Aadhaar – Identity to 1.2 Billion People

– Yeah, good morning to all Today I will be giving some insights into this huge project called Aadhaar in India I will take the journey of this I joined this Aadhaar project during 2010 when it was just started and I saw how it grow and how it has reached till today So I will just give you the scheme of the presentation today So a segment which will cover the overview, the how and the reason why Aadhaar is very important to India Then the technical details of the enrollment process and then how it is going to be implemented and rolled out finally I’ll just do a small detail The Unique Identification Authority in India was established under planning commission in 2009 and in 2009, sometime in July/August the Chairman, Mr. Shri Nandan Nilekani, he joined He’s one of the founder of a very big IT set up in India, Infosys, he was one of the founder and then he left Infosys and joined Unique Identification Authority of India to roll it out The idea was to give the identity to all the residents in India Now, I’m not using the word citizen because citizenship in India is at times a very different kind of issues are there The people who have come from the neighboring countries, there is a process which takes place for the citizenship So the process of enrollment in unique ID has been a little bit broad based So anybody who is in India having the stay for six months or so can get Aadhaar number It is a unique ID number The idea is it’s a biometric-based ID, which is an online kind of ID So it will be a very transactional-based, it will be very cheap, cost effective and it’s going to be very, very ubiquitous kind of authentication system which will be there Why do we need Aadhaar? Why do we need an ID system in India kind of situation? I tell you that 1.2 billion people in a country is a huge number, and most of them, we have the data which says that 650 million do not have access to organized banking They don’t have any bank account, they are dependent on those local money lenders and those kind of system which may be very fleecing type, which maybe, very, very overburdening on them So at the same time they’re poor, but they’re part of the system, which would be very exploitive At the same time, a good number of people do not have any document to prove who they are They don’t have a date of birth document, they don’t have a ration card, they don’t have any other kind of which we call the welfare identification card or any other system by which they can prove that they are who they are So it was thought that it is better to have an identification system, it is better to have an ID, for the people who do not have any ID and that is the purpose, why it was set up under the planning commission and not under any kind of regulatory law and order kind of system So Unique Identification Authority of India is a part of the planning commission which is supposed to target the marginalized and poor people of India, to reach to them in a very seamless and faster manner and to target them in the perfect fashion Now here when we say that why this is required from the government side or the welfare side it is required because the system is so porous The people can become part of the welfare benefit more than once I can be K.K. Sharma I can be Kishan Kumar Sharma I can be Sharma K.K., and all these things I can become part of the same benefit system because the system does not have the wherewithal to weed out the duplicates, weed out the fake, weed out the ghost entries That is where the biometric-based unique ID comes into picture If I’ve given the Aadhaar number, which is a 12 digit, and I become part of one of these system now I can’t come back and give any other name

and to become part of it again So the system is to duplicate and fakes will be weeded out and if I’m not part of the system, I can claim it because I’m having the unique number I can go to the service delivery mechanism and I can tell them, I’m not part of your system, I’m one of the possible and potential beneficiary, please include me so I can claim this as a right Because the system is able to identify and verify yes, so and so with this Aadhaar number is not part of my delivery system, not part of my welfare system I tell you the scope In India we are having hundreds of welfare schemes, pension schemes are there, scholarship schemes are there Schemes for women, which are required to support them during the pregnancy, during the child rearing, during the education time, during the old age, during medical and all those type of schemes are there to take care of the people in a particular kind of need There are other kinds of schemes, which we call them the subsidy schemes For example, in India we have got a LPG scheme, liquified petroleum gas, which is used for the cooking purpose at domestic Now these kind of schemes, the cost is very high A LPG cylinder we call it, which is 14.7 KG and the cost to the government some 900 rupees, but it is sold to the individual customers, the domestic purpose, for 420 rupees, 421 rupees So there is a lot of subsidy which is there Similarly, there is a subsidy on the fertilizer There is a subsidy on the seeds There is a subsidy on the diesel So all these subsidies, if you see these two things, the welfare schemes and the subsidized pricing, the annual budget of subsidy in India is $46 billion and the mechanism is such by which the delivery mechanism is not able to weed out duplicate, fakes, the non-entitled persons and people are able to sneak in to siphon or take the benefit from the system So the scope of $46 billion annual budget of subsidies or the benefits, if I feel that there is a 10% leakage and with the help of the Aadhaar, if I’m able to at least prevent a part of it, the scope is almost $5 billion annually And I will share some details that one Aadhaar generation is in dollar terms, it will be very, very small amount I will give that detail Now, what is the Aadhaar? In Aadhaar what we have done is we normally in any government scheme, and I think I can say even for the SSN, social security number of US, where the idea is to collect many informations of the individual from where who is the father, who is the son, all that kind of thing What education, what income, and that In Aadhaar, we have done a very simple, small number of information which we are collecting Very, very small information which we’re collecting and we don’t want to get into the bad building kind of situation It is a very simple project where we are working on a very thin and slim infrastructure layer Now you see what we do We just give a 12 digit number It’s a numerical number It is randomly generated That means by looking at number, I can’t say whether the person belongs to a category, belongs to a region, belongs to literate or illiterate, or male or female, just a stupid number, 12 digit number And this number, as I’m saying, it is a random number There is no intelligence in that What it does is, it is based on biometrics So I will you show the process of what we collect as a part of the enrollment Because it is based on biometrics, we are able to ensure that one set of biometric cannot get two Aadhaar numbers So that means if I go and give my enrollment detail I will get one Aadhaar number If I go some other time and give my details again, it will be rejected as duplicate That means this set of biometrics has already received

to the Aadhaar backend and is not to be re-issued an Aadhaar number So by that, we are able to ensure that biometric-based ID is unique, issued once in a lifetime Once the Aadhaar number is done, it is issued once for all Although we do some updates It is available for everybody Even infant child can have the Aadhaar number although we don’t capture the biometric for them because the child biometric, up to five years we don’t capture After five years only we capture the biometric So up to five years we link the Aadhaar number of the child with the parent or guardian It is cost effective As I’m saying, we don’t profile anything and we don’t guarantee any benefit Now I will tell you why we have taken that position It is a very difficult position because at the same time I’m saying it is very useful, it is required for delivery, it is required for that, it is required for targeting, but at the same time saying that Aadhaar as such will not guarantee any benefits because the benefit giving is by the particular domain Suppose the Food and Civil Supplies Department wants to give the ration card to the residents, they will identify whether this person needs what kind of ration card We’ve got two or three types of ration cards where the person can go and claim some provisions from the street outlet He may be below poverty-line person so he may receive X number or X KG of grains and X KG of this or something Similarly, if he’s not a below poverty-line, he may receive just some small requirement of his can be met through this There is a category which is known as much below poverty-line, extreme poverty, there the number of KG of grains is very high That means the entire demand of the family can be met through this provision So the domain person will decide how much and what kind of category to be given The Aadhaar will only give the support to weed out the fakes, to weed out the duplicates, and to target the individual beneficiaries along with the family kind of setup As I was telling that we collect minimal information We collect just four fields, which are mandatory We collect name, age with a date of birth if it is there, the sex and the first time of Government of India project we are capturing transgenders also Then the address of the resident The address of the resident is also so that he receives the card back We don’t issue any card We just give information through a piece of paper which we call Aadhaar letter and is the purpose to intimate the Aadhaar number to him So we are not issuing any smart card We’re not issuing any kind of plastic card It is just, actually it is one third of the A4 sheet which we are communicating to the resident with the number and some basic details of the resident If the resident is having, we collect his email, phone number, mobile number, and some consents, whether he consent to give the data to the state for some welfare benefits or whether he wants to open a bank account So this is one thing which we have included right at the time of enrollment because the very large number of population in India does not have the access to banking We took their option of opening the account right at the time of enrollment because Aadhaar is going to be a complete KYC, know your customer norm, which we call in the financial terms So Aadhaar is a complete KYC norm, so while the Aadhaar number is generated, we are able to tell the banking sector please open a bank account for him and he will be approached by the local bank, say that now your bank is open, account is open, you please activate it So this is one very hard coated this communication we have developed where to make everybody part of, actually in India, we’ve got the Reserve Bank of India, which is the central bank for India and we call it RBI The RBI has put a mandate to have the financial exclusive for the major part of the population so that FI mandate, we are serving that FI mandate as a consequence of ruling out the Aadhaar project because reaching that remote corner in a village, in a hamlet, to take his consent for issuing the Aadhaar as well at the same time to give the bank account is huge because the person is not approached by many agencies

even in his lifetime So at least now the project is going to reach him So this is the time to find out whether he wants to open the bank account so that in future when the benefits will flow they can go seamlessly to his account and there is a reasoning in that The reasoning is that the Aadhaar is the bank account number also That means the backend knows that this Aadhaar number means this bank account Yeah you want to say? – [Female] So would an Aadhaar number be enough in terms of providing identification for banks? So somebody was opening a bank account – Yep – [Female] They don’t have show their passport? (Kishan drowns out speaker) – No, nothing No, yep, yep In case of Aadhaar, if your address of the account is the same as mentioned in the Aadhaar letter then you don’t need anything else because there is a possibility that when the Aadhaar letter is issued the address might have changed to the resident meanwhile Like I got Aadhaar for address A, but I moved to another city, I moved to another location, in that case bank may ask you to give some address proof, but they will not ask you ID proof because ID proof is Aadhaar But if you want to use it as a complete KYC in that case your address should also be the same as it is mentioned in the Aadhaar letter and that is how it is Now, because it is once in a lifetime the quality of enrollment data is very, very critical in this, so we are capturing two types of data One is demographic data, name, age and all, and second is the biometric data Now once the data is captured and it is moved for the backend you can see that what we do is, I think I’ll just do my mock there In the biometric data what we do is we take a photograph, we take 10 fingerprints and they’re taken in, I think your US visa system is also like this, where it is four, four and two So we also take the same process Four left, four right and two thumbs together And then the two iris Now irises, if you see the iris, iris is not the retina, it is not cornea It is the front of the eye, which has got a huge number of design and patterns The design and patterns create a unique identifier for each iris, and a fingerprint is like, I think India associate itself to the usage of fingerprint in the very, very long back during British time, they collected LTI, left thumb impression This LTI used to be like forcing the person, he can’t deny that it is not his LTI So fingerprint is there Now why we wanted the fingerprint as well as the iris? If you see the fingerprint the (mumbles) point we call it that is the point where it get differentiated from one fingerprint to another fingerprint and each person, 10 fingerprint, these are 10 types These are not same, even for one person It doesn’t mean that my five fingers are same type No, each one is different So the fingerprint has gotten not enough numbers of the differentiation to give a unique ID to 1.2 billion people There was a possibility that at some point of time the differentiation would not be possibly I’m saying in terms of the computers The system which is used to differentiate and saying this set of fingerprints are different from this set of fingerprints There’s a possibility that for 1.2 billion people and going forward nearly 1.5 and two billion over a period of maybe 20-30 years So we wanted another good biometric which can give that kind of support to keep on issuing the ID number to billions of people without actually repeating the chances of giving the number to the same kind of setup I’m saying from the computer point There is a software which require Now when we do the Aadhaar generation what we do is we run that new data set vis or vis the gallery of the other Suppose today I check at my website We have issued 592 million Aadhaar 592 million Aadhaar have already been issued So when I’m taking the next data and when this comes in I’m comparing this new record with a gallery size of 592 million, so this we call it generation of Aadhaar

based on one is to N comparison N is my gallery size So when I issue first Aadhaar I just say it is unique because it would be the first and I just give the Aadhaar When I do the next one, I compare to the first one and today, the system is comparing the next set of record with 592 million records and it is going to be much more complex and complex going forward There’s another important data point is what would be my authentication? Now, I do authentication I’ve got an Aadhaar number I go to an authentication mechanism Suppose I want to open the account and bank has the feasibility of doing the authentication so they have got a small point of sale kind of device So I feed my Aadhaar number, 12 digit number, give my fingerprint to this Now this data set goes to my backend and from there, a reply comes yes or no Suppose I use Golam’s Aadhaar and put my biometric it will become as no And if I give my Aadhaar with my biometric, it will come as yes Not more than that It won’t say it is Kishan Kumar Sharma It won’t say that presently he’s doing CAS in Syracuse It won’t say all that It just say yes or no So we are communicating in a very, very minimal information to enable that service delivery mechanism to extend this service based on saying yes or no to give a benefit of authentication When I say I’m K.K. Sharma or Kishan Kumar Sharma and this is my Aadhaar, system knows yes, he is the same guy Second is whether I want a loan, bank will do its due diligence whether I’m loan worthy or whether I just want to open a small account They may say okay, open the account So you do have to do this service delivery mechanism to extend this service So identity is just to give the authenticated version of person who is taking the service, who he claims to be whether it is correct or not That happens when it’s two one because there is a hard number and a biometric goes so that does not do with the entire gallery It just goes with my Aadhaar number and that biometric and it says yes or no Actually, there’s some other verifications also Now what is happening? Aadhaar is inclusive process If you see that the entire system is very, very simple I’m giving a data set, the system is running at the backend some verifications and validations, giving me the Aadhaar number I’m not having any chip-based card, I’m not having any smart card, I just been communicated my Aadhaar number Actually that letter is also not required I just know my number I know my 10 digit mobile, so I can know my 12 digit Aadhaar also Not a big thing going forward that is what we assume So when that 12 digit Aadhaar, so where is the identity Now with that 12 digit Aadhaar this is my identity The system if it is prevalent all across at these service delivery mechanisms, I can go to any system and say this my Aadhaar, this my biometric, please verify who I am So I don’t need any smart card I don’t need any kind of physical form because physical form of cards or IDs can be duplicated, can be compromised, but although technology can do that, but it will be very, very difficult to compromise on the biometric authentication I’m not saying it is impossible, but it will not be easy It will be very, very difficult to compromise on that When I’m having the Aadhaar and the biometric-based authentication I can do all this from the delivery mechanism of these services Now presently our authentication mechanism is all around we are able to do authentication with the point of sale machines, that is small machines, we’re able to do the authentication with the help of the computer terminals We’re able to do with the link of bank account We’re able to do with universal ID is the idea that it is a now 600 million is going to be any time, maybe another 10 days’ time So this is our target up to December 2014, and I think in India this will be one of the very few project, if it is not the only one, which has overachieved the timeline by not less than nine months The number of IDs which were supposed to be issued by December 2014, that is 600 million, half of the population, we will be able to achieve by maybe 10th of March Today it’s 592 million, so another eight million and our daily rate is around one million-plus a day We generate one million Aadhaar numbers a day minimum

So what is Aadhaar? Now you see I normally in UIDAI, Unique Identification Authority, we compare the ID Aadhaar number with communication revolution In India around 20 years back or 25 years back the landlines, the telephone lines, used to be in a very, very restricted manner One has to wait for months to get a telephone Then the mobile revolution and people who did not have access to the landline, suddenly everybody has got the mobile So we call it a leapfrog communication There is a leapfrog jump That jump was that a person who was not having any communication link with the landline is keeping the mobile A vegetable vendor, a normal iron man who does the iron of the clothes, and all those low kind of workers who do not have access They do not know technology, they just receive calls say I’m coming The business process of India has changed over a period when the mobile revolution came Similar thing we are expecting it happens with the Aadhaar People did not have access to the physical IDs, but now they’re having online ID ID which they can take with them and which will be accepted by this system Right now what happens, I’ve got a ration card from one state of India If I go to other state and why I want to prove my ID, the person may say I don’t know I have to get it very far from that place It may take week, it may take 10 days, it may take one month Now, the system is that this ID is across India It creates the mobility and with the economic growth of India, the mobility in India is so high, not even in the lower sectors like the labors and migrant workers Even in the higher complex jobs like IT People in IT sector are moving all around India and all around the world If a person who is well educated from IT kind of, is one of the technological institute and he’s from Delhi and goes to Bangalore, he faces the same kind of problems which a worker faces when he moves from one of the backward state to any of the city So this is the mobility and accessibility which is giving Aadhaar to everybody who is becoming part of the system As I’m telling, this is the know your customer norm It is satisfying All these services have already started giving the benefits based on Aadhaar So one can go and become part of the LPG database by showing his Aadhaar number and sharing that detail so they can take LPG connection, they can take a phone connection, they can take the ration card They can open the bank account It is the ID while you’re traveling in train, sometimes when the TC comes and ticket checker wants your ID, so the Aadhaar is So all these things are happening already What happens? Because Aadhaar is unique, it cannot be duplicated for a person If I start taking Aadhaar in my database as a service delivery department I will move out all the redundant entries which may be fake, which may be duplicate, which may be obsolete Like what happen in ration card, which is a food and civil supplies kind of thing People move on without informing the department that I have moved on That entry exist and that entry exist on that particular entry, the shop owner may keep on taking the ration from the system, but with the Aadhaar it’s not possible When the person moves out and he goes to another area and becomes part of the system, the system will trigger that remove this from the previous entries So with the help of Aadhaar one can clean the scheme database, existing database It creates better delivery in a sense that right now a family has got the entitlement to take the provisions from a particular shop, in future there is a possibility that if one person from that family has moved to some other location, he can still have by showing his Aadhaar and getting authenticated So the concept of mobility of entitlement is also moving Increased access and transference Transference means are they getting the benefit, a person has to really struggle

Now they know that my Aadhaar is unique, please find out if I’m there in the system If I’m not there, I’m entitled, please get me He can get it as right, which is not possible in the physical systems end Now again, this is the very new thing which has been done by Government of India and UIDAI Normally all government systems, a new project comes, the idea is to create own empire I should be the biggest I should have my own thing right up to the last point, but UIDAI was the first organization I can say which was having the mandate to have a staff, a strength of 900, but we decided deliberately not to exceed 500 Even if there is a mandate to have the 900 people, the internal set up says no, we don’t want a big number Use the existing infrastructure available at the ground level So we have got something called UIDAI, which is a very small number of people, very, very thin line We work with registrars, so like state governments, post office, banks, LIC, the financial institutions, the NGOs, civil society or insurance We work with them, they’re all registrars They go on and set up the enrollment mechanism at the last mile So they go, they work out a price from those agencies These are private agencies, and those private agencies go and set up the enrollment process at the last mile to collect the enrollment data and send to us So that is how we say that is scalable model because doing 1.2 billon and doing 600 million Aadhaar in less than four years was a huge task It was getting into the nanosecond kind of Aadhaar registration Similarly, how diligent Aadhaar unless you get the numbers So the enrollment should come, so that you can generate Aadhaar So you should have enrollment system, which is highly scalable, which can scale as per the demand Not like somebody’s pushing it from there So it was an automatically private sector participation at the enrollment agency level, registrars as disperse as possible, they’re available there They’re having their set up there already Like all state bodies, they’re having their set up at the last mile The post office, actually we’re now the biggest in the world, more than one lakh, more than 150,000 postal locations are there in India So all those are automatically become the front end for the UIDAI So we did with a synergy existing infrastructure and pushing out our own mandate of doing this enrollments – [Female] What does it mean UIDAI? – Sorry? – [Female] The UIDAI at the top – This top one? – [Female] Uh-huh – Unique Identification Authority of India So it’s acronym UIDAI Unique ID – [Female] That’s a department or organization now? – It is an office under planning commission – Planning commission? – Yeah This is the office which issue the Aadhaar number How we wanted this? Because we made the system so scalable we have defined a standardized process So the software which would work on the system is our The enrollment software is in-house software, not taken from the shelf So it was a software designed by in-house team with some IT collaboration Then we have come out with the ecosystem where we have got certified devices Certified devices by a third party Certified biometric devices, certified operators, certified supervisors, and a mandated process to receive the data As far as the data integration is concerned, as soon as the enrollment gets over and a receipt of the enrollment is generated, then enrollment packet gets encrypted So not even the operator, not even the enrollment agency, not even the registrar can do anything with that packet So it becomes a very, very secure data packet It may get cut up, so it is of no use, but nobody can open and take the data It will be only done at the backend when the UIDAI agent right there Now the process is that we’ve got is a standard process Data transfer It is process that our CID, Central ID repository and then it goes out after the Aadhaar registration, it goes out as a letter, sent by the government agency, Indian Post, to the resident So the address of the enrollment is very important because a third party is going to deliver it and that third party will go by the address

They don’t know who he is or she is So they will go and deliver, that means the address is very, very important in that So this is the process flow A resident comes, he comes to the center He gives his demographic and biometric, data gets encrypted, it goes to the Central ID repository where de-duplication happens, the UIDAI is assigned and even there’s some rejection may be on account of the data quality, rejections may be on account of the duplicity Then the Aadhaar letter gets out and it goes then for entire thing for the touch point, we’ve got an automatic call center, which has got a toll-free number, it has got the email and other kind of things This is the typical enrollment center Now you see here This is the laptop on which the operator works He has got a system by which he works This is the iris, this the slab scanner we call it for the fingerprint Now this is very important This second monitor is for the resident Because generally the enrollment centers are working either side by side or in a 90-degree If I’m getting enrolled what happened I’m always thinking what the operator is doing, so there is a tendency to look into the screen of the operator and there’s a kind of discomfort at all the time So what we thought is, let us have another monitor for the resident So monitor of the resident shows what exactly is being done by the operator, so he need not be uncomfortable He sees what exactly is happening, whether the name is written correctly, whether the date of birth is written correctly, whether the address is complete, whether the mail ID or the phone number is correctly recorded and we have kept this in two languages, in English and in local language Actually India has got a multiple official languages Each place is very, very attached to that language Like suppose I stay presently in Karnataka There is a language called Kannada, which is not Hindi So the people they see English data as well as the data in Kannada and they’re able to many times, when they don’t know English they’re able to see it in Kannada and they say no, this is incorrect, please do it this way This address should be like this So we have given that comfort to the resident by giving this second monitor so that he or she can look at it Now this is where it happens that the person comes, he gets to the helpdesk, his documents are checked, one of the POA, proof of address or proof of ID Then he fills up the form The photo is taken, the iris image You can see the figure four Iris image is like a binocular kind of thing, just kept here There is infrared mechanism by which the eye just look into that, it captures the eyes That iris image Then the fingerprint capture is there, four four two Then the resident has got an option to review the data Once the demographic and biometric got captured, resident has the option to see a screen where entire data is shown to him or her where they see yes, everything is correct and once he says yes, it is correct, the entire process is authenticated by the operator Now operator we know who he is because he’s a certified one But this the receipt with capture dated after the enrollment gets complete and these two circle points are the tracking mechanism until the Aadhaar is generated the person, resident, can track this information As we’re saying that the demographic data quality is very important so the person is supposed to see this information Even we kept the margin for the missing biometrics, like there is a possibility there is a permanent biometric missing, my finger is not there, this is finger There is a possibility that there’s a temporary, some problem with my finger which can’t be captured or there is some injury or something so we have kept a biometric exception clause where the operator can figure out that one finger, two finger, one eye, two eyes, or a complete bio exception Very few cases we found that, two or three cases in one million where they may have none of the biometrics to be capturable, like people who are leper, their hands may be and they are having the eyes are also not there, like they’re blind and eyes are not capturable Another important point is that iris may be there even a person is blind Iris is in the front of the eye

This has nothing to do with the visual power of the person So person may have the iris, even if he’s not able to see So there is a possibility that two or three people out of a million may not have any of the biometric so we have kept that full bio exception and partial bio exception cases, then the system knows that this biometric need not to be collected This is the consent we take for the opening of the account for sharing the information with the state Now this is September 29, 2010 The first Aadhaar letter was issued by Prime Minster of India That was in one of the western state, that is Maharashtra and today as I’m telling you, we have come to the 592 million Aadhaar and if you count in number of days and the number of Aadhaars have been generated I think as far as Indian standard it is huge On the very first time we had the capability of doing around 50 Aadhaars a day, now our capacity is 1.5 million per day We can issue Aadhaar to more than 1.5 million residents a day So now you see the entire ecosystem You need more than 1.5 million enrollments to come in so that I can keep on generating 1.5 million and by this rate, we are already 600 million nine months in advance, more than nine months, 10 months, and if the enrollment rate keeps on continuing I think people were doubting initially that how will you do 1.2 billion, it’s such a mammoth task, but by overachieving the first deadline I think there is a possibility the entire ecosystem is well oiled and lubricated to do the job Now why this Aadhaar, unless the system is there to make authenticating working and available Aadhaar is of no use Just I’m having Aadhaar number, it’s just a fancy number Not even fancy, it is a useless number So if I’m having an authentication system in place then only it is useful So now what we’re working on is, that Aadhaar authentication process is already on I can tell you that in India the financial sector is receiving huge kind of re-engineering Recently one of the private sector bank has introduced a paperless opening of account That means they’ve got a system which is integrated with their banking software, which they call CBS, Code Banking Solution, so I go I’m not carrying my Aadhaar number also I’m not carrying my letter also I just go, give my Aadhaar number, give the fingerprint, the system will talk to UIDAI backend, will fetch the data because I’ve given consent to open the account to fetch the data from the UIDAI So UIDAI gives the photo, name, age, address and gender This basic data comes and sit in this system of this bank and they say there’s no entry of the data The banking system is receiving an electronic copy from UIDAI based on the consent of this prospective customer, and by this he’s able to open the account Because the address is through UIDAI Name, photo, age, and the Aadhaar authentication is through UIDAI So when I give my number and the biometric once it is approved, once it is authenticated, the data flows to the system Now we are saying it is a paperless opening of account The bank is not keeping any physical filling of form The bank is not keeping any proof of ID, proof of address The bank is just going on, they’re calling it electronic know your customer norm, EKYC So we are able to do this kind of thing because that possibility is there There is an online authentication system There’s an online ID system and the industry and service delivery mechanism if they’re able to synergize they’re able to meet and they can do this kind of change in the service delivery mechanism and as I was saying that we will just say yes or no, but when the resident says yes, I want this delivery I want this system, so they can come back to that Now they can do it through various systems They can be fingerprint, they can be at OTP, they can be PC based There are post machines, there are mobile apps,

there are various kinds of apps We have got something called developer portal where a lot of private sector initiatives are happening People are coming out with their own apps based on the Android, based on other kind of open systems and they’re able to link to this for the purpose of developing new systems for service delivery agencies for authentication for a cleaning of the data, for doing the service registry for the new beneficiaries So these are some of the very country-specific requirement like in central government, they’ve got various schemes Like for example I can say past food, for income tax, for water, identification for railways, for postal Then there are some state government local schemes, which are scholarship schemes and all Then public sector and private sector, microfinance With this, this is our website, which can give a lot of information It has got entire detail of the UIDAI right from its inception, what has been done, who have done it, and how much is being done I think I took a little bit more time, but any questions? Yeah, yeah? – [Male] In terms of the infrastructure, you gave some details, but I was thinking, if you don’t require physical document then you are relying on two prerequisites First is the (male speaking off microphone) system – Sorry? – [Male] (male speaking off microphone) systems For example, the banking system with– – Yeah, yeah, UIDAI, Aadhaar – [Male] Exactly, and between governmental agencies There has to be general (male speaking off microphone) You can share data, just like– – Biometric authentication – [Male] And the other thing is you need to spread out the use of this different devices you need to authenticate You mentioned that you can use an application on a cellphone or you can use some– – Point of sale devices – [Male] POS, but you would need that in order to make it work – Yep, yep – [Male] That’s the technological requirements with doing something like this and then also, there is some sort of political, social, (door slamming drowns out speaker) because you said that this information will be encrypted, but maybe there would be some kind of persistence from the users thinking well maybe this is part of a surveillance program If they’re using my Gmail account, why are not – Okay, okay, I got what you’re trying You’re saying there’s a lot of partners and stakeholders in the ecosystem There are various devices, there are various users, and the resident may at times not very confirmed whether his data is properly used, is that? Is that what you’re saying? – [Male] You need to do two things The appropriate technology and also people need to rely on this system that’s not gonna be used for other purposes – Okay I can tell one thing regarding the technology that UIDAI right from day one has gone for the open source architecture We have not tied up ourself with any of the vendor-logged system So it is a open ecosystem where the UIDAI is giving these specifications and the stakeholders are trying to meet those specifications in directing with the UIDAI So UIDAI is in total control who comes in, what he gets, and what he’s not supposed to get Point one Point two is that these devices, whatever is coming at this ecosystem, they’re also third party certified They’re not certified by UIDAI, they’re not certified by the vendor, they’re certified by a third party we have got in India, an innovation called STQC, standardized testing quality certification agency It’s Government of India’s public sector kind of So it does the certification of various devices which are coming into the play wherever the systems are working As regards the system of privacy, the residents having some discomfort of the data getting misused,

I know there may be some concerns they’re having, but from UIDAI perspective, from the organization perspective, the data which we collect from the resident just the name, age, address and gender This data we are not doing any profiling when we are issuing the Aadhaar number That means by looking at the Aadhaar number you don’t know who he is, she is, from where and all There is no north, south, east, west No male, female, literate, not young, no old Nothing of that sort From the point of view in a lighter vein I shared more information on the Facebook and my information on Facebook is known to millions of people whom even I don’t know They know me if they want to know The purpose of India ID mechanism is to reach to the disadvantaged, marginalized group which do not have any access presently to any of the welfare benefits or at least few of the welfare benefits in a proper, targeted, easy, smooth manner To do that, and that’s why I think initially I mentioned that you UIDAI is not under Ministry of Home It is not under any intelligence agency It is not under any other kind of regulatory mechanism It is under a planning commission So our objective is to pass on the benefits of welfare to the needy people So entire ecosystem is so open and transparent, everybody can find out, if you look to the website, you can just find out who all are working of us, which are the agencies, what they do, how they do, how much the get out of it Actually, I tell you, per Aadhaar generation UIDAI spent some $1.5, only $1.5 total, out of which around point six dollar goes to the state, which is like registrar because they’re doing the enrollment and all You won’t believe for per Aadhaar generation at the backend those vendors, the software companies, we pay them in Indian rupee, two point some rupees, if I convert into cents, it will be something like three or four cents This is what we’re paying per Aadhaar generation to the people who are actually doing that They’re doing it in a totally isolated, disconnected world when the data comes and gets processed So there is no leaking It is not connected And the privacy has been taken care because for to talk of privacy I don’t have the basic needs so we’re talking of the atmosphere and the environment where the first level needs to meet and then we may get into the much more stringent systems where the people will not feel discomforted There are some people who feel discomforted Yes? – [Female] We are kind of at time One quick question, with one quick answer and then will you be, – Yeah okay – [Female] I need to be respectful of classes that start shortly, but you’ll be able afterwards? – Yeah for 10 minutes because I’ve got a class at 12:45 – [Female] Okay and if not, I’m sure you’ll make yourself available – But I think we can meet up, yeah – [Male] I have one question I want to talk about Azel told that when there’s a public service there’s an opportunity in India, there such be a kind of system of connectivity to the main server that identifies information So is infrastructure across India that they’re connected to Internet each agency they have this equipment of communication and then their work would be somewhat dependent to the connectivity If there’s no connectivity, no service – I think that’s a very good question and that is one of the concern for us also Like we have got certain pockets which we call dark pockets, but the rate is increasing with the new technology, wifi and other kind of systems We have acknowledged this fact that there may be occasions either for the time or for the area that the connectivity is not there So we have provided a system of a buffered mechanism So you go to area which is not properly connected now, so you collect the information, go to your connected point, put it into the system and it gets authenticated However, enrollment system is not online However, enrollment system is offline We don’t need connectivity for enrollment It is offline, data captured, data encrypted, taken into disk, taken into media, go to the UIDAI personally, send it through the mail,

send it through some method, upload it to the SSTP there There are various mechanisms are available Enrollment is not required connectivity Only for authentication purpose I need connectivity and acknowledging this fact of non-availability we have done that buffered mechanism where I collect the data, keep it in the device, go to a connected point and upload it It’s an issue for us also, you are right It is a concern to have a universally available service This is one of the constraint – [Female] All right, thank you very much and as I said, we’ll be available a few minutes after – Okay, okay, no problem (audience applauding)