Arthur Frederick “Fritz” Hasler Maniac Lecture, June 28, 2017

-Good afternoon, and once again I want to welcome you to today’s Maniac Talk We are very fortunate to have our special guest Dr. Arthur Fritz Hasler, as we used to call him He flew all the way from Utah and with him, of course, is his wife Mary and other guests So please, let’s give him a round of applause to welcome them to Goddard For those who don’t know, Fritz was here for a long time He was here for 31 years, three decades, before he went on to become an adjunct professor at the University of Utah His final act here at Goddard was, you know, leading the visualization of scientific data from satellite and production of HDTV movies, which were quite very popular, and they offered visually stunning views of the Earth from space, and his products were featured in several scientific and popular scientific literature and on national televisions, including ABC, CBS, NBC, Weather Channel, et cetera, et cetera So today, because this is Maniac Talk, he’s going to talk about his own journey, and in these talks, usually people talk about why they went into what they are doing, what they have been doing over the last donkey years, in this case more than 30 years here at Goddard, and he’s going to share and reflect on 50 years, looking at Earth from space and his work with professor Verner Suomi, his PhD advisor, who is considered by many as the father of satellite meteorology Please, without further ado, help me welcome our speaker, Fritz Hasler -Thank you so much Wow, we’ve got a good crowd I’m so excited to be here I started preparing this talk about 9 months ago I gave it first at the University of Wisconsin, my alma mater and where Suomi founded the Space Science and Engineering Center, and then I gave it again That was in October In January, again, at the University of Utah, where the former 600 director of and Ed Zipsor were in attendance And I’ve had to put some finishing touches on to give it again today, and I’m so pleased to have Dennis Chesters, the GOES Flight Project scientist first in charge of GOES-16 here My wife Mary, water ski partner Ron Ricketts, Mike Manyon, Andy Nagree, Jerry Heimsfield, all these colleagues from way back, Dot Zucker on the front row, Steve Graham, so many people I’m so happy and I’m trying to give you this, can you tell, the sweep of history So we’ve got to go back a ways So I’m going to try to give you the sweep of history for 60 years of looking at Earth, okay? But there’s a particular thing that’s 50 years ago that happened on the 25th anniversary of Pearl Harbor So it was December 7th, notice that PBY It’s a long-range, small sea plane to come up and sailors are trying to drag it, put out the fire Okay So on that same day, 25 years after Pearl Harbor, Cape Canaveral, Florida, the ATS-1 with the Suomi Spin Scan camera blasted into space Over the next weeks, those of you who know geosynchronous satellites, it takes awhile to get the thing up to geosynchronous orbit, stationary over the middle of the Pacific Ocean The success of this mission made Suomi famous, made a huge impact on meteorology, University of Wisconsin, NASA, the world and me Suomi’s cameras and the follow-ons would make it so that we never viewed the Earth the same way again So I’m trying to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the ATS launch, honor Professor Suomi and review man’s view of Earth for the last 50, actually 60, years And I’m using the events in my dad’s life, my life and Suomi’s as kind of reference points We just don’t have the, and then we had this insurmount– I’m going to show what we looked like while this history was unfolding So it was 22,000 miles, and, you know, I can remember standing in front of audiences 50 years ago and explaining This was all brand new stuff at the time Twenty-two thousand miles up, 150 degrees west longitude over the middle of the Pacific Ocean, right?

Here’s the Suomi camera So Suomi and Bob double e professor at the University of Wisconsin designed this camera ATS There were some other geosynchronous satellites before, strictly communication, but this was an experimental communication satellite and Suomi hitched a ride on it, basically The problem was, you know how missions are now, you’ve got the instrument and then a 10-year plan of what you’re going to do with the data and you just fund it the whole way Well, at that time, there was no budget We had no devices to make the images practically We were starting with no resources There was one advantage, I was a graduate assistant I had a graduate assistantship, and I was very excited to get to work on this new data And I like movies, right? Okay So one day, Suomi comes into my office, 4×5 negatives, a little stack He says, “Here, Fritz Make a movie Make the first movie that’s every been made of the Earth from space.” So I knew how to do this I knew how Disney made animations, right? I’d do the same thing The only problem is a need an alignment jig, the little thing made out of aluminum with a little thing I was going to hit it with a hammer and make registration marks on the negatives So I designed one and went to the machine shop The problem was I wasn’t smart enough to have Suomi call the machine shop and put it on priority, right? You know, Fritz Hasler, student comes in and asks for something, “Yeah, we’ll get to it someday,” right? Two weeks later, Suomi comes in the office, “Fritz, where’s my movie? I got to go to Washington in 2 days, where’s the movie?” He grabbed the negatives, aligned them himself with the movie camera and had a movie the next day, and this is it So this is the middle of the Pacific, and you can’t even hardly see it, but this is Baja, California over here, and the cyclones come down here And this was the first time we’d ever seen the clouds move So a few days later, he went to the Weather Bureau in Washington, a crowd like this, he showed the movie and everybody had to stand up, standing ovation, right? For me, opportunity missed try it the quick and dirty solution first You can always do it better later, okay? So Suomi My instrument is up there and we’ve got a ground tooth it We’ve got to ground tooth it So only 4 months later, we started the Line Island Experiment So here we are, 1,000 miles south of Pearl Harbor There’s Pearl Harbor again, right? These islands, this one is on the Equator Christmas I spent most of my time there, so it was fun I got to go, right, and to this exotic place You fly to Hawaii then you fly south, and it got a bunch of people together, 100 people, NCAR, universities, everybody got together to get down there And it was only You see, the satellite went up in December It probably wasn’t giving images until January Already, that’s 3 months later, we’re already in the Line Islands I think he was afraid that the camera might fail and that he better do this quickly So here I am with my Olympus pen-f camera, Bolex camera, and we had just flown down from Hickam Field in Hawaii on a You know that the B-29 dropped the atomic bomb? Well, this is essentially the plane, the B-29, but at a cargo version And I remember sitting in the front of that looking, you know, as this huge, all these windows that you can look I sat next to the pilots These islands were last inhabited when we decided that Japan was not going to attack the mainland, when the Pacific War moved to Midway, we won the Battle of Midway, they abandoned all these They were building fighter strips, so we had all kinds of facilities that were military facilities, but no one had been there for 20 years Japanese fishing floats on the beach Boobies, thousands of booby birds on the side And this is Ed Zipper with a small crab It’s a coconut crab It can actually open crabs, coconuts with its pincers So Suomi shows up and he’s telling them, “All right Ed, this is what I want you to do The wind is coming from here Get that antenna out on the beach where it should be Why have you got it up here?” And remember the PBY that the sailors were pulling? This is one This thing flies 70 miles an hour for 14 hours

Mary and I are going to be on a triple 7 to Sydney August 31st, that will be 15 hours, but it’s a little faster, I think 700 miles an hour So at the same time, we’re going to have a time code marching on Suomi gets the funding to build the Space Science and Engineering Center Time moves on In 1968, Apollo 8, the first manned mission to the moon They weren’t going to land, but they were going to fly around the moon So here’s the — So there’s three astronauts sitting in the command module They’re flying around the moon, and they come around the moon and voilà The first shot with a good camera, color, that’s ever been taken of the Earth from space We call that the Earth rising, big spread in Life Magazine, those of you old enough to remember that kind of thing So that image, a movie that the American Museum of Natural History made, where they start deep in the bottom of ocean, go out to space, and the Jodie Foster “Contact” movie, if any of you have seen this, where they start with the night sky over the U.S and go out into space Well, we decided we could do it in reverse, right? We’d start in the space and move in So this is the famous, if you’ve seen my e-theater you’ve probably seen this a few times, and so we’re out This is the Hubble deep space field, destination Earth 2004 Think about where you’d go if it was 2004 Where would you end up on Earth? The Milky Way galaxy, our sun is one of 200 billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy We’re approaching a supernova explosion And this was funded by Ghasse Asrar just before I retired from NASA in about 2004 So we’re going to head through the Cassini ring of Saturn Here’s the sun getting bigger There’s the Milky Way in the background We’re coming on Jupiter now, and they got a $10,000 budget to make this movie So we passed Jupiter, now through the asteroid belt, around Mars, and at the time there were just the two little Opportunity and Spirit Could we get — There’s still light on the screen up here If we could get these lights? We don’t need them Okay. And here is the one that was inspired by that Apollo 8, right? So this is the Earth’s rise over the moon So rather than just fly to the Earth directly, we come behind the moon and simulate that Apollo 8 So where are we going? Anybody know? 2004? If you had any place on the planet, what would you pick? Let’s go to the Middle East, the Mediterranean, Greece, Turkey, Greece -Oh, the Olympics -Where? -Olympics -The Olympics in Athens in 2004 So there we end up And we’re at NASA, it was very famous These were the first movies, these fly-ins from outer space We actually did one for the Olympics in 2002 before that So that was ’68, ’69, Kennedy’s promise, remember, “to place a man on the moon before the end of this decade.” Apollo 11, Neil Armstrong on the moon And you notice that where the on-man one just had the command module They’ve added the LAM and this is what went down to the moon So now we’re going to go back, right? Suomi made that first movie, opportunity missed, right, but I made a lot of them after that So here’s one Suomi, myself, and this was ATS-3 that was launched the next year It’s color kind of a ratty color The copy is not, don’t have really good copies We could remake that movie if we’d get the original data again And I was in hot competition with Professor Fujita at the University of Wisconsin Everybody hear of the F-scale of tornadoes? This is an F1, F3, F5 He invented that, and that was by analyzing the damage of tornadoes, he judged the strength of the tornado, you know? Will it blow a regular straw through a 2×4? That’s an F4, right? So even before ATS-1 was launched, Suomi had intended to measure winds from cloud motions He knew the clouds He’d see the clouds moving He could pretend they were balloons and measure their tracks Free balloons to measure the wind, especially over the oceans, where we had no data, right? So Suomi decided, you know, he’s always doing the most advanced thing, so he had this electronic system that was actually built on system for making instant reply in football games And it was like a big record player that they would play the instant replay, and then he combined that with computers so it was an analog-digital device

But I thought if I was going to get my PhD before my 3-year-old daughter graduated from high school, I couldn’t wait to see whether this would work So I set up, I had a big table, the movie projector up above, and I applied the things and I actually took a pencil and marked all the cloud motions, and then I put them I went to the physics department, put my piece of cardboard down and they had, actually, they had rotary encoders in two dimensions and I would put in the data of the different points of the clouds By ’72 I completed the first PhD thesis based on his camera So I was supposed to talk to all of you about your careers, how’s your career gone? Best thing in the career, have a really good major professor, right? So when I left, I had a job at NCAR, I had a job in Paris and within a year I had a job here at NASA Not so much what I did, but essentially because I was Suomi’s student Here I was at NCAR This leads right out into the mountains up to the Flatirons, one of the, you know, most beautiful locations in the world No one would ever accuse you of working Skiing, hiking yes Working, you always had to convince people I came to Goddard and within a year we were off to Paris Mary, you remember Mary? We took our two little girls and we were with Pierre Morel, who actually spent time at NASA headquarters afterwards, at the Labortoire de Meteorologie Dynamique So and then my career here, 30 years, at Goddard And I just had dinner last night at the Boat Yard in Annapolis with Jim Dodge who funded me, and it turns out he was at NCAR and here at Goddard almost those same years So why do they want me so bad? Because they had just, a guy by the name of Jim Billingsley had just built a $5M system to analyze the cloud data It had five images They almost cost $1 million each because the memory That was before solid-state memory and they had a bunch of wires crossing to do the data They were 640×480 Does that sound like a big image today? You know, remember, Dennis, the first digital cameras we had, the Apple ones, were that And it could play a 5-image movie loop, so time one, time two, times three, times four Or it could combine three and give a color image, and it competed with the GE Image 100, which just had three So it was all digital, and that was more sophisticated than McIdas, but McIdas You couldn’t afford to buy a second one, right? No one wanted to make one So any software they developed was really stuck here Meanwhile, Suomi was working with McIdas and it’s everywhere All right So the other thing they ran Bill Shenk hired me, and he wanted me to go out and do institute verification of cloud winds So we actually, we had planes We had a high-level RB-57 flying overhead, and then we had a Saberliner and Buffalo It would actually fly through the cloud, right through the base of the cloud, push a button In those days, it was inertial nav, I mean, there’s no GPS You had inertial navigation, which was developed for intercontinental ballistic missiles You’d go out here, you turn around, come back and mark it again And meanwhile, the cloud had moved, you know, a couple of miles, 5 miles, depending So we could actually measure the cloud motion by positioning the cloud as it went around from the plane We didn’t even need the satellite We didn’t even use the satellite, actually We took movies, but it was hard to actually find the exact cloud we used And meanwhile, we could measure the wind because we had the Pitot tube were instrumented, so we had both the wind and the cloud motion and, surprise, they moved Oh, and a lot of people said you can’t have a cloud unless there’s air flowing through the cloud, right? So how could it measure accurately the wind? But it turns out that that’s pretty minor and that the clouds moved with the wind at the cloud base Really important work that no one ever quotes, that no one ever cites Let’s go back to the beginning and see how this all began Well, Suomi, here he is He was born in 1915

His parents immigrated from Finland in 2002 He’s the sixth of seven children He was already interested in airplanes Here he is So this is in the Eveleth Airplane Club in 1929 Already interested in technology My dad gets a degree in Utah, comes into graduate school at the University of Wisconsin, and he would later be a colleague of Suomi and my personal family advisor, right? My dad went on to discover how salmon return to their home stream Here’s the book I just finished If anybody wants to know how to publish a book yourself come up and take a look at this So the thing was you’re thinking about what the Earth looked like from space It was just a total mystery Isn’t that a great picture of how we think of the Earth? We didn’t have a clue how the Earth looked like from space So my dad earned German on his mission, a Mormon missionary, in the ’20s, and they recruited German professors and my dad to go to Germany, right? They landed in London on V-E Day, the end of, right after Hitler committed suicide and the war ended, right? And their job was to go around and interview people and see, you lost, your house was bombed, you know, they leveled the whole cities, right? “You lost your house last night, did you go to work in the munitions plant the next day or did you head for the mountains or whatever?” Meanwhile, other teams just like this were bringing back V2 rockets and Wernher von Braun and anybody who knew anything They didn’t care what kind of Nazis they were If they knew space, they brought them home So here we are, 60 years ago, this is ’46 We’re now in 2017, so we’re 60 plus 1 right now, the first pictures of the Earth from space So you see the clouds there, clouds here You know, they pasted some And these are probably 16mm movie cameras out of the bottom of a V2 rocket Mainly, they took them so they could figure out where the rocket was pointed, right? And they were really annoyed when there was clouds in the picture So that was ’46 Two years later, ’48, Suomis was founding the Meteorology Department with Reid Bryson He doesn’t have his PhD yet So he works on his PhD So look at the advanced electronics he used, right? It looks like some antique hi-fi gear, and there’s a tower right here, and he had radiation sensors at different heights So he’s measuring the vertical heat budget of a corn field That was his Ph, and I think his PhD thesis was 15 pages long, I think, as I recall Meanwhile, I’m still playing with electric trains in the basement about 200 yards from the University of Wisconsin campus My dad went to visit Professor von Frisch, the famous professor who discovered how bees talk to each other, the dancing bees And here I am in my lederhosen and my pretzel around my neck I don’t know why this brother didn’t get a lederhosen or a pretzel So we’re there for a year [ Speaking German ] So we all learned German So that’s ’55 Two years later the American’s scientific community had already had two or three Vanguards explode on the rocket pad, and all of a sudden, these backward Russians, and I think you probably have to go through rural Russia at that time to know how backward they were, had put Sputnik into space, and this was just a huge thing So we talked to Wernher von Braun He gave us a military rocket because the ones we were using weren’t working, and only 3 months later we had essentially matched the Russians Those were the longest 4 months when the Russians were ahead of us I graduated from high school following the race with rapt attention That’s me and my brother, if you know which one is which So my dad thought I should go into engineering because I was interested in electric trains That was obvious, right? So I started in mechanical engineering at the University of Wisconsin So we’re starting to get the first weather pictures, ’59, you know, TIROS images but what are you going to do with that? They’re not useful, don’t tell you anything about the weather So Suomi never had a problem thinking big If you could do the heat budget of a cornfield, I mean, why not do the whole Earth, right? Why not do the And so he worked with Chuck Stearns on this one, and I think that one went in the water or blew up on the pad

So finally he got one that went into orbit, a success at last Meanwhile, my dad builds a lab at the University of Wisconsin on the So he was a limnologist, oceanography of fresh water, did his experiments with salmon and so on I graduate with a B.S in Applied Math and Engineering Physics Me, my mom and my dad I got a job offer from McDonald Douglas I could go My goal, my Shangri-La, a job working, and at that time it was Mercury, Gemini and Apollo That was the sequence One astronaut, two astronauts, three So Gemini twins I had a job offer I could have gone to work for the space program, but I figured since I got a B.S. in Engineering, that will put me in a room with 1,000 other engineers designed the toilet bracket on the RV that they use to decontaminate them when they come back, right? Maybe I should go on, right? So my dad says, he says, “There’s an astronomer and a meteorologist.” I didn’t think I could hack astronomy They were still doing meteorology with grease pencils, figured I could do that So I gave up a job working in the main space program to work with a guy whose biggest achievement, at that point, was to put a thermometer under half a ping-pong ball That was his terminology, technology My smartest decision of my life was to marry Mary I also got my master’s that same year from Suomi Suomi founded the Space Science and Engineering Center that year and became its first director Suomi gets elected to the National Academy Awards of Engineering and is awarded the Medal of Science by Carter Here is is visiting his daughter Lois who was working in the Peace Crops There’s Vern at the time But it took the polar orbiting and geosynchronous satellites to give image from space, the time continuity and the spatial coverage So this is the work This is how it works So polar — I think everybody in this building probably knows how it works You go over the pole It takes about a 2-hour orbit, and the Earth turns underneath, and 24 hours later you have a picture of the whole Earth, right? So Terra works that way The NOAA satellites work that way And this was the first picture they, you know, this was all, they just had a whole bunch of pictures they got out on a big table and paste it all together So this is Africa And they had to draw the outlines of the continents, otherwise you couldn’t figure out where you were, right? So there’s Spain, for example, Hudson’s Bay And Jack Kornfield and I, we were two graduate students, we always had something else to do, whether it was playing football or doing something, another project, so it only took 7 years to get a PhD, right, counting Master’s All right So for example, here’s July and August So we actually physically did this We did this with photographs So we put a photograph of the whole Earth, better than the ones you just saw, and we put them down one at a time and take a 30th of the exposure and we’d, with analog with the camera, build up a month’s climatology So this was July and August, and you can see how different the intertropical convergence is in October than it was in July, for example So ATS gives us the first picture of the Earth from space Well, let’s see, ’67 I guess it was before that Apollo picture, so we’d never seen what the Earth looked like from afar, and it showed us how they move So here, a year later, we get ATS-3, Suomi’s camera on that one, and this had red, green, blue So we got it in color, kind of ratty color, but it was color over the Atlantic Ocean The other one was over the Pacific So here is the time sequence And the thing, this is visible only So at night you don’t see anything, right? You can’t see the Earth because you’re looking at invisible There’s no sunlight for observation And you’ve heard the rest of the story Not quite, let’s go on The cameras, the later cameras, were multispectral infrared in particular, higher resolution and, very importantly, could take pictures at 3-minute intervals Suomi’s invention was adopted by other countries around the world And so he added other countries So we end up with five geosynchronous satellites around the world, and this is now the system we have today where we can observe clouds over the oceans, over the whole planet, and measure the winds And this is a great example of how this all works So he put all those five satellites together, and let’s watch the sun go

So the sun heats up Australia, Sahara and western hemisphere, the deserts, okay? The cyclones move to the counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere, clockwise in the southern hemisphere, popcorn cumulus over the intertropical convergent zone We actually have a tropical cyclone, we would call it a hurricane if it was hitting Florida, moving into India, I think So remember back in ’68 when we got Apollo 8, the earth-rise pictures from the moon, now we’re up to We’ve already gone to the moon, Apollo 17, we’re looking back and ta-da Okay So I looked at that picture and I was in South Africa at the time, so we were at Kruger National Park right here What a perfect picture of the Earth to be showing people who live in Kruger, not so good for people in Europe, pretty good for the south pole people, not very good for western hemisphere So taken by Apollo 17 astronauts on the way to the moon Somebody told me it was Harrison Schmitt who actually took the picture, so I call him on the phone, right? Couldn’t get a hold of him Well, no I guess first, I’m visiting Houston, the space center in Houston, and there’s the Apollo 17 Command And I’m sitting there, I said, “Oh, my god They took probably the most famous picture of all time through one of the windows here.” And I was wondering, “Well, which window? How did it happen?” So I call up Harrison Schmitt, couldn’t get him on the phone, but I e-mailed him and he comes back to me He says, “This picture was taken out of the circular hatch window just after the Earth ceased to fully fill the frame of that window.” He was born in ’35 He’s 5 years older than me I think he’s still alive So it was taken through that window right there So what time of year? Look at the picture and tell me what time of year Come on -Is it ’72? -Time of year, season -December -December December The Earth is pointed, turned away We see it’s the 24-hour sun on the north pole, 24 hours of darkness in the Arctic So here is where I was giving a talk Mike, were you there? Hal Pierce was here also Were you there, Hal? -No -South Africa?Marble I don’t think I was there by myself, but giving a talk to the A lot of these kids lived just outside of Kruger National Park, had never been into the park and seen the fantastic animals and so on So the Blue Marble remains, to this day, probably the most famous, the most viewed pictures of all time It had a problem It didn’t show the Earth where most people live In my lab at NASA here, with the help of many of the people that are in the audience, we started to think about what we could do about that Meanwhile, my dad retires He had 52, actually 53, PhD students Thirty-seven came to his reunion Here he is in the middle I’ve got four kids now Suomi retires from teaching and the director of SSEC in ’88, and Galileo is on its way to Jupiter and it made this marvelous movie So the sun is not quite behind, but here’s one of the So we actually see the spinning Earth, right? Galileo on its way to Jupiter So this came from JP Now notice the flashing One of the things I love about these is you So normally, when you see the sunlight it’s kind of diffuse and that’s because of all the little waves in the ocean, but where it’s perfectly flat it’s like a mirror and as you approach it it’s black Let’s see if we can see it again It’s black, and then it flashes, and then it gets black afterwards So you’re looking at space, you’re seeing a direct flash from the sun back into the camera So here we go We finally have something of the western hemisphere Let’s see Hasler, Pierce, Polynopon, Manyon, Gentoff, Nielsen Is Mart here? But the other people are all here today So the first pictures in color of the western hemisphere, and of course we had to put a hurricane in there And it was really simple The white clouds We used the white clouds, and then we used the infrared and when it was the warmest temperatures, we made them yellow or orange for the desert with little intermediate temperatures on the infrared,

we made them green, and the blue for the coolest to make that image So this would be the warmest infrared temperatures Did it again Hasler, Chesters, Gentoff, Nieilsen always using GOES data, basically the same technique These were extremely popular You’d open the Washington Post, you’d see them, covers of all kinds of NASA Everybody, you know, a friend calls me up He’s giving a talk on, writing a book on global economics, “Can I use it for the cover?” This was an iBook on Apple accidental death for their Suomi dies in 1995, age 80, coronary artery disease, obituaries every place And now we have a gorgeous picture Again, one of Dennis’s GOES images, this time including the moon, and we used multiple data sources here, not just one So it was one of the first ones where we combined different data sets So the cloud data comes from the GOES, from Dennis, ocean data from our ocean sat, NDVI, it’s a vegetation index data from NOAA-AVHRR, and then we actually got an elevation model from Geophysical Survey to do that So you can see, like, the mountains here, right, the shadows of the mountains that are rendered Professor Palaniapan, from University of Missouri, is the primary architect of the Interactive Image Spreadsheet, which we developed here, and if you want to learn more about that he’ll be available for a little while afterwards My father dies at 93 But with today’s satellites and sophisticated rendering, we can visualize the Earth from any vantage point So there was a guy, some kid in Switzerland, kept e-mailing me He says, “I want to come work for NASA I want to come to work for NASA.” And he would send me his, some really very sophisticated visualizations that he’d done After awhile, I relented, brought him over from Switzerland He worked for me for a couple years then I ran out of money, and he went to work for Terra and somebody else, and he made this image, and I would say this has just about displaced the Apollo 17, which was done with a Hasselblad film camera So he used Terra data and GOES data to produce this And the thing is, with a rendering, what’s the subsatellite point? The subsatellite point is right here, right, southern U.S., northern Mexico So he’s turned the Earth He’s turned North America towards the camera so that we have a better view of North America You hardly even see South America So normally, subsatellite point would be down on the equator here So normally, from GOES, you’d have the thing rotated up, and that’s the beauty of being so good at rendering that you can render it from any angle you can think of So when you want the eastern hemisphere, of course, you want to emphasize Europe It’s a little bit cloudy, kind of features the Sahara Desert We put these on balloons, took them to This was Odyssey of the Mind Finals in Boulder, Colorado I had a big thing at the Frank Lloyd Wright Convention Center in Madison, Wisconsin We actually drove buses in, and we had a 50-foot screen, and people here helped me with that Three different projectors We were running off of a small supercomputer, about 200 pounds, and this is in the iMax theater in American Museum of Natural History in New York Also the big silicon graphic supercomputer, mini supercomputer, I guess you’d call it So 5 years after my dad died they named the limnology lab after him Suomi, they named the GOES NPP satellite after Suomi It’s now the Suomi NPP By this time I got, I had ten grandchildren, May and I, and two more to follow So 1998, so as Jim Dodge would describe it, Gore, Vice President Gore, has a wet dream, he says

He says, “How can I…” That’s what Dodge said “How can I — What if we put a satellite at L1?” So those of you that know dynamics know that there’s a balance The Earth has a relatively week gravity field, so a million miles away from here, 92 million miles from the sun, is a point where you can put something and it will stay there and you don’t have to keep adding fuel to position it there Okay? So it’s called L1, Lagrangian point So I was excited about this because, remember, the Galileo on the way to Jupiter? So we could do the same thing from here and we’ll have the sun right behind it, okay? So I thought it was a great idea Unfortunately, Bush was elected, and the Republicans couldn’t bear to put Gore’s satellite into orbit, so they put it into deep storage Well, Obama was elected The zombie satellite rises from the dead, took it out of storage, put it into orbit, and, you know, I don’t know The color is not the best, but it is color, and it makes it And the other problem, unlike Galileo, it’s only one every 2 hours So it’s not — Earth moves so far, you can’t see the clouds move, you can’t see the Actually, you can see the sun glint pretty well So here it is Here’s the moon So anything that happens facing the sun, you can see, sooner or later, here comes the moon across the face of the sun But you notice you can’t really see the cloud motions because the Earth is moving too far Do you see the sun glint though? That’s all the little waves defracting the sun or reflecting a diffuse image, I guess you’d call it Okay, let’s go on All right So here you can also see a solar eclipse, right? So if you were, what was the Carly Simon? He takes his leer jet to Nova Scotia to see the eclipse of the sun Well, if you could fly out of Australia or the Pacific Ocean, you could’ve followed the eclipse on this day While I was preparing this talk for, I think it was the one in Utah, maybe, I just ran into this picture, you know? I didn’t know about the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter I’ve been retired for 12 years I’m not following all this Actually, I saw it up — There’s a model of it up in the visitor’s center we stopped by And by the way, there’s Earth on a sphere is up there and a gorgeous rendering of the sun at the visitor’s center If you’ve been ignoring that, put that on your list Okay Wisconsin has SSEC, Space Science and Engineering Center, has their 50th Anniversary So there’s Lou Uccellini, the director of the weather service, Bill Smith, a bunch of other, the director of SSEC I was not invited to be in this picture They invited me to the thing, but this was mainly the low-Earth orbiter heat budget people who they had invited for this So if you think about it, if you own a center, NCAR, my dad’s Space Luminology Center, the Space Science and Engineering Center, how do you keep this going? How do you keep a constant stream of money coming in to keep something like this going? So this is — SSEC is as strong today as it was when Suomi founded it So a few ways I’ve been looking at the Earth during my career at Goddard Here’s one of our most famous ones, and since we didn’t have a red channel We did have — What were we missing? We were missing the blue, I guess I thought we were missing the red So we had to use 11 micron as blue because we didn’t have a true So the very wise people that were working on GOES didn’t think that you needed to make color pictures Why would a weatherman ever need a color picture of the Earth? So they didn’t So all these years, these 50 years since ATS-3, there’s never been true color from GEO So I said, “Well, I don’t care I’m going to use 11 micron as blue.” And notice, these are the shallow water off the Bahamas That should be blue, and it’s orange because it’s not a true-blue channel And we rendered it in 3-D I think, Mike Mannion, did you do those for us or no? -Hal -Hal Pierce, I mean And this was printed in Life Magazine,

so these were seen far and wide This one was a 10-foot, not quite as big as we see here but almost, in the American Museum of Natural History, the Smithsonian, for some months You see these down in the hall here, right? So this was National Geographic cover that we made, and we did other colors as well All right So bringing it up-to-date for the family here Mary and I do babysitting in Australia for our 10-year-old granddaughters, and so here we are on the Sydney Harbor watching the Messiah, and we’ll be there This will be our third trip in the last years This is my winter job I’m an L-2 certified ski instructor at Brighton, and we had a wonderful snow year this year This is our summer job Actually, we didn’t come from Utah just now We came from our place in Wisconsin right on the lake This is my ski boat So our house is just on the opposite side from this one This is a house across the water from us My contribution to a greener future This is my Nissan Leaf, 107 miles, solar panels on my house, so I’m driving on sunshine And mark my words, most of you are going to be driving electric 10 years from now The Volt is here already The Teslas Model 3 will be here next month And the upgraded Leaf that will go 200 miles will be here in September It will be announced So Suomi was responsible for building this I think they ought to call it the Sumoi building Last night I was eating dinner with Jim Dodge at the Boat Yard in Annapolis He says, “See that? What do you think that is?” Anybody know what that is? -It’s the direct read out tower -Smart guy I would have thought it was a radar antenna It’s a direct read out and Jim said, “Yeah, I paid for that, and I want it on top of the building,” and he used a big crane to do it And I said, “Yeah, you’re going to put a crane up 11 floors?” It had to be done with a helicopter to put that up there So now there’s the bookend to the whole thing, right? GOES 16 So you remember those pictures back 50 years earlier Last November, GOES 16 goes into orbit From small beginnings 50 years ago, at least 45 geosynchronous satellites, weather satellites, have been launched by many countries, 18 U.S., 10 Europe, 8 Japan, India, maybe a few other countries And here, the gorgeous new picture you’ve seen on the wall in color They finally, because it’s the blue, right? That was the one that was missing, Dennis? RGB, first time in 50 years do we have a GEO that does all color And Dennis sent me this one, gorgeous, so now a color image with clouds moving, and then it doesn’t get dark at night because we have infrared, and Dennis said the red The Europeans used regarded for low clouds, so you see the low clouds up there Those are low clouds But you see the ones that are moving fast are in the jet stream, right? And so they’re white And low clouds would be stratocumulus What a gorgeous view of our planet from this brand new satellite And 16 channels, so here we go So blue, 47, is that right, Dennis? So that was the one that’s been missing for the last 50 years, right? I mean, wow You’ve got 16 channels Could you do blue so we can have color? And there’s green and red and then we go into the infrared and amazing views of tornadic thunderstorms The red are the tallest And what’s — So the thing about GOES, the new GOES, is that it has enough sensors and it’s fast enough that these kind of pictures, which used to be just demonstrations, can now be done routinely So it used to be — Well, when that first ATS-1 was launched, it took a whole half an hour to get that one visible image, right? And what, it’s been 15 minutes in recent ones up to now maybe? But if you were going to do the whole Earth, the instrument was capable of doing rapid scans like this

that are maybe 30 seconds apart or a minute apart, but it couldn’t do that and the full Earth at the same time And the primary mission of the GOES is to get the global winds along with the satellites from other countries So this is the — This one can what? Rub its stomach and tap its head at the same time, whereas the earlier ones could not So here’s another one And this one’s really cool because you could actually see the shadows of the cumulus towers puffing up You see them right there? So you see them We’ve always seen them as little shadows on top of the See the shadows there? So when a — So you have the stratosphere, and at that point, the clouds won’t rise anymore but if they have momentum they’ll overshoot into the stratosphere, and if the sun is at a low enough angle, you’ll see the shadows just like that, right? But here we see the shadows on a lower layer of clouds, which I hadn’t seen before, and you really get the dramatic rise of the cumulonimbus towers So this is the Yucatan Peninsula You’ve got the sea breeze and the others coming together to initiate a huge cumulonimbus storm system And these are the cloud streets we often see in the tropics And this — I like this one because it really gives you an idea of the complexity of the atmosphere, right? So you’ve got the low clouds You can see them through there You’ve got probably wave clouds over the ocean here some place Right there, see those? You’ve got wave clouds here, or over mountains, mean See how you’ve got some kind of a system here So if you think the atmosphere is simple, I think Look at the southerly motion of these clouds, westerly here Just tremendous complexity And again, you can’t see this unless you’re taking pictures at 1 minute or 30 seconds or 5 would be the longest And now, for the first time, we can do this stuff routinely, so they have to choose a sector, right, Dennis? -Yeah -So they choose wherever the weather in interesting They can focus on that while they’re still making the full-Earth picture Let’s see Let’s go on So how cool is this, right? So GOES has a lightning mapper Dennis was just describing it to me There’s a telescope, what, a 30-centimeter telescope or so, that’s designed to get just the frequency of light that every time one of these things is flashing, they’re actually observing it, the light flash on top of the The lightning flashes inside the cloud but you can see it The astronauts have all talked about, right, seeing the lightning flashes So here we are together with a storm system that causes it from, seen from geosynchronous orbit So those are all lightning flashes, and you can see those at night It’s a visible, right, wavelength? -777 nanometers -Seven, seven, seven nanometers Point seven micrometers -Yeah -Oops Okay So here we are Now in color, in full color, convection over Florida, and this projector is not doing the best color These are potentially really nice saturated colors Again, cumulonimbus developing over Florida There’s actually a fire up here, you seem and the low-level winds are easterly whereas these upper-level winds are southwesterly Easterly low-level winds over the tropics are coming in from the east What gives us the city lights? Is that one of GOES? -You got me -All right So we’re actually seeing the metropolitan area, the lights at night See? Right there Okay Well, we’ve come a little ways, haven’t we? Fifty years

Thank you very much [ Applause ] -So these Maniac Talks are supposed to be a nice blend of the personal and the scientific I’d like to say you nailed it Once again, you’ve nailed it I feel like you left out an important, kind of interesting, detail when you showed the image with the moon in the corner, because you did some fudging to get that image Would you want to talk about that a little bit? The moon is not round The moon is not stationary in respect to a geostationary satellite, so you had to fudge to get that round moon in the corner -Who helped with that? -No I said but I think it’s an important thing You took the trouble to correct -Right So I think it was kind of distorted, right, because it took a while to -It was sort of an egg shape -Yeah, because the moon, as you scan down the Earth, the moon moved along and so it wasn’t right It wasn’t a snapshot, instantaneous So that’s the sweep of history over the last 60 years, and so this is a book I did about my dad and finding out how Salmon These things can be published by Create Space, an Amazon company I think the cost to me is $15 for this This one took a year once I learned how to do it This is about my mother It took 3 weeks once I got all the It’s not as, well, it’s not as finely refined, and you can buy these, or I have a blog also Mostly family history, my dad’s story, Mary’s story If you look at or just Google Hasler history, look at It’s a little complicated navigation, which I’m working on, to get to the image one My dad in Europe, the whole story of him in Europe on his mission in the ’30s, our trip to Europe, all thee things All the cars and boats of the, trains and ships, that our family had over the years, different blogs that I put together over the last year or so And I took those blogs and then my goal, one of my goals, is to do this talk as a book, so I think that’s my next one I keep talking Any questions? -Okay, let’s thank Fritz one more time -Thank you