I as I march on here given that were somewhat of a more intimate group I would love for anyone to stop in any point if you have questions at all please don’t hesitate to ask if there’s a compliment that that’s one of those well but also before us would acknowledge my my funding sources from from NIH as well as the MacArthur Foundation really wonderful support in this research so we’ll start with some basic definitions stress is a very common in everyday Parliament’s we all experience stress we talk about stress all the time it is a social scientist it’s difficult to actually get a handle on measuring stress so I thought we would least start with some basic definitions first borrowing from engineering much described stress as a force exerted exerted upon a body defense the screen or the disappointment shape so you can imagine when on a bridge beams press a wave hitting a nuclear power plant is being stressed but when we think about stress and human beings it can be similar so here’s a definition by probably DM for the leading stress researcher of the day Bruce McEwen who describes stress as being the pressure the my exerts upon us and the way this pressure makes us feel it’s important to point out here is that studying stress among humans is much more complicated and studying stress among among structures because humans play an active role in this dress process so humans have something to do with the types of stressors that were exposed to as well as how to respond to those stressors I’m saying the father of modern stress research was very interested in studying biological aspects of stress but also very interested in how stress affects the aging process in fact he devoted his final chapter is classic text because why to how stress affects aging and this is one of his quotes is that stress can be seen this in sum of all the wear and tear caused by any buyer action throughout the body and in one point of time that is why I connect as a common denominator of all biological changes which go on his kind of speedometer of life comes from and so when we think

about how people age so they encourage us to think about the type of stress that people had it as well and so you can sort of balance sort of naturally occurring biological agent with the aging that has caused by stress and a few of these papers he tried to come up with the idea of a stress gauge rather than their chronological age to get a sense of how really old Summer Games so for sale in the end stressed in a way was age agent what script so we can think about this in extreme stressful situations how being involved so this is FDR when he entered office with the age of 51 and then 12 years later when exigent almonds so you can see that the wear and tear of bringing the country out of the Great Depression had an impact on how FDR a chore these cultures entered as it looks like a surly spry young man and then exited fairly fragile so this next slide shows that getting a country into economics also very tight you can see this is from no George Bush as a young 54 year old and then after taking us into two and an economic recession he he exited office looking at least quite much all the time didn’t think it was okay here just enough to find political opinions so the purpose of my research has been to examine not extreme situations extreme stress for the actual small daily stressors and by Davis dressers I mean minor events that arise out of day-to-day living such as concerns about work caring for others commuting between work and home also refers to your small and unexpected events like a computer crash arguing with children these sorts of things so the way that I and others have been trying to attempt to measure daily stress it’s a bit different than other sorts of traditional approaches from their interest so one approach is a laboratory approach where people come in and they they all receive a similar stressors such as take your crew people another approach is more of an epidemiological approach that focuses on big major life events such as job loss death of a local the type of approach that I’ve been taking is to try to capture naturally occurring stressful events as they happen and we do this by telephoning people every night for a series of nights and basically asking them what happened to you today did anything stress will happen to think if it did we get a lot of information about that stressor itself so an advantage of this sort of approach is that it allows us to capture stressful situations as they occur also the ability to capture naturally occurring events as they occur so this is a different than allow short approach where people are actually given a stress for these so I firmly believe that people play a big role in the types of stressors that they have and if you bring people into a laboratory use you lose that the second advantage of this approach is that by studying daily stressors you can capture these small events because they happens more frequently obviously major life events have a huge impact on the health and well-being of individuals so I’m starting a job losing a job getting married divorced absolutely these require adjustments they require adaptation however thank goodness they do not occur very frequently daily stressors occur all the time and so there are some evidence now that shows that it’s this frequent exposure to these minor events that have a larger impact on health and well-being then there’s more room make your document another advantage of this approach of asking people about stretchers on a daily basis is it can minimize memory bodies and so when you capture we had someone about a stress that happened to them in the past 24 hours there’s less time to go by that well allow when we reconstruct those experiences to buys the actual experience that happened and finally for me the most important advantage of this approach is that it

allows us to assess at least operationalized stressor reactivity so because we examine people every day for a series of games we can compare dating people Tavis presser person say they don’t have a stressor and if there are differences in their extent of their emotional well-being of physical well-being we can make some sort of claim about the reactivity to his grocery and so so for example this is how I operation marks reactivity reactivity is a slope between the occurrence of stressor not a car so stressed or distress so for example of negative a thick thick seams which people are grumpy in a given game on days when stressors are not occurring we get fairly low levels of negative appt however on a stressor day we see increased levels of being about that yet for some people this reactive this reactivity tired so we can think of reactivity is extent to which we can define you as what I would call the velcro person or Teflon person so velcro would be hiring activity on days of distress recurred you cannot let it go just stick shoot or some people are more like Teflon of days and the stressor occurs just sort of slides off of them and they’re not affected by and so we can think about this in terms of hot negative alpha polygraphic some people just remain sunny and cheerful view in the face of stressors other people from the experience stress that positive out there so what does this have to do with health and well-being well I’ll start sort of with the i would say the most objective measure of public well-being which is mortality so if we can show that reactivity to Davis dress is associated with extent to which people a lot or not then that’s a nice starting point so so my first study i’m going to present is from the northern of aging study there’s a longitudinal study of veteran so started in the 1960s we collected information from these pets you know every every three years or so we him a lot of medical informations on psychosocial data and 2002-2003 we added this daily stress diary component to their protocol where we telephone interview 181 men ask them about stressors that occurred to them as well as their positive negative appt time after after three years we went back to reassess them twelve percent of the men had died women and so the first analysis just shows what extent does daily stress reactivity predict death within three years so this is this is what we found is that after controlling for for age as well as boggling pain a physical health symptoms negative stress reactivity as well as negative effect right to be called positive Africa activity increase the chance of diamond in three years by to full again that’s how I’m controlling for age and the sort of physical it’s also interesting to show is that the exposure to discretion so just the expected people reported having more frequent stressors in their last was not predictive of mortality it was how people responded to it and this next slide shows sort of depicts this association and so osteopathic so similar but so these are the seeds these are the participants who have died within three girls we can see that on three years earlier on days when they didn’t have searched they didn’t look that different from those who who survived after the three years back but on days that they actually have a stressor when you see that those who were more negatively reacting to the stressor for much more likely to die and here we see the results were positive act nice and I find it quite striking so the survivors on average on days that they had a stressor their paws graphic didn’t budge much this is not a significant increase but so they’re sort of staying flying in the face of these monitors dressers however for those men who died three years later receives dramatic drop Ozma traffic on things and they experience so the inability to maintain some sort of joint happiness in the face of stressors seem to be predictive of bartology for three years and so to make this is a nice apart of this paradigm but what I want to talk about now is one of the mechanisms it might be related to the association between stress processes and

welcome and the really wonderful work going on right now and going on for some time and physiology biology of stress and so this is just one example from a colleague of mine Melissa of Hell at San Francisco where she’s developed a model of how stressors initiate this sort of cascade of biochemical changes within the body that lead to the damaging the ends of our chromosomes and so this is the telomere shortening pathway or trans experiences stress sure that increases cortisol and insulin that has other direct indirect increase on immune functioning as well oxidative stress and in the end damages the ends of chromosome which are important for cellular maintenance as well as cellular reproduction so no reason why we see sort of after yard Bush looking much more older could be because they’re damaging their tune because of the stress of their experiencing so this is one for work this is really exciting work this shows that what’s going on outside of our bodies is having some sort of major impact and center body at the DNA level however my by major public this sort of work not really probably I think an issue that needs to be addressed and if we’re kind to address is that this is about as much information or attention that’s given to actual think you’re going to change that what you’re talking I just I was struggling ok I also stuff this is just like my stress ball yeah I checked out they were really wonderful you know any magic you know it’s like the fun with this dress chamomile tea is right though it’s distracting so anyway so so not enough not enough attention is going to pay to this part of the equation with basically the last I’m afraid of what makes people have these stress perceptions a sort of starts with such perception in the biologist way over generalizing this has been really interested in now that has got the true what’s going on inside the body and so the majority of my work has been trying to capture risk opens what’s less stressor perception and it comes down to two main ways considerations for thinking about stress is one is that we need to be very sensitive to variability stressful experiences people have and so so we need to understand it not all stressors are the same trying to find a parking spot is stressful but also fighting with the spouse too stressful my computer break down the stressful these require different types of adaptation they protect different challenges and they could have different effects in the body so so we call this inter and intra event variability the next important component is the idea of stressors don’t just occur vacuum they occur in context ongoing things that are going on in people’s lives and so so stressors are embedded within other types of experiences that are going on so we’ve looked at how daily stressors apartment within other champions or chronic stressors that are occurring apart from home and then we need to understand the role that individuals play in the stress process as well and so there is variability across people in types of strengths and weaknesses they might bring to a stressful situation and so the majority of the rest of my talk is going to be trying to describe how we try to capture these knots or severity I’ve been doing this mainly through a study called the national study great experiences this is one of the sub studies of the midlife new United States study this is a very large program project grant funded by national students on gauging the minus study was started from 15 years ago funded by macarthur foundation network over 7,000 adult across the country who receive an hour long telephone interview 250 questionnaire and were followed up ten years later that now they receive a cognate battery to get home to a research hospital to have full medical examination than we have neuro psych assessments on them we have a whole host

of biological markers on them my part of the mind is a subsample of them engaged in this daily protocol so of the 7,000 super- I have a random sample of just over 2,000 individuals who completed a telephone diary every 9 30 nights in a row the people in study range between 3484 the mean age is around 57 been working on the mail and fairly highly medicated sample so I was described this as a national sample but by no means a nationally representative sample so at this study how I describe it is that what I’m really interested in this characterizing the day a lot of women doing social science tries to characterize individual but for me I’m trying to characterize what is going on in the day of individual so so to do that we need to find various charities how people use their time so get information on sleep it’s been at work now it’s been getting getting total support we have information of physical health symptoms substance use as well as some other health behaviors like exercise and leisure information about medications that they think we were initially interested in getting Medicaid because its role and HP a function to reports all about we’re beginning to look at how medication its predictive of daily experiences that we have information about positive negative mood productivity both it worked as well how much work is getting done and a lot of information about stressors and some information about the positive effects so every night people are answering questions about all that later on in 15 mins to characterize on top of that we collect saliva so on 40 days people are collecting saliva they do it four times a day of important sector days when they wake up 30 minutes after they wake up for the old launch the saliva right now is being asking for cortisol recovering cortisol so what I’ve discovered is I just started feels like to start there probably for the past nine years have been really interested in using firearms to tell you about a day a lot of people use by our to tell you that person but i can use about hundred eighty once it’s sort of this magic crystal ball your saliva tell you what’s going on that day so and for better for worse well not when we got into this we got into it in a big way so first of all people didn’t think that we would get our participants to give us a like we never see our participants we only contact them through the mail through telephone but other 2022 respondents 1740 agree to do protocol eighty-six percent per person so it’s hybrid with update but they did one dream why they did do it I don’t have a should have brought this if you’ve been more multimedia here but we have produced a video actually cv that describes up how you’re actually calling saliva I’m partnered with our PBS station so it’s really slick neat video that describes the proper way to richmond self conical so up of the so a lot of artists consider but they also did pretty well and so we had with that many participants x 16 the most samples we could give was just under twenty eight thousand seconds well in the end we’ve got just under twenty seven thousand samples just get you a sense of the protocol that we use so we have days everything days I’m day one they do their first interview at the end of that every they get some more instructions about how to start their slight flexion on day two and then I’m going to they do the phone interview with them and do this so I’m collection see and then by day six they should have finished and their week then day six seven eight we’re controlling them to put their saliva back in the mail and given factors before for this work protocol before I go on are there any questions about this sort of complicated design in order to do this I should say it’s

not likely justice p guess we pay these participants or five dollars that’s all full the system of all of it right so the biscuits pay for other parts the Diamonds project and so we’ll get some money for doing you know that the telephone interview the a self-administered questionnaire that get paid out looking to get five hundred dollars to go to research hospital I’m gonna get their travel don’t be paid a lot other projects that I’ve done we’ve had up up to pay a lot and so we have stuff in hotel managers and these refuse to do so we don’t other thing that we do for pay is we’re giving $25 and so they get a check for twenty-five dollars when they get asked and that wasn’t that risky to do we’ve got this cash a check and after having that variable that’s her experience alright the other question says that this data collection this didn’t happen in life it took four years to get so the first thing I want to talk about is how do we start to address how stress which are different from each other and we developed an inventory of daily stressful events that tries to get a lot of information about a given stressful experience that occur so for example if you’re answering the telephone on a given night we’ll ask you we don’t we want to ask me anything stress will happen that will ask you specific domains of stress did you argue I have disagreement with anyone today and if you say yes then we ask you a lot of information about that part who’s event how long’s it last boasted about all that information is digitally encoded I’m sorry digitally I want to say digitally too many times they were recorded and then transcribed and coded five an expert panel of and so I don’t want to underplay this but I would say a huge part of the burden for us on this project was transcribing coding but from that from those transcriptions we are able to basically create a tax on in daily stressful events so today I’m going to focus on broad classification stresses that are inter personal in nature sort of arguments with people we also have a wonderful question did anything happen it could have argued about the inside of the left tax that is by far the most prevalent type of stress so people get angry to get pissed off they don’t see overloads I’m sure everyone in this room knows what that is too much work to do going to do it on networking that’s don’t recognize or if that’s it happen to a friend or family member that turn out to be stressful for you so child means sick friend having a problem that’s Russell dream so we believe that those sorts of stressors are going to bring out different sorts of challenges in that I page we also ask people how stressful this was for you as well as negative effect pertaining to the stressors that during the situation how angry wearing interests at top shape publishing so for today I’m going to focus on these and personal attention stressors this is extremely busy but it’s going to take you through it the idea for us is we want to decompose the variability and negative effect into variability that’s due to the person so think about negative effects just people being grumpy well part of that difference is some people just more drunker than other people so look around railway to identify those a grumpy person who is not the grumpy person but part of the variability in negative effect is reflects the types of stressful events that the experience and so interpersonal tensions over those numbers groceries and then to make it even more complicated your negative athlete might not only be reflective of interpersonal tension but something about that particular interpersonal attention so this is variation across events and then this is even variation with anyways so we’ll be decomposing into the inter individual differences in trivet differences across certain types of it’s an interesting so in general we show that roughly you know

a third of the variance in native ethic that there are the variances in people’s grounding this is due to individual differences you can talk genetic talents or childhood experiences but thirty-three percent of evergreen trees due to individuals almost sixty-two percent of the earnings is doing to the type of experiences them before so for me this suggests that the type of stress are the type of experience that people have is a really important role in their emotions see that much variability so people and another way to think about this is people vary from themselves on databases much more than they’re very important and so if we look at so what’s carrying the load in terms of negative effect really has to do with interpersonal things as well as a home health issues so here you see that when people argue here negative effect as much higher work overload when people turn to her gold digga his heart is not ask if he would have attention but I think even more telling is the type of emotion that people experience and so this graph again I apologize for being busy but here we have a different types of stressors that people have and these are the type of emotions and so the red is angry the green is anxious blue is fab and purplish shameful so when people experience arguments are more likely to report being angry or avoiding Americans work overloads predict feelings of anxiousness and nervousness as well as columns and their network they are the Baron stressors that are most likely to evoke the sentence and so here we see that inter event variability is associated with variability and the type of emotions that are needlessly okay so Brooks change but let’s talk about something other than self-reported emotions talk about what might be going on under this game when we experience stressors so today i’ll be presenting our work on salivary cortisol we obtained with the with this lives samples and remember i mentioned that we we collected cortisol four times throughout the day this is the reason why so first of all a very brief primer important self cortisol is a hormone in your body that is responsible for mobilizing energy so it is a very important hormone is very useful hormone and in fact we see the usefulness of it when we chart the diurnal rhythm of cortisol so this is what I would call it how to rhythm we’re in the morning cortisol has this awakening response or the spike basically this is your brain engaging with your outside apartment tell you that it’s not the way though the surgeon cortisol it will mark about if everything is going smoothly throughout the day cortisol will have this nice sort of decline where it reaches its in the gear actually after you go to sleep but before we go to bed your energy you do not need to know em all station so so far as well for us all increases today why corn is always seen it as stressful is that in times of challenger a patient we need to mobilize energy to meet that challenge so days when we have stressors we would expect this slope here to be flattering to have higher concentration variable curve and in fact we’re also showing is that on days when you have certain sorts of stressors such as I work with deadlines we’ve seen a huge surge in this week in response which tells us a bit about term and anticipate excitation of game alright so that’s a pretty picture reports on it’s like and this is swelling half as cortisol and so for me I think this is one of the most beautiful graphs that yeah I’ve ever seen you know it’s my day I’ll say it is the first time our aquatic is our first 250 responsible and i’m not sure if you can see it but i certainly can is that you see this

obvious diurnal rhythm of a spike now the challenge for us is to take these data and then decompose them into variation across people and so some people are spiking hi some people aren’t coming down but we also want to look at day-to-day variation as well so this person obviously had some sort of spike or this before the day was clean but on the next day we see that you do not see that spike as well so trying to figure out day-to-day variations Donovan’s become the challenge and hopefully the promise of of our search so here’s what we know so far that on days people experiences stress routes and this is stress reactivity with reactivity now is cortisol is that there is a dramatic increase in fact absolute concentration of course solvent system and this is the greatest on days people experience arguments and again on the days that people experience overloads so it is consistent when the effective reactivity we see it for the court so again this is a width in person association is on days when people experience of stress we have work for its offices in car basically go another way to look at this is canceling the average here with the average of the black line that goes down here and here we see the effect of tensions and then we also see infected now if we think about in trying event variability so it’s not what I’m not you have just tensions but tensions with a family member here we see on days that people have have tensions their cortisol is higher compared two days they don’t but on days that people have tensions with a family member even get a flatter slope here and a greater concentration of cortisol so in some event variability that how stressors Mabley film is not still to reflect stable dispositions about intra-individual determination that appraisals as well as physiological reactions operate differently depending on the type of stressor it’s that we need to consider event type of different events on the same time or a consideration of intern and tricular variability next thing I’m just going to blast through is considering other other stressors that are going on while stressors are our container and so here we have a measure of discrimination that’s taken from the early- type and this we call it daily discrimination unfortunately we didn’t make this on a daily basis but this is sort of saying not major life event discrimination this is discrimination based on being treated in a fair and respectful way so people who have high levels of daily discrimination fill it quickly not expect that they’ve not either color their skin wait for people who experience this greater discrimination get up higher levels of cortisol and it seems to be concentrated in the evening here so there of course always not coming down as much but when we include daily stressors we see that the people who experience discrimination they have more of a personal non stressful days but even higher levels of cortisol on stressor do so people with with high levels of discrimination their stress reactivity thirty-three percent higher compared to people without discrimination so the point here is that taking into account the broader context of people lives is important to try to determine how they’re approaching responding distress so here’s another this is a bar graph of people have a great thrill discrimination when they experience daily stressors their reactivity especially bedtime for it’s always much higher finally going to bring in the idea that people play a role in the types of stressful experiences that they have so they bring with them as a risk and government installed strengths of our ability factors and dealing with stressors and most of our work has has looked at these risk in resilience pattinson so I didn’t mention this but part of the mine study is a subsample of twins and so we looked at how to

endowment place involving both exposure solar activity de-stresser promote quite a bit of socioeconomic status we’re continuing to do so and how that’s related to david stress processing today i’m going to talk about cognition i’ll talk a little about personality and as well as page to show you some findings for cognitive resources and so during during the larger minus 10 people completed a cognitive battery that assess both you you know overall cognitive performance such as executive function as well as working memory and what we show here basically people who score higher on this task where we’re this is that they have higher levels of cognitive resources that they can drop one thing to point out is this is a table showing how cognitive resources is predicting the exposure to stressors so people who have do better on these tests have more resources we expected them to have fewer stressors however we thought the opposite for example so this is kamagra trees which people who had higher levels of cognitive resources standard deviations those people were twenty five percent more likely report any stressors and it seemed to be carried mostly by against it work over those so people who have report out on these tests have carlos topography source there select themselves into environments that are actually more stressful sorry guys sounds like academics exactly one another so another interpretation of this is that people who have powered up some cognitive sources they are just better or about Carlos resources these sorts of things do not register as stressful screaming so I just want to say that as a caveat however it is interesting that it predictive what we would have expected the same thing goes for education so people who have cargoes of education they report more stressors in their neighbor for more stress report so also it’s important to note that these analyses control for education so those sort of the what I’ll call interesting funny they’re not expected but what a torque accessible but it is actually good to have education and cognitive resources when we look at reactivity so people have high levels of cognitive resources on days they experienced any stressors this is for negative effect on we see that there slope is steeper so they’re a bit more reactive but we look at type of stressors so this is having some sort of interpersonal attention people have high levels of cognitive resources are less reactive to interpersonal tensions so in some way they’re not as effectively the attitude they seem to be handling in terms of their outfit however people low levels are super slow and then when we look at network stressors we really really see this difference really emerging so on days when people have a network stretch of this is something happened to a friend or relative it turned out these just for you we see that people at target resources really seemed to me is emotionally handling not well the people of lower those Reapers a film we did the exact same time zone with education as well so there’s something about having education as well as cognitive resource to help handle these dressers it also could be that the nature of this type of network structure is very different or someone who’s highly educated has a high cognitive function we get the same sort of results when we look at cortisol people with high levels of cognitive functioning their cortisol is a fifth is better regulated and then finally the last set of signs i want to show or just your general running out of time and the role of an angel is so fairly well known that has people grow older cortisol concentrations of cards all increases and so we find that here so for older age group we have higher levels of cortisol compared to another group but they think about the daily experiences that people have as well as who they are the story changes of it so those older individuals who have the highest level of importance of the greatest amount of a cuisine are those older involved older individuals who describe themselves as

being erotic those individuals who have high levels of negative effect at the end of the game and what I want to bring it back to is bring back daily stressors in so this was when the first laws that I showed you on their funding where we saw that experiencing stressors is related to an uptick in cortisol on a given day but let’s try to figure out when they stink about wall how much of an uptick is that here’s the up taking cortisol for a one year difference between there are individuals so if i go from being 55 to 56 i can expect cutting an increase of sort of one man will cortisol a day they’ve had a stressor on your day my increase is six nationals so having a stressor is you know I mature it’s equitable to but at least distance is related to a six year difference in age important so so my summary for this is that it’s I think it’s valuable to go back and think about considering David I’ve circumstances and Gary stressors as that’s a predictor of health and world ohaa Koffler described it as being vigilant tunic constant vibrations of daily life where it says you know it’s not the lost lover that brings a part of our overall or the company or it is the lost keys the broken shoelace people were charging again I was brooch without condom these are things that eat away at life these are the constant reparations I think it’s constantly by train so these are the same age cars one had a lot more vibration and with that one of the things that I also find very interesting is how people’s tribute to these I was thinking of showing actually those with names i’ll become more dependent life events knowing depend there was no difference you may depend on that but in bed so not even keep my god but allah say you know getting having fights brower so it’s such a you know it does like on vacation please like the stressor in what the genesis of the stressor can go back the impacts of their captivity told you yes I read lately I think one thing that I try to clarify my work okay any time you start trying to clarify things that you know you’re making assumptions really not how it goes on but the way that I sort of decomposed it is to consider exposure to stressors I really think it’s important to think about what are these triggers these stressful experiences that people have and then how they react to and there’s been like I said you know a lot of work showing how the rosses and negativity itself I already wanted to define it is associated with both and then you incur costs beautiful is that but it’s not just any stress or certain sorts of stressful stressful but what we really need to start doing here I don’t get not presenting here is how does he speak back into into the organs and so I’m for a long time I’ve really describe myself I’m a daily researcher my outcome is the day today is important because we live our lives on days let’s try to figure out how to make a day better than a person better but now I think that we can take information about those days and how their combined to predict what a person days and that’s a really big challenge these models analytically it’s much easier to to end with the more micro unit but now we talk about taking from library important thing look what do your data tell you right now about demographically Geographic differences you vegetable stand on any buttons there’s a clear Leah a migration to town you sailed about the environment itself

how that’s contributed yeah my big stress is my game to you I think driving and driving back that your prophecy yeah god I wish man work to be able to have the power to like it would be there is very census track level we’ve done by region of country poor students during the bush carry election where everything is about red and blue and so like I she worked for months trying to show differences in red and blue states and using over nothing just hand out for us and I think asked with a power issue right now I have a colleague as a student who just got a SF telling census track data to to the daily data and again I think it’s going to be a challenge around a lot of variation across those cracks but maybe if I shouldn’t give me on other ways to do it well really help us start by of yesterday’s near times its report was about education attainment and longevity but when I went deeper into the art I went to the website responses researcher Wisconsin was basically looking at and it’s pretty striking the Bronx for example compared to forgive me I right it’s very different picture but there might be some ways trying see I know that dumb we have people at Penn State researchers given that the GPS gia has stuff where he can get census tract and you know I other sorts of units but get David beyond to give you know the weather the pollen count and a given census tract you can get traffic congestion on a daily basis and I’ve always thought that that was a wonderful thing to try to be able to do is to show how dynamic aspects of a neighborhood of our conferences now we’re standing that the issue of Karen I suspect that it might be the case what’s your speculation about this though because you know you come from state college and it’s a it’s a almost like a bucolic kind of setting compared to urban environments where there there may be more data access or maybe not well I think that so way oversimplifying I think that my exposure to stress versus is more limited when I’m the certainly a small about traffic you know where your boss other people get in our way so the congestion is but with that comes you know lack of this person actually something that has happened and so it’s that interchange between the exposure reactivity my life might be telling and I think there’s also something about being in a situation where you’re not exposed to stressors at all that when something does happen trees not very important so some things that we’re doing with aging now we have an emphasis but ask people grow older they have less exposure to stressors urban planning however when stressors actually happened over where we act I think there has to be some sort of this fitness 19 just like exercise and keep your hearts from probably stress fitness as well to being exposed to some level of stress so to keep going the game perfectly i got a cat last night who was the last time i had a gala cat right I’ve got the cabin and the guys out meter broke he has come on Robbie and I was in New York or handle this you know I probably like this only Jimmy hours you know but uh but I’m like I’m sitting I’ve no idea that I could go scrub through that I would have been exposed but um so that’s my simple kind of perspective what impact that might have on their openness to information jupiler their adherence to some natural received and I was a fairly skeptical behavioral scientist on the project and didn’t think it would work but it seemed to work pretty well and and so I just ordered you could talk a bit more about the importance of positive effect i know this is large that sort of mechanism and napping you know what happens to people but now I’m thinking about intervention I’m thinking about how we utilize this what are implications of it for our convention so I am getting more interesting I think

we’re fine a positive events or unpredictable course all the neighborhood’s preliminary data so people experience something really good that happened to our town over those effects are interesting well mom you should’ve dad said we wear some the smaller unexpected delightful kinds of events that people might experience in the daily basis so finding that twenty-dollar bill on the street you don’t have that it’s just unexpected delight in for a moment so it’s big event but also you’re so slow ya know I that’s what we’re looking at involving sort of these small advances there’s work to be done there I think I’m expressing it well then one reason why the shadowing is that we don’t get much data and so for me my starting point is always to try to look for phenomena that are very bigoted this from a predatory so negative effect there’s a lot of variation so it’s forty percent between personally sixty percent of papers so so as not to explain to give a positive effect ceramic Indians point so so there really are happy people and not as happy people so it’s harder to punch in a way so because of that of traveling getting back into it but I’m getting back into it more that the trade level so for example were the next step of this research isn’t just on a good baby but it’s not just reactivity to a stressor but how long that stressor is sort of the states with you so what I’ve been calling a stressor residue and what stops the residue is positive after so happy people on page with experience stress which they are just unreacted however the next day they’re okay there’s really negatively neurotic people on days that they have a stressor and my belief is that it’s that residue part that’s going to be really important for helping build and so but I don’t know how to sew them answer like how do you change the brass behind I think that’s the difficult game for me is you know the other thing that we’re looking at in terms of daily positive not pictures kind of like it’s our positive biomarkers you know things are the same option so apartment called DNA in a species sort of building apartment and refining different days people experience positive events des is higher and stuff that’s hard legs into it as well but I wish I could tell you more about for the intervention side well I think you said something where it’s sort of clearing that residue if on daily basis getting rid of that if you don’t do that that lingers and it’s corrosive yeah that’s what it sounds like yeah absolutely i think thank you so much for a very very physical activity researcher and I actually really struck by some of the more recent data that are showing that just moving around throughout the day so these are just really very small events you know standing set of sitting twitching fidgeting that those are very predictive of changes and mortality and morbidity and you know just so struck by your data and wondering you know how you know we’re making this attribution to fiscal activity and whether maybe it has more to do with stress and how that you know pattern of moving you know somehow in tracks with what we’re showing or vice versa but it’s very very interested festivus I’ve never really thought about the fact that you know this is little teeny thanks for being such a huge I love talking a lot about this because I’m thinking about sort of sort of calorie and probably output as you know marked as a vote of a weakness is really small things that add up and but the challenge for us is researcher is kind of characterized Ephraim that the effect size is so small but the effect size is only on a day so how does it take that daily effect size and show how translates over a long period of time so you can talk about it but actually to try to you know measure and assessment i do that that’s good thing that I completely in agreement with you is

capturing the small perturbations these small experiences because I guess hope for sauce is the sky being small little chickens you have to change everything this one smaller will change that’s gotta be consistent over time but your physical activity as well i think is thinking about corazon this is your body is involved mobilize energy but we’re living in a world where we cannot do anything that energy and so just small more physical changes use that cortisol too good keep coming back to that she said about communication I mean it’s so important what differentiates right ability to let go and move on and when we do i do an trouble better health research and I was with personal graphic teams one does work after the other in India they are both a missing think that thing that you see depression the most common you know simple that people record is thinking too much you know very forgiving this inability to let go of thinking I think we we have a battle going on a friendly intellectual debate between people are studying rumination the people who are studying mindfulness and where are those two things meet where they don’t need and what’s the difference between because sometimes you read you know those sets of literature it’s the same thing I can’t be focused in the moment in it but what if that moment is really darkened bad but the modulus Berg liking bracelet take it the other people’s a diss track and so so it’s I think it’s in stationing time but yeah rumination i think is is the key to sort of see how these things how to expand and i used to say mean the only we need to get to the event that happens but not chemically that rumination is this you know it was wonderful ability that we have this to experience stressors even when they’re not happening it’s going to click the root of all people not exactly that’s where we are as a species here to build any room well I think we’ve exhausted the shine with you here today David I want to thank you very much my come on I asked all of the thing