Google Cloud Next '17 – Day 3 Keynote

Welcome to Google Cloud Next 20

Day 3 keynote

Welcome to Google Cloud Next 20

Day 3 keynote

Welcome to Google Cloud Next 20 Day 3 keynote Welcome back to Google Cloud Next 20 17 in San Francisco

I’m Timothy Jordan . A developer advocate and I’m I’m

with Google education and one of the host hosts for the G Suite show . This is the last day of Google Cloud Next What a week it’s been . It’s dedicated to deep dives on — about how they are leverage leveraging Cloud Just as action packed and yesterday . We have put together some of our favorite moment moments for you to enjoy . And here they are Good morning . Welcome to the second day of next . It’s probably the largest global network today . Between 25 and 40 percent of global Internet user traffic . We put a security chip on all our new machine , to serve as a basis of trust for that machine ‘s identity . It’s so small that I’m wear wearing one on my earring A G Suite , we’re obsessed with the idea that computer computers should constant constantly raise the bar on what can get done with the mundane . So that our user users , your employee employees , have more and more time to focus on doing creative work Cloud enable enables enknow vai vaitive business model models . New ways of you creating and changing your business that you wouldn’t have been able to do before is a white board in the Cloud , in the meeting room and beyond your meeting room rooms Just pick up the stylus , you start think thinking , and communicating and work working with your team do they come to GCP ? They want the world ‘s best security They the core promise to developer developers still remaip remaips the same . Bring your code and Google will handle everything else . So that was day two Drea , you also had a chance to talk with someone about Stackdriver , right ? I sure do . I talk talked with Amir , a product manager on monitor monitoring , logging and diagnostic diagnostics for the Cloud . I’m here with Amir , who is lead leading a session learn learning best practice practices called the thin line between inform informing and everyone will have access to it over the next couple of day days . also excited to be here . So I’m a product manager on Google Cloud platform and I focus on the Stackdriver Services Suite . Stackdriver is all about monitor monitoring , logging and diagnostic diagnostics for our user users that are running their application applications on Cloud services . And I’m based here in Mountainview . Oh , nice . Me , too . So when it come comes to , as we mentioned the topic of the session , learn learning best practice practices , but learn learning more about Stackdriver , why is this important when we’re think thinking about the Cloud ? the years , we worked with a lot of our user users , making sure that they have everything set up caekt caektly and they are correct correctly monitor monitoring their application applications . And we realize that alert alerting is the hard hardest part to get right And so we want wanted to use this ability to use the things we learn learned with stack monitor and to help our user users and user users of other Cloud platform provider providers get alert alerting right . We come across case where user users alert too often or they don’t alert on the right things . So we want to share our insights . How does Stackdriver fit into all of that ? Stackdriver is our service that allow allows user users to alert on things that they run in the Cloud But the session is also applicable to users of other either competing services , or free services , Open Source So it’s really applicable to anyone that is running production services in the Cloud , and they want to make sure that their user users are presented with sort of their best foot forward . Right And so in addition to lead leading some of the session sessions on that , I

guess for you , what are you most excited about when it come comes to the future of the Cloud and when it come comes to the spic products that you’re work working on ? . So with Stackdriver and general generally in Cloud , I’m really excited to see that the focus is shift shifting from maintenance , and that kind of overhead , to really innovate oh on innovation , so user users today have better tool tools that are — it’s easier to set up and require very low overhead and so they can focus their efforts , instead of on main taping , on innovate innovating And so that leads to better application applications , and better services , and more exciting things that we see out there . Well , thanks for join joining us today and giving us a sneak peek into your session sessions that you’ll do at : Google Cloud Next . We will have a chance to check it out on YouTube . Of course Tim knee and I spent more time in the Cloud showcase . Like yesterday , we thought it would be cool if we brought you along as well . Here we are at the Jamboard , and I’m stand standing with Ishwarya , could you tell the live stream view viewers what you do at Google ? I’m a product manager on the Jamboard team For those few people out there that don’t yet know what a Jamboard is , what is it ? Jamboard is a fun digital collaborative white board Everyone love loves how it look looks , it look looks great in a room of the it’s the first thing people walk to . It’s fun to write on it . It’s a great collaboration device for people who are work working in remote office offices You could be in New York and I could be in London . Let’s say you are on a Jamboard , I could pull up my tablet and we could : Rate together , sketch , just anything that you would do on a normal while board , you can do the Jamboard , but instead of taking a picture and email emailing it to me , we could do it real time and you could just send it to me and then you can add me That’s awesome . We spend a lot of time on VC , All the time . And there ‘s whiteboards behind us , you sketch , you have to turn the camera . Or take a picture and send it over to people . It adds so much overhead to the collaborative overhead . What are some of the other tool cool things , we can pop do in and do drain storm storming on Let’s say we want to talk about do you go dog dogs during a meeting . Once the I am maming mamings show up , you can pull them out And then chain them up . And then if you want to delete , just slide them down . So that is something really cool And another thing that I love is the Web search . So anything that you would search on like Google .Com , you can just search in here . Let’s say I want to go to New York City and I just want to pull up a map of Manhattan . This will take a bit of time . You can just crop out the image and pull it into your jam , write on it , market place market places , star place places , send the file to your friends , you can mark different place places at the same time . Like a doughnut place and then pull an image of doughnuts from that place . Another this thing that is awesome is the handwriting recognition . Not every one has amazing handwriting like me . So for people like those That was really cool . And then you can also theet it Thank you for the quick tour of the Jamboard . I’m excited to standard jamming . This is the meet the experts area . Where developer developers get to ask experts from Google their question , and work on solutions together . I’ll join Drea over here who found some of the Firebase crew and we will talk about something that just launch launched . Hay y’all , how are you doing ? This is Doug , he will tell us about something that just launch launched . we just announced Google Cloud function functions for Firebase , it let’s developer developers wrote write back in code in response to events in their Firebase project project I’m excited about this . Tell us what developer problem problems does this solve ? found that developer developers really don’t want to create their own server servers ring maintain them , upgrade them and deploy to them . So what they would rather do is just code deploy it to Google service and let go of all the administrivia and it’s a great tool that developer developers use to

build the back ends for the mobile app apps . How do developer developers get started ? Going to Firebase.Google.Com . Find the function functions feature there , and you can get on with that right away Cool stuff . thavshs . We will catch you soon . Here we are in the G Suite area . Tell us a bit about what is going on Wes . everybody , how are you doing ? Doing great One of the things that is cool about what what offer offers , it’s a little something for people to build things , to solve problem problems in their enterprise . Exactly We have developer tool tools for people who are full time developer developers . But we have stuff where , if you’re try trying to get something done , try trying to build an app to put together a report You don’t have to be a hardcore software engineer We have a cool product called App Maker . It’s a low code development environment , where you go from idea to app in day days , not months . And you don’t need an engineer engineering resource , you can build a simple simI , add the correct correcttors and all of a sudden you are done and gone If you want to do more work , App Maker run runs on top of App Script , it gives you access and your app apps access to data in Google G Suite , you can access other Google services , but you can make external call calls to like an outside relation relational database For the hardcore software developer , we have the rest API s , you can integrate kal enlar enlars , Sheets , and Slides into your application applications . So there also has been a lot of G Suite announce announcements and product updates . Talk to us about some of your favorites or highlights from those announced that Team Drives is general generally available . It’s really excited exciting . Now if employee employees move or change joshs , you don’t have to worry about who do ee reassign the owner ownership to ? Everything is opened by the organization . Team Drives is accessible . So your autopsies can integrate request Team Drives . The other thing was Gmail ad ons , you can integrate your mini app and have it built into Gmail so they can access your app without having to leave Gmail . It’s like braeshing braeshinging the cycle of I’m work working in Gmail , I have to pop out , go tory ee app and get back Too many click clicks . Wes wos and your context is crazy . So if you can build in a bit of your app within Gmail , that goes for a better seam less user experience . Last question , if you want to get start started on this , why do they go ? Developers.Google.Com . You can find App Script , App Maker , Gmail add-ons , Google drive and Team Drives . We’re here at the Cloud span spanner booth with Selena Tell us about what you do ? Product market marketing for GCP database databases We are either at the span spanner booth and this is something that I’m particular particularly excited about . Yes , you are . I am . I talk talked a lot about it . But I’ve been frustrate bid having to choose between horizontal scaling and transtransactional consistency But I don’t have to choose with span spanner . You don’t have to khoods and having a relational database that scales Horton stall stallly and keeps the scale is huge . It’s also in the Cloud , so it’s fully managed . That makes it a lot more easy to implement . Where do we learn more about it ? Cloud.Google.Com/Spanner Cloud.Google.Com/Spanner Well , Drea , it’s almost time for the end of our preshow Is it already ? Of course, that means it’s almost time for the final keynote . Today ‘s keynote has an awesome line up dedicated to Open Source and cloud-native architecture the We will look at Kubernetes and Tensorflow . Then we will here from receiver receiver receiver on the history and value of free occupy source ware for infrastructure . Jeff dean will do a deep dive into Tensorflow . And then Sam will talk about build building an open Cloud . We will hear from start up ups and the venture capital community about how they are leveraging they areing inged Cloud to build the next wave of products and services Alison Wagonfeld will close out the keynote . Let’s get do to it . Connect with us online Our Twitter handle handles are on your screen . Enjoy the show and we will see you next time

Speaker: LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, OUR PROGRAM WILL BEGIN SHORTLY PLEASE TAKE YOUR SEATS AND SILENCE ALL MOBILE DEVICES THANK YOU [ MUSIC ] Speaker: LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, OUR PROGRAM IS ABOUT TO START

PLEASE TAKE YOUR SEATS [ MUSIC ] Speaker: LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, PLEASE WELCOME GOOGLE’S VICE

PRESIDENT OF PRODUCT MANAGEMENT, DEVELOPER AND COMPUTE PLATFORMS , SAM RAMJI [ APPLAUSE ] Sam Ramji: GOOD MORNING. I CAN’T TELL YOU HOW THRILLED WE ARE THAT YOU’RE ALL HERE TODAY I HOPE YOU’VE HAD A GREAT CONFERENCE AND I HOPE WE BLOW YOUR SOCKS OFF TODAY WITH AWESOME TECHNICAL CONTENT AND LOTS OF OPEN SOURCE. SO NEXT HAS BEEN AN AMAZING EVENT SO FAR AND IT’S BEEN GREAT TO MEET MANY OF YOU IN BREAKOUT SESSIONS , IN THE HALLWAYS AND EVEN ON THE STREET THE VISION DIANE GREENE SHARED ON THE NEXT DAY OF NEXT SHOWCASED THE EVOLUTION OF GOOGLE CLOUD AND HOW WE’RE GROWING EXTREMELY QUICKLY WITH E NTERPRISES AND START-UPS YESTERDAY, URS HOLZLE SHOWED US MANY OF THE NEW RELEASES AND UPDATES WE’VE BEEN WORKING ON WITH GOOGLE CLOUD. THIS WEEK ALONE, WE’VE ANNOUNCED MORE THAN 30 NEW FEATURES AND PRODUCTS THAT ARE NOW AVAILABLE FOR E VERYONE TO TAKE ADVANTAGE, TO BUILD WHAT’S NEXT NOW, TODAY WE WANT TO TAKE TIME AND TALK ABOUT ONE OF THE THINGS THAT FUNDAMENTAL FUNDAMENTALLY DEFINES HOW GOOGLE APPROACHES THE CLOUD. TODAY, WE WANT TO TALK ABOUT OPENNESS TO GUIDE US THROUGH THE COMBINED GENERAL OF OPEN SOURCE AND GOOGLE IS A PERSON I’VE LONG ADMIRED. FIVE-TIME CO-CHAIR OF OSCON, THE WORLD EPPS GREATEST OPEN SOURCE CONFERENCE. SHE NOW LEADS OPEN SOURCE COMMUNITIES FOR GOOGLE CLOUD CLOUD PLEASE JOIN ME IN WELCOMING ANOTHER BAD IaaS WOMAN BAD ASS WOMAN, SARAH NOVOTNY [ APPLAUSE ] Sarah Novotny: GOOD MORNING, FOLKS. OPENNESS IS ABOUT SHARING. OPENNESS IS ABOUT AGREEING ON COMMON GOALS, AND OPENNESS IS ABOUT WORKING TOGETHER TO MAKE BETTER SOFTWARE AND A BETTER WORLD GOOGLE’S COMMITMENT TO OPENNESS HAS HELPED US HIRE MANY ENGINEERS AND ALLOWED THEM TO DEVELOP, CONTRIBUTE TO, AND SUPPORT MANY OF THE TECHNOLOGIES THAT ARE RUNNING THE BROADER INTERNET TODAY A 2004 WHITE PAPER ON MAPREDUCE BECAME THE BASIS FOR MANY TECHNOLOGIES UNDERLYING THE BIG DATA ECOSYSTEM. GOOGLE’S INTERNAL SYSTEM, BORG, FOR MANAGING CONTAINERS, WAS REIMAGINED AS KUBERNETES, AN OPEN SOURCE CONTAINER ORCHESTRATION SYSTEM THESE ARE SOME OF THE LATEST EXAMPLES OF COLLABORATION WHERE OPENNESS HAS INVOLVED OUR INDUSTRY WE AT GOOGLE ARE HUMBLED TO TAKE — HUMBLED THAT OVER A BILLION USERS TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE SERVICES WE PROVIDE TO OPENLY SHARE THEIR CONTENT AND SERVICES , AS WELL AS THEIR DREAMS AND ACHIEVEMENTS IT’S CLICHE TO SAY, BUT WE’RE STANDING ON THE SHOULDERS OF GIANTS. ALL OF THIS IS POSSIBLE BECAUSE OF THOSE THAT STARTED THIS JOURNEY TOWARD AN OPEN WORLD LONG BEFORE GOOGLE WAS AN IDEA THOUGHT UP BY TWO GRAD STUDENTS IN SANFORD IN THE LATE ’90s THIS MORNING WE’LL HEAR FROM SIX SPEAKERS SHARING PARTICULAR FACETS AND BENEFITS OF OPENNESS AS A PHILOSOPHY. VINT CERF, JIM ZEMLIN, ERIC BREWER, CHRIS WRIGHT, AND JEFF DEAN, AND RAJAT MONGA THIS STORY WILL, I HOPE, UNDERPIN GOOGLE’S COMMITMENT TO OPEN CLOUD AND WHY IT IS SO STRONG AS THE INTERNET WAS BEING CREATED, ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT DECISIONS WAS TO CREATE AND USE OPEN STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGIES TO HELP ENSURE THAT THE NETWORK WAS BOTH RESILIENT AND EASY TO INTERCONNECT AS NEW SYSTEMS CAME ON LINE IT’S THIS COMMITMENT TO OPENNESS THAT OPENED A WHOLE NEW WORLD OF INTERCONNECTION AND HAS ENABLED THE INTERNET TO BECOME A NEARLY UNIVERSAL MEANS FOR EXCHANGE OF CODE, INFORMATION, SERVICES, AND IDEAS THE DECISIONS TO MAKE THE INTERNET BASED ON OPEN STANDARDS WERE FUNDAMENTAL TO MAKING IT UNIVERSAL, JUST AS THE GOALS OF OPEN SOURCE AND AN OPEN CLOUD ARE CRITICAL TO CREATING THE NEXT GENERATION OF TECHNICAL ADVANCES VINT CERF CODESIGNED ONE OF THE KEY PARTS OF THE INTERNET, TCP/IP. HE WORKED WITH THE

GROUP THAT HELPED CONNECT THE FIRST TWO NODES TO ARPANET, RAN THE INTERNET INTERNETTING RESEARCH GROUP AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM AT DARPA FROM 1976 TO 1982 AND WAS LATER RESPONSIBLE FOR HELPING BRING THE FIRST COMMERCIAL EMAIL SYSTEM TO THE INTERNET HE’S ALSO RESPONSIBLE FOR HELPING FORM ICANN, WAS THE FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE INTERNET SOCIETY, AND CURRENTLY SERVES AS A COMMISSIONER FOR THE UNITED NATIONS BROADBAND COMMISSION FOR DIGITAL DEVELOPMENT. HE’S ALSO WORKING ON THE INTERPLANTRY INTERNET WITH NASA A’S JET PRO LUGS LABORATORY. HERE TO SHARE HIS EXPERIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HOW OPENNESS WAS A KEY DESIGN PRINCIPLE FOR TODAY’S MODERN INTERNET IS VINT CERF [ APPLAUSE ] Vint Cerf: THANK YOU, SARAH GOOD MORNING, EVERYONE. THIS IS A WONDERFUL OPPORTUNITY TO TALK ABOUT THE THREAD OF OPENNESS WHICH WEAVES ITSELF THROUGHOUT THE INTERNET’S STORY, SO LET’S START CAN I GET THE FIRST — THERE WE ARE HERE’S AN EXAMPLE OF A PUBLICATION FROM 1974. I HAVE THE FEELING SOME OF YOU MAY NOT HAVE BEEN BORN THEN. THIS CONTAINED THE DESCRIPTION OF THE INTERNET DESIGN. IT WAS PUBLISHED OPENLY BY BOB KHAN AND ME IN THIS PUBLICATION. OUR DESIGN INTENDED TO BE AVAILABLE ANYWHERE TO EVERYONE WITH NO BARRIERS, SO WE TOOK NO PATENTS, WE DIDN’T MAKE ANY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY CLAIMS, AND WE DID THAT ON PURPOSE BECAUSE WE WANTED THERE TO BE ABSOLUTELY NO EXECUTION NOT TO ADOPT, TCP/IP AS AN INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SO OPENNESS WAS IMPORTANT TO US FROM THE GET-GO THE REQUEST FOR COMMENTS SERIES, WHICH I SUSPECT MANY OF YOU ARE FAMILIAR WITH, WAS STARTED IN 1969 BY MY COLLEAGUE, STEVE CROCKER, WHO NOW HAPPENS TO BE CHAIRMAN OF ICANN. AGAIN, OPENNESS. THE INTENT HERE WAS TO MAKE SURE THAT EVERYONE INVOLVED IN THE PROJECT AND OTHER PEOPLE WHO WERE INTERESTED COULD SEE IN DETAIL HOW THIS STUFF WORKS, WHAT THE DEBATES WERE ABOUT VARIOUS CHOICES AGAIN, OPEN ACCESS TO EVERYONE THE INTERNET ITSELF HAS OPEN CHARACTERISTICS AND MOST OF YOU, I’M SURE, ARE VERY FAMILIAR WITH THAT. AT THE CORE OF THE INTERNET IS THE INTERNET PROTOCOL. AND IT HAS THIS INTERESTING PROPERTY. IT’S STUPID, RIGHT? IT DOESN’T KNOW THE PACKETS IN THE INTERNET DON’T KNOW HOW THEY’RE BEING CARRIED, NO IDEA IF IT’S GOING OTHER SATELLITE LINK OR AN OPTICAL FIBER AND IT DOESN’T CARE. LIKE A POSTCARD DOESN’T CARE HOW IT’S BEING CARRIED AND ON TOP OF EVERYTHING ELSE, THE INTERNET PACKETS DON’T KNOW WHAT THEY’RE CARRYING, RIGHT RIGHT? THEY HAVE NO IDEA IT’S A BAG OF BITS GOING FROM POINT A TO POINT B WITH SOME PROBABILITY GREATER THAN ZERO THAT’S ALL WE ASK IT. WHAT’S IMPORTANT IS THAT ANY INFORMATION THAT HAS HAS BEEN INTERPRETED AT THE EDGES OF THE NET. THIS IS PORAT PART OF THE END TO END PRINCIPLE. SO THE POINT IS WHEN YOU WANT TO ADD A NEW APPLICATION, YOU DON’T HAVE TO CHANGE THE NET. THE NET DOESN’T KNOW. THAT’S OPEN WITH A BIG “O” .” AND SO ALL THE OTHER PROTOCOLS THAT YOU SEE GOING UP TOWARDS THE TOP AND SPREADING OUT LIKE THIS ARE EVIDENCE THAT IF YOU AREN’T HAPPY WITH THE PROTOCOLS THAT EXIST NOW, GO BUILD YOUR OWN IF YOU’RE NOT HAPPY WITH THE UNDERLYING TRANSPORT MECHANISMS, FIND ANOTHER ONE ONE SO THIS IS OPEN IN EVERY SENSE OF THE WORD AND THAT’S WHY SO MANY NEW APPLICATIONS HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED OVER THE LAST 30 SOME-ODD YEARS OF OPERATION WHY DOES THIS THING — THERE WE GO SO HERE’S AN EXAMPLE AT GOOGLE WE DEVELOPED A NEW PROTOCOL CALLED QUIC THAT COMBINES THE T CP PROTOCOL WITH THE TLS PROTOCOLS AND ADDS A FEW OTHER FEATURES AS WELL AND THAT JUST SLIPS RIGHT IN WHERE TCP AND TLS WOULD NORMALLY GO AND THAT RUNS RIGHT NOW IN OUR BROWSE BROWSERS AND IN OUR SERVERS AND IN OTHER PEOPLE’S SOFTWARE WHO CHOOSE TO USE THIS PARTICULAR IDEA YOU MIGHT BE SURPRISED TO KNOW THAT WE WERE PLAYING AROUND WITH PACKET VOICE AND PACKET VIDEO IN THE 1970-E. THIS IS BECAUSE THE MILITARY KNEW IT WAS GOING TO HAVE TO USE NETWORKING IN ORDER TO CARRY VOICE, VIDEO, AND DATA DATA. WE WEREN’T CARRYING VERY MUCH THOUGH, . I CAN TELL YOU OUR BACKBONE SPEEDS WERE 50 KILOBITS A SECOND BACK — THAT WAS “BROADBAND “BROADBAND.” [ LAUGHTER ] NOW IT’S A DIAL-UP MODEM. BUT WE WERE EXPERIMENTING WITH THE CONCEPTS AND ACTUALLY TRYING THIS STUFF OUT. THE WORLD WIDE WEB, OF COURSE, CAME ALONG, TIM PERSONSERLY INCHES THIS IN THE LATE ’80s, EARLY ’90s AND IS FREE TO DO IT, RIGHT? HE JUST INVENTS A SET OF PROTOCOLS, HTTP AND HTML ENCODING AND HE PUTS THAT UP ON THE NET. HE DOESN’T HAVE TO GET PERMISSION. THE GUYS THAT STARTED GOOGLE DIDN’T HAVE TO GET PERMISSION FROM SOMEBODY TO GO PUT UP THE SERVICE. THEY JUST PUT IT UP IN THEIR, YOU KNOW, — I GUESS IT WAS IN THEIR DORM ROOM AND THEN IN A GARAGE. CLASSIC SILICON VALLEY STORY STORY BUT THE WHOLE POINT HERE IS THAT IT’S PERMISSION PERMISSIONLESS INNOVATION AND THAT’S WHAT THE INTERNET HAS BEEN ABOUT AND IS STILL ABOUT AND THAT’S WHAT’S IMPORTANT TO YOU. BECAUSE IF YOU’RE THINKING ABOUT STARTING NEW BUSINESSES, YOU WANT TO BE FREE TO INVENT YOU DON’T WANT TO HAVE TO GET

PERMISSION TO TRY OUT YOUR IDEAS AND OF COURSE NOW THAT YOU SEE ALL THE MOBILE APPS AND CLOUD SERVERS THAT ARE HAPPENING , AGAIN, EVIDENCE OF THE PERMISSIONLESSNESS OF THE INTERNET HERE’S ANOTHER EXAMPLE. IT’S AMAZING. EVERYBODY WHO GOT A BROWSE ER AND WAS CURIOUS HOW THE HELL DID THEY DO THAT HAD THE OPPORTUNITY TO GO LOOK AT THE SOURCE CODE. BOY, THAT’S OPEN. EVERYONE HAD A CHANCE TO TRY OUT NEW IDEAS, STEAL IDEAS FROM EVERYBODY ELSE. THE WHOLE POINT IS THAT WE GREW THE NOTION OF WEBMASTER FROM ZERO BY PEOPLE TRYING EACH OTHER’S CODE OUT AND, YOU KNOW, MODIFYING IT AND TRYING OTHER IDEAS AND THOSE GOT SHARED AND PROPAGATED ALMOST ORGANICALLY THIS IS SUCH A PERFECT EXAMPLE OF WHY OPEN IS SO IMPORTANT TO EVERYONE THERE’S ANOTHER THING, AND THAT HAS TO DO WITH THE INSTITUTIONS THAT ARE PART OF THE INTERNET WE DIDN’T CREATE ALL OF THESE AT THE SAME TIME. WE CREATED THEM WHEN THEY WERE NEEDED, SO THE INTERNET ARCHITECTURE UP OR DOWN, WHICH USED TO BE CALLED THE INTERNET CONFIGURATION CONTROL BOARD WHEN I WAS STILL IN THE DEFENSE DEPARTMENT, I NEEDED TO HAVE THE PEOPLE WHO WERE RUNNING THE PROJECT GET TOGETHER AND TALK TO EACH OTHER ABOUT WHAT WAS GOING ON. I WANTED THIS TO BE ONLY THE PEOPLE I PICKED, SO THE NAME OF THIS THING, INTERNET CONFIGURATION CONTROL BOARD, WAS PICKED TO BE AS BORING AS — SOUNDING AS POSSIBLE, SO NO ONE WANTED TO BE ON IT EXCEPT THE PEOPLE I PUT ON IT. THAT BECAME THE INTERNET ARCHITECTURE BOARD, WHICH SPUN OUT THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE WHERE ALL OF THE STANDARDS GET MADE NOW. THE INTERNET SOCIETY WAS CREATED IN ORDER TO SUPPORT THE EMERGING ISSUES TASK FORCE WHEN THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION SAID, “WE DON’T WANT TO SPEND ANY MORE RESEARCH DOLLARS ON WHAT HAS BECOME A VERY ACTIVE COMMERCIAL KIND OF ENVIRONMENT.” SO THE INTERNET SOCIETY WAS FORMED TO SUPPORT EITF AND NOW, OF COURSE, IT DOES A LOT OF OTHER THINGS AS WELL ICANN GOT CREATED SIMILARLY AROUND 1998 WHEN THE GOVERNMENT DECIDED, U.S. GOVERNMENT DECIDED, “WHY ARE WE PRETENDING TO BE IN CHARGE OF INTERNET ADDRESS ALLOCATION AND DOMAIN NAME MANAGEMENT AND THE TABLES FOR THE INTERNET — FOR THE INTERNET PROTOCOLS? WHY ISN’T THAT IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR?” AND SO ICANN WAS CREATED AS A MULTISTAKEHOLDER GROUP COMPLETELY OPEN, ANYONE IS ALLOWED TO PARTICIPATE, AND BECOME PART OF THE POLICYMAKING APPARATUS REGIONAL INTERNET REGISTRIES WERE CREATED PARTLY FOR CONVENIENCE, SO TO SPREAD THE WORKLOAD. THERE ARE FIVE OF THEM AROUND THE WORLD AND THEY HAND OUT INTERNET ADDRESSES TO ISPs WHO SUBSEQUENTLY MAKE THOSE AVAILABLE TO USERS AND MORE RECENTLY, THE IVING THIVINGIVING SPUN IVING THE INTERNET GOVERNANCE FORUM INTERNET GOVERNANCE FORM WHAT WAS CALLED THE WSIS, THE WORLD SUMMIT ON THE INFORMATION SOCIETY. THIS WAS ORIGINAL ORIGINALLY A MULTILATERAL, INTERGOVERNMENTAL THING. VERY QUICKLY THEY DISCOVERED THERE WAS MORE TO THE INTERNET THAN GOVERNMENTS. IT WAS PEOPLE LIKE YOU AND ME. AND SO THAT BLEW UP INTO THE INTERNET GOVERNANCE FORUM, A MULTISTAKEHOLDER ANNUAL EVENT WHICH NOW HAS REGIONAL EVENTS TO GO WITH IT ALL OF THIS STUFF IS WIDE OPEN ANYONE IS ALLOWED TO PARTICIPATE AND YOU SHOULD TOO THANK YOU VERY MUCH [ APPLAUSE ] Sarah Novotny: THANKS, VINT NOW THAT WE’VE ESTABLISHED A LONG STANDING HISTORY OF OPENNESS AS AN UNDERPINNING PHILOSOPHY BEHIND OUR MODERN COMMUNICATIONS MARVEL, THE INTERNET, IT’S IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THAT ADOPTION IS HOW WE’VE COME TO THIS PLACE IN HISTORY, TO HELP US UNDERSTAND HOW OPEN SOURCE HAS LEARNED TO BALANCE THE TENSIONS BETWEEN OPENNESS AND BUSINESS NEEDS I’D LIKE TO INTRODUCE JIM ZEMLIN, THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF THE LINUX FOUNDATION. PLEASE JOIN ME IN WELCOMING JIM [ APPLAUSE ] Jim Zemlin: THANK YOU. THANK YOU WOW. FOLLOWING ONE OF THE FATHERS OF THE INTERNET, BIG PRESSURE I’M OLD ENOUGH TO HAVE BEEN AROUND IN 1974, BUT YOUNG ENOUGH TO HAVE STILL RUN A DIAL-UP BBS. SO I’M FLATTERED TO BE HERE. AND I’M HONORED TO WORK AT AN ORGANIZATION THAT’S HOME TO ONE OF THE MOST SUCCESSFUL OPEN SOURCE PROJECTS IN THE WORLD. AND I DON’T NEED TO CONVINCE THIS CROWD HOW IMPORTANT OPEN SOURCE IS. BUT I WANT TO REMIND YOU OF HOW POWERFUL OPEN SOURCE IS. JUST LOOK AT THESE STATISTICS, AT HOW FAR COLLABORATIVE INVESTMENT HAS COMES. TENS OF MILLIONS OF FILES, MILLIONS OF LINES OF CODES, THOUSANDS OF DEVELOPERS AND JUST ONE OPEN SOURCE PROJECT. AND THESE STATS ARE COMPELLING, BUT THIS IS MY FAVORITE STATISTIC ABOUT LINUX 10,000 LINES OF CODE ADDED 5,000 LINES OF CODE REMOVED, ABOUT 1800 MODIFY IED EVERY

SINGLE DAY. 365 DAYS A YEAR THERE IS NO ORGANIZATION ON EARTH THAT CAN INDEPENDENTLY KEEP UP WITH THE PACE OF DEVELOPMENT THAT’S REPRESENTED BY MODERN OPEN SOURCE PROCESSES IN FACT, OPEN SOURCE HAS BECOME THE NEW NORM FOR SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT. I MEAN, REALLY NOBODY BUILDS ANYTHING THESE DAYS WITHOUT USING OPEN SOURCE CODE. YOU KNOW, THE INTERNET IS REALLY BUILT ON OPEN SOURCE, WHETHER IT’S GOOGLE, FACEBOOK, AMAZON, YOU NAME IT. IT’S ALL BUILT ON LINUX AND A VARIETY OF OPEN SOURCE IN FACT, IT’S MORE THAN A NORM FOR SOFTWARE IN THE INTERNET, OPEN HAS BECOME A NEW ECONOMIC NORM, AN INCREDIBLY IMPORTANT NORM AS WE CREATE MORE AND MORE COMPLEX SYSTEMS. THAT NORM SAYS SOMETHING VERY, VERY SIMPLE BUT HAS BEEN WRITTEN ABOUT IN HUNDREDS AND HUNDREDS OF BOOKS AND THE SIMPLE CONCEPT IS, ALL OF US ARE SMARTER THAN ANY ONE OF US AND I WOULD GO SO FAR AS TO ARGUE THAT ORGANIZATIONS, DEVELOPERS, ANYONE WHO DOES NOT HARVEST THIS GREAT SHARED VALUE, THAT DOESN’T PARTICIPATE IN THIS COLLECTIVE INNOVATION WILL FAIL AND I HAVE SOME GOOD NEWS FOR YOU THE GOOD NEWS IS THERE’S A LOT OF OPEN SOURCE OUT THERE I MEAN, LOOK AT THIS. JUST ON GITHUB ALONE THERE ARE 50 MILLION OPEN SOURCE REPOSITORIES. AND WITH THIS WEALTH OF CODE AND IDEAS AND COLLABORATION, ONE OF THE QUESTIONS THAT I GET ALL OF THE TIME IS WHICH PROJECTS REALLY MATTER? I MEAN, THEY’RE ALL GREAT BUT WHICH PROJECTS CAN I BET MY COMPANY ON? , IF I’M BUILDING A CLOUD? WHAT CAN I BET MY SAFETY ON IF I’M USING OPEN SOURCE FOR AN AUTOMOBILE SYSTEM? WHICH ALMOST EVERY MODERN PRODUCTION VEHICLE USES TODAY AND WE SPEND A LOT OF TIME AT THE LINUX FOUNDATION LOOKING AT THAT QUESTION. AND OUR IDEA IS THAT THE ANSWER TO THAT QUESTION ARE THAT THE OPEN SOURCE PROJECTS THAT MATTER THE MOST ARE THOSE THAT HAVE SUSTAINABLE ECOSYSTEMS, WHERE RICH COMMUNITY SOLVES A BIG PROBLEM, CREATES VALUE. THAT VALUE IS CONSUMED BY COMPANIES, LIKE GOOGLE, MICROSOFT, AMAZON, FACEBOOK. WHO THEN CREATE PROFIT. GOVERNMENTS MAY SAVE MONEY, INCREASE TRANSPARENCY AND THEN THAT VALUE, IN PART, IS HARVESTED BACK INTO THE PROJECT WHICH BEGETS BETTER CODE, LATHER, RINSE, REPEAT. THAT’S WHAT APACHE BEAM AND LINUX FOUNDATION REALLY DO. VICINITY TALKING ABOUT CREATING INSTITUTIONS WHEN THEY TALKED ABOUT WITH THE GROWTH OF THE INTERNET. WE’RE CREATING THE SAME KIND OF INSTITUTIONS TO ENABLE THE GROWTH OF OPEN SOURCE. AND THESE INSTITUTIONS ALLOW COMPETITORS AND COLLABORATORS TO TRUST EACH OTHER BY CREATING THE INSTITUTIONS THAT ENABLE THAT TRUST. A GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE TO MAKE DECISIONS, A DEVELOPMENT PROCESS THAT ENABLES PEOPLE TO SCALE OUT DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAIN THAT DEVELOPMENT FOR A LONG TIME. INFRASTRUCTURE, WHETHER IT’S THINGS LIKE GITHUB OR THE WIDE VARIETY OF VERSION CONTROL SYSTEMS, SOMEBODY NEEDS TO LAND A PATCH SOMEWHERE, THAT’S WHAT THESE ORGANIZATIONS PROVIDE ECOSYSTEM DEVELOPMENT, HOW DO YOU GET MORE DEVELOPERS TO THE PARTY? AND THEN I.P MANAGEMENT, WHAT LICENSE IS THE CODE UNDER? WHO OWNS THE TRADEMARK? HOW DO YOU GOVERN THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY SHARING? HOW DO YOU SHARE WHAT YOU WANT TO SHARE AND KEEP WHAT YOU WANT TO KEEP? THAT’S WHAT ORGANIZATIONS LIKE MINE AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS ARE DOING AND OPEN SOURCE PROJECTS THAT LEAN ON THESE TEND TO BE THE MOST ENDURING. THAT’S WHY LAST YEAR GOOGLE APPROACHED US AND SAID: WE WOULD LIKE TO GIVE UP KUBERNETES. WE’RE GOING TO GIVE YOU THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ASSETS, THE TRADEMARK AND SO FORTH. WE’RE GOING TO CREATE A SHARED DEVELOPMENT MODEL WITH OUR COMPETITORS. AND SINCE THAT HAPPENED, KUBERNETES HAS BEEN A ROCKET SHIP. IT IS ON A TRAJECTORY SIMILAR TO LINUX IN TERMS OF BECOMING ESSENTIALLY THE LINUX OF THE CLOUD IN TERMS OF THE DEVELOPER MOMENTUM, THE NUMBER OF PULL REQUESTS TIMES DEVELOPERS. IT’S AN INSANELY FAST GROWING PROJECT. WHICH LEADS ME TO THE LAST POINT, WHICH IS I WORK WITH OVER A THOUSAND ORGANIZATIONS, LARGELY COMPANIES, ALL OVER THE WORLD. AND COMPANIES DON’T COME TO

SHARING — AND THIS OF THAT PROCESS. AND I WANT TO TIP MY HAT TO GOOGLE YOU KNOW, YOU TALK — YOU HEAR ABOUT THE TERM “GIFFY” WHEN KUBERNETES WAS OPEN SOURCE, EVERYBODY COULD TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THIS CONTAINER TECHNOLOGY AND ALL THIS GREAT CODE. WHAT ANOTHER INSIGHT I CAN GIVE YOU WORKING WITH CAT OLMAN AND OTHERS IN THE OPEN SOURCE PROJECT OFFICES, CODE FLOWS IN AND OUT OF GOOGLE SEAMLESSLY. IT’S INTENTIONAL LEARN IT. AND IF YOU LEARN THIS, YOU’LL BE ABLE TO HARVEST THAT SHARED R&D AND SUCCEED THANK YOU VERY MUCH [ APPLAUSE ] Sarah Novotny: THANK YOU, JIM IT’S WONDERFUL TO HEAR THAT GOOGLE IS PERCEIVED AS A POSITIVE INFLUENCE IN THE OPEN WORLD. AND I CAN’T BE HAPPIER TO HEAR KUBERNETES REFERRED TO AS THE LINUX OF THE CLOUD BUT MOVING ON, SAM RAMJI, WHO WE WILL HEAR FROM AGAIN LATER, FREQUENTLY REFERS TO OPEN SOURCE AND COLLABORATIVE WORK AS A POSITIVE SUM GAME. GOOGLE HAS SEEN THIS AS A FORCE MULTIPLIER AND HAS BEEN INTENTIONAL IN LONG STANDING IN OUR SUPPORT OF OPEN SOURCE PROJECTS. ERIC BREWER, THE VP OF INFRASTRUCTURE AND A PROFESSOR AT UC BERKELEY FOCUSES ON ALL ASPECTS OF INTERNET-BASED SYSTEMS, INCLUDING CLOUD COMPUTING, SCALABILITY, CONTAINERS AND STORAGE. AS A RESEARCHER, HE HAS LED PROJECTS ON SCALABLE SERVERS, NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE, IoT AND THE CAP THEOREM. TODAY I’M DELIGHTED TO HEAR HIS THOUGHTS ON WHY AN OPEN CLOUD AND OPEN SOURCE INVESTMENT IS AS IMPORTANT AS AN OPEN INTERNET WAS 40 YEARS AGO PLEASE JOIN ME IN WELCOMING ERIC BREWER [ APPLAUSE ] Eric Brewer: THANK YOU, SARAH ALL RIGHT. FANTASTIC TO BE HERE IMAGINE THAT YOU ARE IN A NEW MARKET AND IT’S THE NEXT BIG THING, GIANT, GIANT, GIANT. BUT YOU HAVE SOME REALLY BIG COMPETITORS AND THEY HAVE A MULTIYEAR HEAD START ON YOU HOW ARE YOU GOING TO COMPETE? WELL, THAT’S WHAT HAPPENED TO LINUX. THESE ARE PROJECTS THAT GOOGLE’S CONTRIBUTED TO FOR MORE THAN TEN YEARS, A DECADE’S WORTH OF CONTRIBUTION IN THESE PROJECTS ALONE. AND IN THE CASE OF LINUX, 20 YEARS AGO THE NEXT NEW THING WAS THE WEB AND INTERNET SERVICES. AND HONESTLY LINUX WAS NOT A VERY GOOD INTERNET SERVICES OPERATING SYSTEM. YAHOO! USED BSD. AND THEY HAD A MULTIYEAR HEAD START ON LINUX IN THIS SPACE. BUT LINUX WON. WHY DID LINUX WIN? LINUX WON BECAUSE IT WAS OPEN BUT REALLY BECAUSE IT HAD A HIGHER RATE OF INNOVATION. AND SO WHAT MATTERS IS NOT WHERE YOU START, WHAT MATTERS IS YOUR RATE OF INNOVATION EVEN IN CONTAINERS WHERE WE HAD TEN YEARS OF CONTRIBUTIONS TO LINUX FROM GOOGLE, THAT STARTED OUT AS SOMETHING SIMPLE TO DO KIND OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, THINGS LIKE CPU SETS AND THEN C GROUPS, ADDITIONS TO THE LINUX KERNEL THAT ALLOWED YOU TO KIND OF MANAGE YOUR RESOURCES. AND, OF COURSE, EVENTUAL LED TO DOCKER AND KUBERNETES WHICH IS WHERE WE ARE TODAY NOW, THERE’S A WHOLE OTHER PIECE HERE WHICH IS OPEN SOURCE IS THE KIND OF LEADERSHIP OF AN ECOSYSTEM. SO YOU PROBABLY HEARD OF ANDROID AND CHROME, THOSE ARE OPEN SOURCE PROJECTS CREATED NOT FOR THEIR SOURCE CODE BUT FOR THEIR ECOSYSTEMS THE ECOSYSTEM IS HOW YOU STEER A LARGE COMMUNITY IN A COLLABORATIVE WAY AND CERTAINLY IN THE CLOUD SPACE, TENSORFLOW WHICH YOU WILL HEAR ABOUT FROM JEFF DEAN IN A LITTLE BIT, AND KUBERNETES, ARE IN THIS MOLD. WE ARE ABLING TO CREATE OPEN ECOSYSTEMS THAT HAVE HIGH RATES OF INNOVATION. AND IF YOU’VE DONE — KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT KUBERNETES, YOU KNOW IT HAS A SUPER CRAZY HIGH RATE OF INNOVATION. THAT’S KIND OF THE WHOLE POINT OTHER THINGS ON THIS LIST LIKE BAZEL AND gRPC REPS A DIFFERENT SO I WHICH ARE OPEN SOURCE PROJECTS WE CREATED BECAUSE WE FEEL LIKE THERE’S A GOOGLE WAY OF DOING SOMETHING INTERNALLY THAT WASN’T UNDERSTOOD EXTERNALLY. gRPC IS BASED ON SOMETHING CALLED STUBBY. AND BAZEL IS BASED ON AN INTERNAL BUILD SYSTEM CALLED BLAZE, BOTH OF WHICH WE REALLY LIKE AND WE WOULD LIKE MORE PEOPLE TO USE; RIGHT? AND IN PARTICULAR, WE

WOULD LIKE MORE PEOPLE TO CONTRIBUTE TO AND TO UNDERSTAND AND EVOLVE NOW, THAT’S ANOTHER KIND OF OPEN SOURCENESS, THE LEADERSHIP PART. TAKE A LITTLE ASIDE FOR A MINUTE. YOU KNOW THOSE SLIDES YOU MAKE SOMETIMES WHERE YOU PUT A WHOLE BUNCH OF LITTLE TEXT ON IT THAT NOBODY CAN READ AND YOU DO THAT BECAUSE YOU WANT TO SHOW HOW MANY THINGS THERE ARE, WELL, LOOK AT ALL THESE SCREENS! THIS IS A THOUSAND-PLUS OPEN SOURCE PROJECTS TO WHICH GOOGLERS CONTRIBUTED IN 2016 SO I HAD TO PUT IN THESE EXTRA SCREENS TO FIT THEM ALL, EXCEPT THAT THIS IS ONLY 10% OF THE 15,000 THAT GOOGLERS CONTRIBUTED TO IN 2016. 2500 OF THOSE HAD EXTENSIVE CONTRIBUTIONS; RIGHT? I WOULD SAY LEGITIMATE, ONGOING THINGS THAT WERE EVOLVING. AND IN TOTAL, AGAIN, JUST IN 2016, 287,000 COMMITS FROM GOOGLERS USING THEIR GOOGLE.COM EMAIL ADDRESSES, MEANING THAT’S WORK-RELATED, NOT COUNTING THE MANY, MANY THOUSANDS MORE THAT WE DON’T KNOW OF WHICH ARE ON THEIR PERSONAL AND GMAIL ACCOUNTS; RIGHT? THIS IS STUFF WHERE WE BELIEVE IT’S WORTH THE INVESTMENT TO MAKE THESE SYSTEMS BETTER FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT VIEW ON WHAT WE WANT TO GET OUT OF THIS THERE’S ANOTHER KIND OF OPEN SOURCE SUPPORT WHICH IS ACTUALLY JUST PLAIN OLD FINANCIAL. SO THESE ARE FOUNDATIONS THAT WE SUPPORT DIRECTLY, EVENTS. WE RUN 50 — OR HELP RUN, FUND 50 TO 75 DIFFERENT KINDS OF EVENTS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR, ALL OVER THE WORLD. THIS IS ALSO WHERE THINGS LIKE GOOGLE SUMMER OF CODE FIT, TRYING TO EXPAND THE COMMUNITY OF OPEN SOURCE CONTRIBUTORS. THERE’S ANOTHER KIND OF SUPPORT AS WELL WHICH IS SECURITY. WE LIVE IN A DIFFICULT TIME FROM A SECURITY VIEWPOINT AND WE HAVE A SHARED FATE. WE ARE ALL USING THE SAME CORE PIECES, AND WE WILL MAKE IT OR NOT, TOGETHER. SO AN IMPORTANT KIND OF CONTRIBUTION IS TO IMPROVE THE SECURITY OF THE WORLD’S SYSTEMS AND OPEN SOURCE MAKES THAT SIGNIFICANTLY EASIER. SO IN THE LAST YEAR, FEW YEARS, GOOGLE HAS FIXED MORE THAN 100 SECURITY BUGS IN LINUX AND CHROME. AND IN DECEMBER WE RELEASED A TOOL CALLED OPEN FUZZ. AND THE PURPOSE OF OPEN FUZZ IS ESSENTIALLY TO ALLOW YOU TO DO FUZZ TESTING ON YOUR OWN CODE AND IMPROVE YOUR SECURITY AND, IN FACT, IT WILL EVEN HELP YOU MAKE THE RIGHT PATCH SO ALL THIS IS TO SAY THAT OPEN MATTERS TO GOOGLE. BUT I’D GO FARTHER AND SAY OPEN MATTERS MORE FOR THE CLOUD BECAUSE IN THE CLOUD, WE ARE ON A JOINT MISSION TO BUILD THE WORLD’S SOFTWARE; RIGHT? IT IS FUNDAMENTALLY COLLABORATIVE THE COLLABORATION IS ON THE CODE. AND SO OUR STRATEGY HERE IS BE THE OPEN CLOUD, HAVE THE FASTER RATE OF INNOVATION, HAVE MORE COLLABORATION. BE THE PLACE WHERE COLLABORATION OCCURS AND IT’S NOT COMPLETELY ALTRUISTIC; RIGHT? WHEN I GOT TO GOOGLE SIX YEARS AGO, ONE OF ITS CHALLENGES WHICH REMAINS A LITTLE BIT, BUT NOT AS MUCH, IS THAT ITS INTERNAL SYSTEMS, ALTHOUGH THEY TRUE FROM MANY OPEN SOURCE PROJECTS, WERE VERY EXOTIC. THEY HAVE THEIR OWN LITTLE INTERNAL SYSTEMS OF WAYS TO BUILD THINGS. WHEN YOU COME IN AS AN OUTSIDE DEVELOPER, IT WAS VERY DIFFICULT TO BE PRODUCTIVE IN THE FIRST SIX MONTHS BECAUSE WHATEVER YOU KNEW COMING IN, YOU HAD TO LEARN DIFFERENT SYSTEMS TO MAKE PROGRESS AS WE MOVE TO OPEN SYSTEMS, THINGS LIKE KUBERNETES AND TENSORFLOW, GOOGLE BENEFITS BY BEING MORE LIKE THE REST OF THE WORLD. THAT’S A MUCH MORE SUSTAINABLE PLACE TO BE. SO THAT’S ANOTHER REASON WE’RE EMBRACING OPEN SOURCE IN A FUNDAMENTAL WAY.LET ME CLOSE ON ONE LAST THOUGHT, THINK THE FREEDOM. AND BY FREEDOM, IN THIS Sarah Novotny: OPEN MATTERS MORPHOTHE CLOUD. THAT’S A PRETTY POWERFUL MESSAGE CO-DEVELOPMENT WITH OUR CUSTOMERS AND OUR PARTNERS AS A PHILOSOPHICAL UNDERPINNING OF

THE GOOGLE CLOUD STRATEGY HYBRID AND MULTI-CLOUD IS NOT A WAY POINT ON YOUR JOURNEY BUT A GOAL THAT EMPOWERS YOU AND ALLOWS — WHILE ALLOWING AND ENCOURAGING YOU, OUR CUSTOMERS, TO CHOOSE THE SERVICES WHICH MEET YOUR NEEDS WE WANT TO SUPPORT YOU AND THE TOOLS YOU KNOW AND HAVE, WHILE ALLOWING YOU TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE TOOLING AND INFRASTRUCTURE THAT ONLY GOOGLE CAN PROVIDE THIS SORT OF COLLABORATION WITH CUSTOMERS AND PARTNERS THROUGH OPEN SOURCE IS SOMETHING THAT RED HAT HAS A LONG HISTORY OF DOING WELL. CHRIS WRIGHT, VICE PRESIDENT AND CHIEF TECHNOLOGIST AT RED HAT, HAS ALSO WORKED FOR MANY OF HIS 20 YEARS DIRECTLY ON UPSTREAM OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGIES LIKE LINUX, XEN, K VM, OPEN SWITCH AND OPEN STACK TODAY, HE’S GOING TO SHARE WITH US HOW COLLABORATION, OPEN SOURCE, AND ENTERPRISES CAN WORK TOGETHER TO BENEFIT THE INDUSTRY IT’S MY PLEASURE TO INTRODUCE CHRIS WRIGHT [ APPLAUSE ] Chris Wright: ALL RIGHT. REALLY GREAT TO BE HERE. IT’S UNUSUAL FOR ME TO BE ON A STAGE AFTER HEARING ABOUT THE OPENNESS AND INTRODUCTION OF THE INTERNET INTERNET, SO I’M EXCITED TO BE HERE TO SHARE WITH YOU SOME OF MY THOUGHTS AND MY EXPERIENCES IN OPEN SOURCE COLLABORATION AND BRINGING THAT TO THE ENTERPRISE SO FIRST, I’LL START WITH A PERSONAL STORY ABOUT 12 YEARS AGO, BRIAN STEVENS, WHO WAS THEN AT RED HAT , CONTACTED ME ABOUT JOINING RED HAT, AND I WAS 100% FOCUSED ON UPSTREAM DEVELOPMENT. I WAS DEFINITELY SKEPTICAL ABOUT WHAT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMMERCIALIZATION AND ENTERPRISE FOCUS MIGHT DO TO MY FOCUS IN TERMS OF UPSTREAM, AND SO I CAME UP WITH A LIST OF REASONS, ALL THE REASONS WHY I WAS GOING TO SAY “NO” .” AND BRIAN NEUTRALIZED EACH ONE OF THOSE I HAD ONE FINAL REASON AND THAT WAS MY WIFE AND I WERE EXPECTING OUR FIRST CHILD AND I THOUGHT MAYBE TWO — TWO BIG CHANGES AT ONCE ISN’T A GREAT IDEA BUT ONE THING REALLY PERSISTED AND STUCK WITH ME, AND THAT WAS THE IDEA THAT I REALLY LIKE WORKING WITH CUSTOMERS, UNDERSTANDING CUSTOMER PROBLEMS, AND HELPING THEM SOLVE THEIR ISSUES IN THE CONTEXT OF OPEN SOURCE THAT’S EXACTLY WHAT WE DO AT RED HAT. WE SPEND OUR TIME WITH OUR CUSTOMERS DISTILLING THEIR REQUIREMENTS INTO UPSTREAM CODE, DELIVERING THAT AS PRODUCTS REALLY HARNESSING OPEN SOURCE I NNOVATION TO DELIVER THE VALUE OF OPEN SOURCE TO THE ENTERPRISE SO LET’S TAKE A LOOK, WHAT IS T HE ENTERPRISE? YOU LOOK INSIDE THE ENTERPRISE AND IT IS A COLLECTION OF HIGHLY HETEROGENOUS SYSTEMS THAT HAVE EVOLVED OVER LONG PERIODS OF TIME. INSIDE THE ENTERPRISE IS A BIT OF EVERYTHING. YOU LOOK AT COMPUTE. YOU’VE GOT MAINFRAME, YOU’VE GOT RISK LINUX, YOU’VE GOT MODERN X86 AND LINUX. ON THE NETWORKING SIDE, YOU’VE GOT SWITCHES AND ROUTERS AND SERVER NICK E FROM DIFFERENT VENDORS, DIFFERENT GENERATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY, STORAGE, FIBER CHANNEL, ETHERNET , DIRECT ATTACHED. YOU’VE GOT DIFFERENT AUTHENTICATION FROM L DAP TO ACTIVE DIRECTORY. YOU’VE GOT PROCESS CHANGE MANAGEMENT, ISO AND ITO. ALL OF THIS CREATES A COMPLEX SYSTEM. AND COMPLEX SYSTEMS — WITH COMPLEX ITY COMES FRAGILE ITY. THE MISSION-CRITICAL NATURE OF OPEN — OF ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS CREATES A RISK “AVERSE ENVIRONMENT AND THESE SOLID AREAS OF EXPERTISE SLOWS COLLABORATION SO THE ENTERPRISE DATA CENTER IS AN ARTISAN, HAND- HAND-CRAFTED, SPECIAL SNOWFLAKE THE I.T. GROUPS HAVE BEEN SORT OF RELEGATED TO A COST CENTER, WITH A MANDATE FROM CIOS TO REALLY REDUCE COSTS OR DO MORPHOLESS AND HERE OPEN SOURCE COMES IN AND SOMETHING LIKE LINUX BUILDS A STANDARD PLATFORM, DECOUPLE ING THE HARDWARE LAYER FROM THE APPLICATION LAYER. THE INDUSTRY-WIDE COLLABORATION HELPS CRAFT THIS CORE PLATFORM AND ADAPT IT TO ALL OF THE UNIQUE REQUIREMENTS THAT YOU FIND IN ANY ONE ENTERPRISE AGAIN, THAT’S WHAT WE’RE DOING WITH OUR CUSTOMERS. WE’RE — WE’RE UNDERSTANDING THOSE REQUIREMENTS. WE’RE TAKING THOSE INTO THE UPSTREAM COMMUNITIES, DEVELOPING CODE, AND DELIVERING THOSE AS PRODUCTS AND SUPPORTING THAT WITH OUR CUSTOMER BUT THE ENTERPRISE IS CHANGING THE BUSINESS WORLD IS MUCH MORE

COMPETITIVE TODAY. THINGS ARE MOVING QUICKLY. AND IT’S SOFTWARE THAT DIFFERENTIATES BUSINESSES THE ABILITY TO ADAPT TO MARKET CHANGES REQUIRES EFFICIENCY YOU NEED TO BE ABLE TO BUILD HIGH-VALUE SOFTWARE AND DELIVER IT QUICKLY. IN ORDER TO DO THAT, YOU NEED TO STANDARDIZE AND AUTOMATE FOR BOTH DEVELOPERS AND OPERATIONS EFFICIENCY THE ENTERPRISE IS REALLY LOOKING TO THE WEBSCALE COMPANIES TO UNDERSTAND HOW THEY CAN IMPROVE THIS EFFICIENCY. BUILDING THINGS OUT OF MICRO-SERVICE SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURES, USING CONTAINERS TO PACKAGE UP SERVICES AND DIRECT DEPENDENCY IES, USING CICD PIPELINE TO DELIVER THIS INTO A HYBRID CLOUD AT CLOUD SCALE RISK IS MITIGATED BY SMALL IN INCREMENTAL CHANGE AND THOSE SILOS ARE BROKEN DOWN BY CROSS-FUNCTIONAL TEAMS. SO WE B UILT OPEN SHIFT TO ADDRESS THOSE NEEDS FOR OUR CUSTOMERS, AND OPEN SHIFT — YOU KNOW, BUILDING THIS KIND OF MODERN WEBSCALE APPLICATION PLATFORM, WE BUILT IT OUT OF LOW-LEVEL LINUX CONTAINER BUILDING BLOCKS SO INSIDE OPEN SHIFT, WE HAD A UNIQUE TO OPEN SHIFT IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTAINERS AND CONTAINER ORCHESTRATION. YOU COULD CALL IT OUR OWN SNOWFLAKE OPEN SOURCE COMMUNITIES ARE REALLY DRIVING TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION. SO YOU SEE CONTAINERS GO MAINSTREAM THROUGH TOOLS LIKE DOCKER. THE EXPERIENCE FROM BORG CAPTURED AND BROUGHT TO MAINSTREAM BY KUBERNETES. AND WHAT WE SAW WAS AN OPPORTUNITY TO TAKE THAT INNOVATION, RE-BASE OURSELVES AS OPEN SHIFT ONTO THESE MAIN STREAM PROJECTS AND DELIVER THAT VALUE TO OUR CUSTOMERS WHILE BEING ABLE TO TAKE ON THE RAPID INNOVATION IN THESE COMMUNITIES THAT ARE MUCH LARGER THAN OURSELVES SO LETTING GO A LITTLE BIT REALLY GAVE US A HUGE — YOU KNOW, A HUGE LIFT TODAY, WE’RE NOT JUST CONTRIBUTING TO OPEN SHIFT OR DOCKER OR KUBERNETES, BUT WE’RE CONTRIBUTING TO THE COMMUNITY AT-LARGE AND WE’RE CONTRIBUTING TO OUR PARTNERS AND COMPETITORS WE’RE HELPING GKE. WE’RE HELPING OTHER KUBERNETES-BASED DISTRIBUTIONS OUR DEVELOPERS ARE THRILLED BY THE SUCCESS STORY AND THE CONTRIBUTION THAT THEY’VE HAD TO SOMETHING LIKE POKEMON GO WHAT A COOL STORY, AND TO KNOW THAT YOU’VE BEEN A PART OF THAT IS A GREAT SENSE OF — BRINGS A GREAT SENSE OF SATISFACTION SO OPEN SOURCE COLLABORATION BENEFITS EVERYONE DIVERSITY IS A REALLY IMPORTANT COMPONENT OF THE COMMUNITIES THAT WE’RE BUILDING HERE, AND IF YOU LOOK TO ECOLOGY, THERE ARE A LOT OF STUDIES SHOWING BIODIVERSITY CREATES A STRONG ECOSYSTEM HERE WE’RE TALKING ABOUT DIVERSITY OF USERS, DIVERSITY OF DEVELOPERS, DIVERSITY OF CUSTOMERS AND VENDORS, DIVERSITY OF USE CASES AND REQUIREMENTS DRIVEN BY THESE CUSTOMERS AND VENDORS ADDRESSING DIFFERENT MARKETS. AND THE END RESULT, IN AN OPEN SOURCE COLLABORATIVE COMMUNITY, IS CONTINUAL R EFINEMENT, CODE REFACTORING REFACTORING, ARCHITECTURE AL IMPROVEMENTS TO TAKE ON ALL THOSE REQUIREMENTS BUILDING A PLATFORM THAT IS MORE MAINTAINABLE AND SUSTAINABLE INTO THE FUTURE WILL CONTINUE OVER TIME TO GROW AND CHANGE AND ADAPT, AND THAT IS EXACTLY WHAT WE’RE DOING TOGETHER TODAY IN COMMUNITIES LIKE KUBERNETES AND WE LOOK TO CONTINUE DOING THAT TOGETHER TOGETHER. THANK YOU [ APPLAUSE ] Sarah Novotny: COLLABORATION AND DIVERSITY OF THOUGHT ONLY MAKE OUR PROJECTS STRONGER. OPEN SOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN ACTIVE COMMUNITIES ENABLE PERSPECTIVES THAT ANY ONE COMPANY DEVELOPING A PRODUCT CANNOT SEE. WORKING TOGETHER MAKES OPEN SOURCE PLATFORM AND INFRASTRUCTURE SOFTWARE AND PROJECTS STRONGER AND MORE USEFUL TO A BROADER ARRAY OF USERS IN ADDITION TO ALL THE PROJECTS WHICH GOOGLE HAS CONTRIBUTED TO OVER ITS LIFETIME, THERE ARE HUNDREDS OF PROJECTS THAT GOOGLE HAS FOUNDED AND MAINTAINS IN A TRANSPARENT MANNER. CHRIS MENTIONED ONE OF OUR HIGHLIGHTS KUBERNETES BEGAN AS A COMPANY- LED PROJECT AND IS GROWING TOWARD COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP. A FEW STATISTICS ON THE KUBERNETES PROJECT. AGAIN, MY FAVORITE FAVORITE. SHOWED THE CRAZY LEVEL OF ENGAGEMENT WE HAVE. WHILE WE HAVE MORE THAN A

THOUSAND CODE CONTRIBUTORS OVER THE LIFETIME OF THE PROJECT, THERE ARE MANY MORE WAYS TO PARTICIPATE IN OPEN SOURCE IN FEBRUARY, MORE THAN 700 PEOPLE COMMENTED ON AND CREATED ISSUES, OFFERED POLL REQUESTS AND REVIEWS AND GENERALLY PARTICIPATED IN THE KUBERNETES PROJECT ON GITHUB ALONE BEYOND THE SHEER NUMBER OF PEOPLE WHO ARE PARTICIPATING PARTICIPATING, THEIR ENGAGEMENT IS UNPRECEDENTED. THOSE 700 COMMUNITY MEMBERS INTERACTED WITH THE KUBERNETES PROJECT ON GITHUB AN AVERAGE OF 15 TIMES IF MY MATH IS CORRECT, THAT’S MORE THAN 10,000 EVENTS CHANGING KUBERNETES IN FEBRUARY IN GITHUB ALONE. BEYOND THAT, WE HAVE SPECIAL INTEREST GROUPS, WE HAVE MAILING LISTS. A CONVERSATION ABOUT GOOGLE’S OPEN SOURCE COMMITMENTS WOULDN’T BE COMPLETE WITHOUT A VIEW INTO ANOTHER HIGHLY VISIBLE OPEN SOURCE PROJECT. TENSORFLOW AND KUBERNETES COMPETE FOR THE TOP POSITION FOR MOST ENGAGED PROJECTS MOST MONTHS AND HERE TO CORRECT ME IF TENSORFLOW IS LEADING IN MARCH IS OUR SENIOR FELLOW FROM GOOGLE, JEFF DENY DEAN [ APPLAUSE ] Jeff Dean: ALL RIGHT. THANK YOU, SARAH SO I’M GOING TO TALK TO YOU ABOUT TENSORFLOW, WHICH IS A MACHINE LEARNING PLATFORM OUR GROUP HAS BEEN BUILDING TO HELP SUPPORT OUR RESEARCH AND TO GET THE MACHINE LEARNING SYSTEMS DEPLOYED THROUGHOUT GOOGLE SO I LEAD THE GOOGLE BRAIN TEAM, WHICH IS OUR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH TEAM IN MOUNTAIN VIEW AND OUR GROUP DOES LONG-TERM RESEARCH SO WE NEED A PLATFORM THAT’S VERY FLEXIBLE TO ALLOW US TO EXPRESS LOTS OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF MACHINE LEARNING IDEAS AND ALSO TO INTERACT WITH THE MACHINE LEARNING COMMUNITY. WE PUBLISH PAPERS SO OUR GROUP BUILT AN EARLIER SYSTEM CALLED DISBELIEF THAT WE DID NOT OPEN SOURCE, AND THEN WE USED THAT FOR A COUPLE OF YEARS FOR OUR RESEARCH AND FOR SOME PRODUCT USES, AND THEN AS WE WERE THINKING ABOUT WHAT WE WANTED TO DO NEXT, WE TOOK THE IDEAS THAT WERE GOOD ABOUT DISBELIEF BUT ALSO FIXED A BUNCH. THINGS THAT WE DIDN’T LIKE ABOUT IT AND CREATED TENSORFLOW. AND FROM THE BEGINNING, I ARGUED THAT WE SHOULD OPEN SOURCE TENSORFLOW AND REALLY MAKE IT A COMMON PLATFORM FOR EVERYONE IN THE WORLD, NOT JUST PEOPLE WITHIN GOOGLE AND SO BIOPSIESING THIS, WE ACTUALLY ALLOW LOTS OF PEOPLE TO BENEFIT FROM MACHINE LEARNING AND BE ABLE TO USE MACHINE LEARNING IN THEIR PRODUCTS, AND TO REALLY CREATE A COMMUNITY AROUND IT SO WHY OPEN SOURCE IT? ONE OF THE THINGS WE LIKE TO DO IS PUBLISH RESEARCH PAPERS ABOUT OUR WORK, AND BIOPSIESING SORT OF REFERENCE IMPLEMENTATIONS OF SOME OF THE CODE USED TO CREATE THE EXPERIMENTS IN THE PAPERS, WE ALLOW PEOPLE TO MORE EASILY REPLICATE OUR RESEARCH. WE ALSO ALLOW PEOPLE TO TAKE THOSE IDEAS AND USE THEM IN THEIR SORT OF PRODUCT APPLICATIONS AND MACHINE LEARNING, SO THINGS LIKE COMPUTER VISION MODELS THEY CAN USE IN A LOT OF DIFFERENT WAYS IN VARIOUS PRODUCTS, EITHER RUNNING ON DEVICES OR RUNNING IN THE CLOUD, AND WE REALLY WANT TO BRING MACHINE LEARNING TO EVERYONE. THERE’S BILLIONS OF PEOPLE IN THE WORLD, MILLIONS OF DEVELOPERS, WHO CAN BENEFIT FROM USING MACHINE LEARNING TO ACCOMPLISH THINGS THAT ARE HARD TO ACCOMPLISH OTHER WAYS SO HERE’S A GRAPH OF KIND OF THE INTERNAL SPREAD OF MACHINE LEARNING IN TENSORFLOW USAGE WITHIN GOOGLE AND ONE OF THE THINGS WE DO AS A TEAM IS BUILD THIS SYSTEM SO THAT EVERYONE CAN BENEFIT WITHIN GOOGLE AND WE SPREAD IDEAS, AND AS TEAMS PICK UP MACHINE LEARNING, OTHER TEAMS SEE THAT AND SEE THAT IT WOULD BE APPLICABLE TO THEIR KINDS OF PROBLEMS AND SO YOU SEE IT BEING USED FOR MANY, MANY DIFFERENT THINGS, AS THERE’S ABOUT 4,000 DIRECTORIES NOW THAT CONTAIN TENSORFLOW CONFIGURATION FILES WITHIN GOOGLE. SO IT’S BEING USED BY HUNDREDS OR EVEN THOUSANDS OF TEAMS. IT’S USED IN POPULAR PRODUCTS LIKE GMAIL AND YouTUBE AND TRANSLATE, SEARCH AND IT’S ALSO — BECAUSE WE OPEN SOURCED IT, IT’S NOW THE NUMBER ONE MACHINE LEARNING REPOSITORY ON GITHUB AND PEOPLE HAVE REALLY TAKEN TO IT AS A WAY TO EXPRESS MACHINE LEARNING IDEAS, TO USE MACHINE LEARNING CODE IN THEIR PRODUCTS IN VARIOUS WAYS AND JUST TO SHOW YOU WHAT A RIDE IT’S BEEN SINCE WE OPEN SOURCE IT, WE OPEN SOURCED IT IN NOVEMBER 2015 AND THIS IS A COMPARISON WITH A BUNCH OF OTHER SORT OF OPEN SOURCED MACHINE LEARNING PROJECTS, MOST OF WHICH HAVE BEEN AROUND FOR QUITE A BIT LONGER. AND WE HAVE A PRETTY ENGAGED COMMUNITY AND THAT’S REALLY VALUABLE TO US US. WE’RE GETTING LOTS OF GOOD FEEDBACK, GETTING LOTS OF INFORMATION ABOUT, YOU KNOW, WHAT KINDS OF THINGS WE SHOULD BE WORKING ON AS A COMMUNITY, AND I THINK ONE OF THE REASONS IT’S GONE WELL SO FAR IS THAT WE’VE CONTINUED TO INNOVATE AND CREATE NEW AND IMPROVED VERSIONS OF TENSORFLOW AND ADD FEATURES THAT PEOPLE REALLY REQUEST, SO SOME OF OF — JUST TO

HIGHLIGHT A FEW, YOU KNOW, EVERY COUPLE OF MONTHS WE’VE BEEN DOING MINOR VERSION RELEASE. WE JUST HAD OUR 1.0 RELEASE AND WE RELEASED DISTRIBUTED TENSORFLOW, WHICH IS THE BIG REQUESTED FEATURE, ADDED SUPPORT FOR LOTS OF PLATFORMS EICH iOS AND MAC AND WINDOWS, WORKED A LOT OF PERFORMANCE FOR OUR 1.0 RELEASE WHICH WAS LAST MONTH MONTH. SO THAT’S BEEN GREAT GREAT. AND THE OTHER THING THAT I THINK IS REALLY IMPORTANT IS THAT IT RUNS ON LOTS OF DIFFERENT PLATFORMS. WE WANT MACHINE LEARNING TO RUN WHEREVER IT NEEDS TO BE RUN AND THAT INCLUDES CPUs, GPUs, TP Us, OUR CUSTOM MACHINE LEARNING CHIPS, ANDROID, iOS, RASPBERRY, PIE, ALL THESE THINGS ARE IMPORTANT. SO HERE TO TELL YOU MORE ABOUT THE COMMUNITY THAT WE’VE BUILT UP IS RAJAT MONGA WHO HEADS UP OUR TENSORFLOW DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS WITHIN OUR TEAM. THANK YOU [ APPLAUSE ] Rajat Monga: THANK YOU, JEFF JEFF. SO JEFF TALKED ABOUT A NUMBER OF THINGS ABOUT TENSORFLOW. ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT THINGS WE FEEL ABOUT ANY OPEN SOURCE PROJECT IS THE COMMUNITY, AND YOU HEARD A LOT OF SPEAKERS EARLIER TALK ABOUT THIS. SO LET’S LOOK AT THE GREAT OPEN SOURCE COMMUNITY THAT WE HAVE WITH NEARLY 500 CONTRIBUTORS FROM OUTSIDE GOOGLE AND MANY MORE WITHIN GOOGLE AS WELL, AND NEARLY 15,000 COMMENTS OR UPDATES TO THE SOURCE CODE OVER THE LAST YEAR, OR THE LAST 14, 15 MONTHS. IT’S A VERY ACTIVE PROJECT. THERE’S LOTS OF GOING ON, LOTS OF DEVELOPMENT. IT’S ONE OF THE MOST ACTIVE PROJECTS OUT THERE WE ENGAGE DIRECTLY WITH THE COMMUNITY. WE LOOK AT THE STACK WEAR FLOW. WE HAVE OVER 5,000 QUESTIONS THAT HAVE BEEN ANSWERED BY US AND THE COMMUNITY ITSELF. AND OVER A HUNDRED NEW COMMUNITIES SUBMITTED ISSUES THAT RESPONDED TO THAT ARE FIXED EVERY SINGLE WEEK. IT’S BEING USED VERY WIDELY IN ACADEMIA SO, YOU KNOW, SOME OF THE TOP UNIVERSITIES ARE USING IT FOR THEIR MACHINE LEARNING COURSES IN FACT, STANFORD JUST OFFERED A COURSE SPECIFICALLY TO TRAIN THEIR STUDENTS ON TENSORFLOW SO THEY COULD USE IT FOR ALL KINDS OF MACHINE LEARNING WORK JEFF SHARED SOME OF THIS. THERE ARE MANY DIFFERENT PRODUCTS AT GOOGLE THAT USE TENSORFLOW NOW THIS IS JUST SOME OF THEM. SO YOUTUBE USES IT FOR RECOMMENDATIONS. GMAIL USES IT FOR SPAM. IT’S PART OF THE CLOUD PLATFORM FOR THE MACHINE LEARNING ITSELF, AND MANY OTHER USES, RIGHT. BUT OPEN SOURCE WAS NOT JUST FOR GOOGLE, REALLY WITH THAT, WE’VE MADE IT AVAILABLE TO MANY COMPANIES OUT THERE AND AND, AGAIN, THIS IS A SMALL LIST OF COMPANIES THAT ARE USING IT TODAY MANY OF THESE ARE BUILDING PRODUCTS FOR USERS LIKE YOURSELF OR MANY OTHERS OUT THERE IT DOESN’T STOP AT THESE LARGE COMPANIES, THOUGH MACHINE LEARNING IS REALLY FOR EVERYONE, AND THERE ARE MANY PEOPLE OUT THERE WHO ARE JUST OBVIOUS OR TRYING IT OUT OR TRYING TO SOLVE REAL PROBLEMS AND THIS MAKES IT POSSIBLE FOR THEM TO DO IT. LET’S TAKE A LOOK AT A FEW EXAMPLES OF WHAT PEOPLE HAVE BEEN DOING WITH TENSORFLOW SO YOU MIGHT HAVE SEEN THIS DEMO OUT THERE FOR CUCUMBER THERE IS A CUCUMBER — ONCE YOU HAVE THE CUCUMBERS YOU NEED TO SORT THEM BY SIZE OR SHAPE THIS USED TO BE MANUAL WORK, ROUGHLY EIGHT HOURS A DAY, MOSTLY DONE BY THE MOTHERS OUT THERE. THE SON DECIDED LET’S SEE IF WE CAN AUTOMATE SOME OF THIS. HE TOOK A WHOLE BUNCH OF PICTURES OF THESE CUCUMBERS, DOWNLOADED INTO TENSORFLOW TRAINED THE MODEL TO IDENTIFY AND SORT THEM AND THEN RAN IT ON AND CONNECTED IT AND AUTOMATED THAT WHOLE PROCESS ALL BY ITSELF. PRETTY AMAZING USE OF TENSORFLOW [ APPLAUSE ] THANK YOU MACHINE LEARNING IS BECOMING VERY IMPORTANT FOR HEALTHCARE AND HERE I JUST WANTED TO MAKE SURE A COUPLE OF EXAMPLES HOW IT’S BEEN USED IN HEALTHCARE SO THE ONE ON THE LEFT IS AN ARTICLE FOR SOMETHING THAT WAS DONE AT STANFORD BY STUDENTS THERE WHO COLLECTED A WHOLE BUNCH OF PICTURES ABOUT SKIN LESIONS WHICH SEPARATED THEM FROM, OKAY, THESE ARE CANCEROUS, THESE ARE NOT, TRAINED A NEURAL NETWORK TO IDENTIFY FROM THAT WHICH ONES ARE CANCEROUS. THEY HAVE A MODEL THAT IS AS GREAT AS DERMATOLOGISTS WHICH CAN BE GREAT FOR USERS. ANOTHER EXAMPLE IS IN OUR TEAM WE LOOKED AT PICTURES OF THE EYE, THE IMAGES YOU SEE ON THE RIGHT AND AGAIN TRYING TO IDENTIFY IF A USER HAS D OR NOT DIABETIC RECEIPT NONE PATH THINK OR NOT. IF YOU SEE HOW MANY THERE IS THERE ARE IN THE WORLD AND HOW MANY PATIENTS, WE DON’T HAVE ENOUGH DOCTORS TO REACH EVERY PATIENT. THIS IS A GREAT WAY THAT MACHINE LEARNING CAN REALLY HELP PEOPLE WHO HAVE NO CHANCE OF GETTING ACCESS TO DOCTORS TODAY [ APPLAUSE ] THANK YOU

Sarah Novotny: THANKS, JEFF AND RAJAT. I HAVE TO SAY, YOUR COMMUNITY HAS DONE SOME AMAZING THINGS I WOULD NEVER HAVE EXPECTED WITH THE TENSORFLOW PLATFORM. CUCUMBERS? THE CREATIVITY IS ONE OF MY FAVORITE SECOND-ORDER EFFECTS OF OPEN DEVELOPMENTS AND OPEN COMMUNITIES. OPEN DEVELOPMENT IS BOTH A BENEFIT AND A RESPONSIBILITY WITH A TIGHT FEEDBACK LOOP I MENTIONED THAT OPEN DEVELOPMENT AND A COMMITMENT TO OPEN SOURCE IS ALSO A DRAW TO GOOD DEVELOPERS. I COUNT OUR NEW VP, SAM RAMJI, AMONG THOSE WHO WERE DRAWN TO GOOGLE BECAUSE OF A COMMITMENT TO OPENNESS PLEASE JOIN ME IN WELCOMING THE FORMER CEO OF APIGEE AND CLOUD FOUNDRY FOUNDATION HERE TO SHARE HIS VISION ON OPEN DEVELOPMENT, SAM RAMJI [ APPLAUSE ] Sam Ramji: ALL RIGHT. HOW ARE WE DOING SO FAR? [ APPLAUSE ] PRETTY AWESOME? NOT TOTALLY SURE WHAT I’M DOING ON THE SAME STAGE AS THE INVENTOR OF THE INTERNET, INVENTOR OF KUBERNETES, AND INVENTOR OF TENSORFLOW. BUT I THOUGHT I WOULD TALK ABOUT HOW GOOGLE THINKS ABOUT OPENNESS. WE THINK THIS IS THE BEST TIME IN HISTORY TO BE A DEVELOPER. OUR CRAFT IS RESPECTED. OUR WORK HAS BEEN ELEVATED, AND WE’RE IN AN ERA OF RISING DEMAND. THIS IS OUR TIME. NOW, AS COMPANIES REALIZE THEY HAVE TO BECOME DIGITAL BUSINESSES, THEY HAVE FIGURED OUT THAT THIS TRANSFORMATION IS POWERED BY DEVELOPERS. SO AS MUCH AS THIS IS OUR TIME, THE STAKES ARE HIGH. WE HAVE RESPONSIBILITIES TO OUR CRAFT, TO EACH OTHER, AND TO THE WORLD THE DEVELOPERS NEVER HAD BEFORE HIGH AMONG THEM IS THE NEED TO CREATE SYSTEMS THAT ARE SECURE, FLEXIBLE AND OPEN. LATE LAST YEAR I CAME TO GOOGLE CLOUD BECAUSE I FELT THERE WAS NO BETTER WAY, NO BETTER PLACE TO MAKE REAL ALL THE GOOD THAT OPEN SOURCE PROMISES AND IN A WAY TO IMPACT ALL THE PLACES SOFTWARE IS GOING WITH WHAT WE CALL THE OPEN CLOUD. OUR TOOLS, YOUR TOOLS, YOUR SYSTEMS HAVE TO MAKE SENSE. THEY HAVE TO BE CONNECTED TO BE EFFICIENT. THEY HAVE TO BE OPEN SO WE CAN SHAPE THEM HOW WE NEED THEM TO BE WE CAN CREATE THE AGE OF OPEN DEVELOPMENT NOW, OPEN DEVELOPMENT DEMANDS OPENNESS IN EVERY DIMENSION OPEN APIs, OPEN SOURCE, AND OPEN CLOUDS. WHEN WE HAVE ACCESS TO EVERY PART OF OUR TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENT, WE CAN BUILD A SYSTEM WE REQUIRE TO DEVELOP AT THE SPEED WE NEED. OPENNESS LETS US MAKE UNEXPECTED COMBINATIONS. SO, FOR EXAMPLE, BOTH CLOUD FOUNDRY FOUNDATION AND KUBERNETES ARE INSPIRED BY GOOGLE’S BORG. AND WE STARTED TO SEE THESE COMMUNITIES COME TOGETHER AROUND A PROJECT CALLED THE OPEN BROKE ER API WHICH ACLOUDS CLOUD FOUNDRY AND KUBERNETES CALL EACH OTHER RECENTLY USERS WHO HAVE DEEP INVESTMENTS IN CLOUD FOUNDRY ASKED FOR A WAY TO RUN KUBERNETES ON TOP OF BOSH THAT’S TOOLING THEY ARE WILL BE COMFORTABLE WITH THAT SITS UNDER CF. ENGINEERS FROM PIVOTAL AND GOOGLE TOOK THIS TO HEART, AND MAKE THE NECESSARY UPDATES TO BOSH. THIS NEW TOOL SET IS PACKAGED AS KUBO, KUBERNETES ON BOSH. AND TODAY KUBO IS OPEN IT’S PREALPHA OPEN SOURCE ON GITHUB AVAILABLE TODAY I EXPECT MORE CLOUD FOUNDRY INSTALLATIONS WILL LOOK TO ADD KUBERNETES TO THEIR ENVIRONMENTS. TO QUOTE SARAH NOVOTNY, THIS IS COMPOSABLE INFRASTRUCTURE AT ITS FINEST APPLICATIONS WRITTEN WITH OPEN PREMISE HELP US HOWEVER MUCH IS POSSIBLE, REASON ABOUT, AND FUTURE PROOF OUR APPLICATIONS THINK ABOUT THIS. EVERY DAY CRITICAL INFORMATION AND LOGIC IS ACCESSED FROM AND POURED INTO A WIDE VARIETY OF LEGACY SYSTEMS, BUILT YEARS AGO USING PROPRIETARY PROTOCOLS. THEY WEREN’T ALL FOLLOWING VINT CERF’S ADVICE, TO START OPEN AND STAY OPEN SO WHATEVER WE BUILD TODAY IS ACTUALLY TOMORROW’S LEGACY. ONE OF MY FAVORITE JOB TITLES I HAVE EVER READ IS IN A BOOK CALLED “A FIRE UPON THE DEEP.” ANYBODY READ “A FIRE UPON THE DEEP,” VERNOR VINGE, BRILLIANT BOOK. RECOMMENDED TO ME BY JEREMY ALLISON WHO IS THE MAINTAINER OF SAMBA. IT’S SET TENS OF THOUSANDS OF YEARS FROM NOW AND THE STORY IS BUILT ON INTERSTELLAR TRAVEL BUT WITHOUT BREAKING LIGHT SLEEP. THESE SHIPS ARE MASSIVELY AUTOMATED ON NEW SOFTWARE AND NEW SOFTWARE IS CONSTANTLY BEING WRITTEN TO SOLVE NEW PROBLEMS. FOR THE REALLY OLD PROBLEMS, THE BORING PROBLEMS LIKE CORE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS, THEY HAVE REALLY OLD SOFTWARE. WHAT’S THE JOB TITLE, PROGRAMMER-ARC KEYOLOGIST THERE’S ALSO AN ELEMENT HERE OF SOFTWARE AS ORAL HISTORY, TO QUOTE JAMES GOVERNOR, AND WE NEED TO KEEP SHARING IDEAS ABOUT THE CODE WE WRITE AS MUCH AS WE SHARE THE CODE WE WRITE. SO WE HAVE ALIBLE BUT OLD APPLICATIONS STOMACH ON OLD HARDWARE. WE HAVE NEW AND FUTURE LEGACIES WE RUN ON ELASTIC PLATFORMS LIKE KUBERNETES AND GOOGLE CLOUD AND WE HAVE DATA THAT DRIVES THOSE APPLICATIONS AND RESULTS FROM THOSE APPLICATIONS, BOTH

INPUT AND OUTPUT. GENERALLY THAT DATA IS WHEREVER THE APPLICATIONS ARE AND SHARES THE SAME CONSTRAINTS. WE ALSO HAVE NEW MODES OF COMPUTING THAT ARE FAR FROM THE DESKTOP, EVEN MOBILE CLIENTS IN THE APPS ON THOSE ARE STARTING TO LOOK LIKE OLD HAT. WE’RE GETTING DATA FROM LIGHT BULBS. WE ARE RUNNING APPS ON OIL RIGS AND IN SURGERY CENTERS. WE ARE TRYING TO MAKE SENSE OF ALL OF IT WITH ANALYTICS. FOR THE REALLY HARD ANALYSIS PROBLEMS WE ARE USING MACHINE LEARNING. NOW I GRADUATED IN 1994 WITH A DEGREE FOCUSED ON AI AND NEUROSCIENCE IF YOU SAID AI BACK THEN YOU WENT TO THE BACK OF THE HIRING QUEUE MUCH IT WAS THE AI WINTER FOR ARE A WHILE WE CONCEALED IT UNDER THE SAFER HEADING OF MACHINE LEARNING. AS FEI FEI LI SAID ON WEDNESDAY, THE AI WINTER IS OPEN AND IT’S TIME FOR THE DEMOCRATIZATION OF AI LONG LIVE AI! [ APPLAUSE ] SO FINALLY WE’VE GOT THE PRODUCT MANAGERS, THE MARKETING MANAGERS AND THE ANALYSTS WHO ARE ALL TRYING TO FIGURE OUT IF THIS THING IS WORKING THE IS THIS JUST TECHNOLOGY OR IS THIS REALLY BUSINESS? YOU KNOW, THE PROOF AS THEY SAY IS IN THE SPREADSHEET. SO WE EVEN NEED TO MAKE THESE SYSTEMS OPEN TO SPREADSHEETS SO WE CAN BRING THOSE USERS ON BOARD BECAUSE BUSINESS USERS MATTER, TOO OPEN DEVELOPMENT IS THE PATTERN WE SEE EVERYONE HEADING TOWARDS IT’S MADE OUT OF OPEN APIs, OPEN SOURCE, AND OPEN CLOUDS APIs ARE EVERYWHERE. WE USE THEM TO GET TO MODERN SERVICES LIKE 18-WHEELER YES AND BIGQUERY. WE ROLL OUR OWN OVER MICROSERVICES AND WE WRAP THEM AROUND LEGACY SYSTEMS LIKE GENERAL IMAGINE LETTERS AND MAIN FRAMES. THEY HAVE TO BE OPENED DOCUMENTED LIKE USING STARRED LIKE THE OPENAPI SPEC. THEY HAVE TO USE OPEN PROTOCOLS LIKE HTTP AND gRPC. THEY HAVE TO USE JSON BUT TIMES XML. OPEN APIs HAVE TO BE ABLE TO BE CALLED FROM NAIROBI, NOT JUST BY CODE RUNNING IN THE APIs PROVIDERS CLOUD. YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO CALL THAT ANYWHERE IN CASE YOU HAVE TO MOVE YOUR WORKLOAD LATER. IF YOU ARE LOOKING FOR THE BIG ANGLE, MARSHAL VAN ALSTYNE HAVE DEMONSTRATED THAT APIs GROW FASTER AND ARE MORE PROFITABLE. SO OPEN SOURCE IS A MODERN DEVELOPERS BASIC EXPECTATION AND THE DEFAULT LICENSING MODEL FOR NEARLY ALL MODERN DEVELOPMENT TOOLS. OPEN SOURCE IS A POSITIVE-SUM GAME WHERE NO ONE NEEDS TO LOSE IN ORDER FOR SOMEONE ELSE TO WIN AS ERIC, JEFF, AND RAJAT SHOWED, AT GOOGLE WE BELIEVE IN OFFERING TECHNICAL IDEAS LIKE OPEN ORS, LIKE ANGULAR, ANDROID, V8, G, gRPC, APACHE BEAM, KUBERNETES, AND TENSORFLOW. AND REALLY IMPORTANT WE BELIEVE IN GETTING BACK TO OPEN SOURCE PROJECTS WHERE WE HAVE SOMETHING TO CONTRIBUTE AND WHERE WE HAVE RECEIVED SO MUCH VALUE, LIKE LINUX, KVM, MySQL, PYTHON, APACHE, ECLIPSE, NODE.JS, SAMBA AND MANY OTHERS ADDITIONALLY, WE GIVE OPPORTUNITIES TO HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE STUDENTS EVERY WE ARE TO BUILD OPEN SOURCE PROJECTS WHILE BEING MENTORED BY OPEN SOURCE DEVELOPERS AND LUMINARIES IN TWO PROGRAMS, GOOGLE SUMMER OF CODE AND GOOGLE CODE IN THIS IS, TO QUOTE JIM ZEMLIN, THE NEW NORMAL, OPEN SOURCE ALL TOGETHER, THIS IS WHAT WE NEED FOR OPEN DEVELOPMENT NOW, WHEN I MET BRIAN STEVENS LAST YEAR, THE THING HE SAID THAT MADE ME STOP AND FUNDAMENTALLY REASSESS GOOGLE’S CLOUD WAS THE SIMPLE STATEMENT: WE ARE BUILDING AN OPEN CLOUD THAT’S OUR STRATEGY. I WAS KIND OF STUNNED. I HAD TO DIG DEEPER, AND YOU CAN SEE WHERE MY EXPLORATION LED ME. IN BEHIND SIGHT, I REALLY SHOULDN’T HAVE BEEN SURPRISED BECAUSE BRIAN SPENT 14 YEARS AT DEC BUILDING OPEN SYSTEMS AND 14 YEARS AT RED HAT MAKING OPEN SOURCE THE STANDARD. OWN ARE THE NEW IDEA IF WE ARE DOING OPEN DEVELOPMENT ON OPEN APIs AND OPEN SOURCE, SHOULD WE WANT AN OPEN CLOUD? SIX YEARS AGO AT OSCON IN 2011, I AND SEVERAL OTHER PEOPLE STARTED A NON-PROFIT CALLED THE OPEN CLOUD INITIATIVE. WE COULD SEE THE COMING ERA OF CLOUD OF COMPUTING BRINGING A PANDORA’S BOX OF EXCLUDE AND LOCK-IN AND THAT THE OPEN SOURCE DEFINITION DIDN’T GUIDE THE CLOUD. THE NON-PROFIT WOUND DOWN BUT THED IN LIVE ON USERS WIN IN AN OPEN CLOUD SO AN OPEN CLOUD IS OPEN SOURCE FRIENDLY. IT’S BOTH ACCEPTING OPEN SOURCE AND GIVING BACK TO IT. WE AIM TO BE THE BEST PLACE TO RUN OPEN SOURCE STACKS WE’RE CONTRIBUTING OPEN SOURCE CLOUD COMPUTING PROJECTS INCLUDING CORE TECHNOLOGIES LIKE KUBERNETES AND TENSORFLOW AND WORKING WITH DOCKER, CLOUD FOUNDRY AND OPENSTACK. WE THINK CHRIS WRIGHT AND RED HAT TEAM FOR HELPING US SEEING THE VALUE IN COLLABORATIVELY DEVELOPING KUBERNETES. OPEN CLOUD SUPPORTS OPEN ACCESS WITH NO BARRIERS TO ENTRY OR EXIT. SHOULD SHOULD BE ABLE TO BRING VMS, CONTAINER, RUNTIME AND FRAMEWORK AND TAKE YOUR THINGS OUT LIKE DODGER CONTAINER AND YAML FILES AND DATABASES. YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO SIGN IN WITH OAUTH. YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO SEE THE LOGS OF EVERYTHING THAT’S HAPPENS, ACCESS TRANSPARENCY IS CRUCIAL FINALLY AN OPEN CLOUD IS OPEN TO AN OPEN ECOSYSTEM, PLUGGING THE PLATFORM DEVELOPER COMMUNITY DIRECTLY INTO THE PROVIDERS OF ALL KINDS OF SERVICES. NOW, LET ME PAUSE HERE. THIS IS IMPORTANT. SO SERVICES BUILT BY

COMMUNITIES AND COMPANIES SHOULD GET ALL THE SAME REPRESENTATION AND DISTRIBUTION AS SERVICES BUILT BY THE CLOUD PROVIDE ER. OPEN INNOVATION MEANS OPEN TO A WORLD OF IDEAS AND NOT ASSUMING THAT OUR IMPLEMENTATION OF CASSANDRA OR PROVES POSTGRES IS THE BEST POSSIBLE ONE. THERE’S AN IDEA IN HERE THAT COULD DEMOCRATIZE SOFTWARE THE WAY SMARTPHONES DEMOCRATIZED CONSUMER APPLICATIONS. MORE SERVICES, EACH EXCELLENT, SMALLER IN SCOPE, BUILT PROFITABLY BY SMALLER TEAMS SO I THINK IF WE WORK ON THIS TOGETHER, WE CAN GET THE SOFTWARE INDUSTRY TO SOMETHING SLEEK, ADAPTABLE, AND SUSTAIN ABLE. FINALLY, DEVELOPERS ARE TRYING ALL OF THESE THINGS TOGETHER INTO THE SYSTEMS THEY NEED TO WORK AT SPEEDS, SYSTEMS OF CONTINUOUS INTEGRATION, AND CONTINUOUS DEPLOYMENT. IT’S THE ONRAMP TO EVERYTHING GOOD IN MODERN SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPERS TAKING RESPONSIBLE FOR TESTING AND PRODUCTION. IT GOES WITHOUT SAYING THAT THEY ARE USING OPENS LIKE CHEF, ANSIBLE, PUPPET, SALT, CLOUD FOUNDRY, GITLAB, JENKINS, CONCOURSE AND SPINNAKER. THIS IS A CONCOURSE SCREEN SHOT TODAY THESE SYSTEMS ARE UNIQUE TO EACH ENTERPRISE. THEY ARE AS UNIQUE AS YOUR NERVOUS SYSTEM AND OFTEN UNIQUE TO EACH DEVELOPMENT TEAM. WE COULD SEE COMMON PATTERNS EMERGE THAT WE CAN SIMPLIFY AND STANDARDIZE AT GOOGLE WE WANT EVERYBODY TO BENEFIT FROM AN OPEN CLOUD TODAY WE ARE ANNOUNCING AN EXPANSION OF OUR GOOGLE CLOUD PLATFORM FREE OFFERINGS. SO FIRST YOUR CREDITS WILL LAST FOR A YEAR [ APPLAUSE ] SECOND, WE WILL HAVE A LEVEL OF COMPUTE, STORAGE, MESSAGING AND SERVER THAT LESS THAT WILL ALWAYS BE FREE [ APPLAUSE ] BUT MOST IMPORTANTLY, WE ARE WALKING OUR TALK ABOUT THE OPEN ECOSYSTEM. YOU CAN SPEND YOUR CREDITS ON OUR ECOSYSTEM PARTNERS THROUGH THE GOOGLE CLOUD LAUNCHER. WE WILL PAY DEVELOPERS WHO BUILT THESE SERVICES FOR YOUR TRIAL EXPERIENCE BECAUSE YOUR PLATFORM IS OUR WHOLE ECOSYSTEM. THIS IS WHAT OPEN DEVELOPMENT LOOKS LIKE TO US [ APPLAUSE ] SO OPENAPIs, OPEN SOURCE, AND OPEN CLOUD. WE BELIEVE IN OPEN COLLABORATION WORKING ENGINEER TO ENGINEER. WE ARE MOVING FROM JUST WRITING PAPERS FROM BORG AND BIG TABLE TO SHARING THE CODE. WE ARE WRITING BOOKS ON SYSTEMS RELIABILITY ENGINEERING AND WE WANT TO MOVE THE STATE-OF-THE-ART FORWARD IN BOTH DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONS WHICH TOGETHER MAKE UP THE DISCIPLINE OF ENGINEERING WE’RE DEPLOYING OUR ENGINEERS TO WORK DIRECTLY WITH YOU ON YOUR CRITICAL PROJECTS. SO WE EXPECT YOU TO HOLD US ACCOUNTABLE TO THIS VISION. LET ME MAKE A POINT. NEGATIVE FEEDBACK IS A GIFT. IT’S A DECLARATION OF WHAT’S MISSING, LIKE NEGATIVE SPACE. IT SAYS, THIS IS MISSING. BUT IF PLATFORM HAD THIS, IT WOULD BE AWESOME. SO LET ME CLOSE BY SAYING, WE’RE GLAD YOU’RE HERE. I’M GLAD YOU’RE HERE. LET’S BUILD GREAT THINGS THANK YOU [ APPLAUSE ] SO IT’S MY GREAT PLEASURE TO WELCOME MY FRIEND AND COLLEAGUE ALISON WAGONFELD. SHE’S THE CHIEF MARKETING OFFICER OF GOOGLE CLOUD AND ONE OF THE AWESOME PARTS OF MY JOB IS I GET TO WORK WITH ALISON EVERY DAY PLEASE WELCOME ALISON [ APPLAUSE ] Alison Wagonfeld: THANK YOU THAT WAS AWESOME GOOD MORNING. WELCOME. THANK YOU FOR BEING HERE. I’M HUMBLED AND PRIVILEGED TO BE ABLE TO BRING TO MARKET THE INCREDIBLE TECHNOLOGY THAT MY COLLEAGUES AND OTHERS HAVE BEEN BUILDING OVER DECADES, BUILDING WITH THE OPEN CLOUD COMMUNITY WE’RE NOW GOING TO TRANSITION TO THE SECOND PART OF OUR PROGRAM THIS MORNING WHERE WE HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO HEAR FROM THREE GREAT START-UPS THAT ARE DOING REALLY INTERESTING WORK, ENGAGING WITH THE COMMUNITY IN BUILDING A GOOGLE CLOUD AND WITH GOOGLE CLOUD. FIRST, WE’LL HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO HEAR FROM WILL MARSHALL, FOUNDER AND CEO OF PLANET DOING INCREDIBLE WORK USING AT LIGHT IMAGERY SECOND, WE WILL HEAR FROM WILLEM SUNDBLAD, FROM ODEN TECHNOLOGIES. ESTRINS FORMING THE DEMOCRATIZATION OF AI. AND, THIRD, HER MAN, THE CEO OF IMPROBABLE WILL SHARE GREAT WORK THEY’RE DOING. IT’S A LONDON-BASED COMPANY WITH SIMULATIONS AND GAMING IN VIRTUAL WORLDS. SO NOW PLEASE JOIN ME IN WELCOMING WILL TO THE STAGE [ APPLAUSE ] Will Marshall: GOOD MORNING. MY NAME IS WILL MARSHALL. I’M THE CEO AND CO-FOUNDER OF PLANET AND PLANET’S MISSION IS TO IMAGE EVERY POINT ON THE EARTH’S SURFACE AND MAKE CHANGE VISIBLE,

ACCESSIBLE, AND ACTIONABLE. WE DO THIS WITH A NETWORK OF OVER A HUNDRED SATELLITES THAT WE’VE DESIGNED, BUILT, AND OPERATE IN SPACE TODAY. IN FACT, TODAY PLANET OPERATES THE LARGEST FLEET OF SATELLITES IN HUMAN HISTORY UNLIKE TRADITIONAL SATELLITES, OURS ARE MUCH SMALLER. AND, IN FACT, WE’VE BUILT 13 DIFFERENT ITERATIONS OF THESE SATELLITES AND LAUNCHED THEM ON 13 DIFFERENT ROCKETS OVER THE LAST FEW YEARS TO CONSTANTLY IMPROVE OUR CAPABILITY IN SPACE. WE CALL THIS AGILE AEROSPACE AND A FEW WEEKS AGO, WE LAUNCHED OUR LATEST FLEET OF 88 SATELLITES ON THIS ROCKET IT’S THE LARGEST NUMBER OF SATELLITES EVER DEPLOYED FROM A ROCKET IN HUMAN HISTORY. IT WAS PRETTY NERVE-RACKING. BUT FRICKING COOL [ APPLAUSE ] THANK YOU SO AS COOL AS SPACE SUFFICIENT IS AND I COULD GEEK OUT ALL DAY, THAT’S NOT WHAT I’M HERE TO TALK ABOUT. YOU SEE, THE SATELLITES FOR US ARE A BACK-END. WHAT THEY ENABLE IS WHAT’S REALLY IMPORTANT AND THAT’S THE DATA THAT THEY CAN PRODUCE. AND PARTICULARLY THE IMAGERY SEE, TRADITIONAL SATELLITE IMAGERY YOU FIND ONLINE IS OLD AND WITH THE 149 SATELLITES THAT WE OPERATE TODAY IN SPACE, WE HAVE THE CAPACITY TO IMAGE EVERY POINT ON THE LAND AREA OF THE EARTH EVERY SINGLE DAY AND SEE CHANGE AS IT HAPPENS WE SEE EVERY PORT, EVERY CITY, EVERY FARM, EVERY FOREST ACROSS THE WHOLE EARTH EVERY DAY AND AT THE HIGHEST LEVEL, THIS IS USED FOR MANY THINGS BUT THE HIGHEST LEVEL IT’S USEFUL FOR US TO TAKE CARE OF OUR CHANGING PLANET HERE ARE A COUPLE OF IMAGES SO YOU GET A SENSE FOR WHAT WE CAN SEE. EARS AN OIL REFINERY. YOU CAN SEE SHIPS SHIPS. YOU CAN SEE ROADS. YOU CAN SEE BUILDINGS. YOU CAN SEE INDIVIDUAL TREES. HERE YOU CAN SEE ANOTHER PORT AREA. YOU CAN JUST ABOUT SEE VEHICLES AND ROADS. BUT YOU CAN’T SEE PEOPLE OR READ NUMBER PLATES PLATES. THIS IS ABOUT WIDE- WIDE-SCALE CHANGE. BUT OUR CAPABILITY IS BEING ENHANCED BECAUSE WE RECENTLY ANNOUNCED THAT WE’RE GOING TO BE ACQUIRING TERRA BELLA, GOOGLE’S SATELLITE ARM, IN WHICH — WITH WHICH WE WILL BE GAINING 7, AND SOON 13, HIGH-RESOLUTION SATELLITES IN ORBIT TO COMPLEMENT THIS, AND, IN FACT, THE SATELLITES SATELLITES, THE MEDIUM RES AND THE HI RES IS VERY COMPLEMENTARY. SO WHAT DOES THIS ALL MEAN? WELL, FOR ONE THING, IT MEANS A SHARED TON OF DATA, AND IT DRAMATICALLY INCREASING AMOUNTS EVERY SINGLE DAY. TERABYTES COMING DOWN DOCUMENTING CHANGES AROUND OUR PLANET AND WE NEED TO GET THIS DATA QUICKLY AND RELY IABLY TO OUR USERS, AND SO YESTERDAY WE WERE PLEASED TO ANNOUNCE THAT WE HAVE SWITCHED TO GOOGLE CLOUD TO HOST OUR IMAGERY AND DO OUR DATA PROCESSING [ APPLAUSE ] AND WHILST THERE’S A HANDFUL OF COMPANIES THAT CAN OFFER STORAGE AND PROCESSING WE WERE REALLY IMPRESSED BY GOOGLE CLOUD’S CORE TECHNOLOGY, ESPECIALLY THE MACHINE LEARNING TRAJECTORY IN BOTH HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE THAT WE THINK WILL BE VERY USEFUL, AS WELL AS THE DEEP UNDERSTANDING OF GEOSPATIAL DATA AND I WOULD LIKE TO THANK THE SENIOR LEADERSHIP TEAM AT GOOGLE CLOUD AS WELL AS, IN PARTICULAR, DIANE GREENE, FOR WORKING WITH US BUT THIS LEADS TO AN IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT TODAY TODAY YOU SEE AT PLANET, WE BELIEVE OUR IMAGERY SHOULD BE AVAILABLE TO EVERYONE. NOT JUST THE BIG COMPANIES AND GOVERNMENTS THAT HAVE ACCESSED SATELLITE IMAGERY TO DATE AND SO — [ APPLAUSE ] IF WE CAN ADVANCE THE SLIDE THAT’S WHY I’M EXCITED TODAY TO ANNOUNCE THE RELEASE OF PLANET EXPLORER BETA. WE WANT TO GET DATA INTO THE HANDS OF INDIVIDUALS, SMALL AND MEDIUM- SIZED BUSINESSES, NGOs, DEVELOPERS, RESEARCHERS AROUND THE PLANET PLANET EXPLORER BETA IS THE FIRST GLOBAL PLATFORM UPDATED EVERY MONTH WITH IMAGERY OF THE ENTIRE PLANET PLANET. NO LOGIN REQUIRED PLANET EXPLORER ENABLES THE THE — US TO SEE THE TIME ELEMENT TO SATELLITE IMAGERY IMAGERY. LET ME SHOW YOU HOW IT WORKS ANYONE WHO GOES TO PLANET PLANET.COM CAN VIEW OUR IMAGES ON A MONTHLY AND QUARTERLY BASIS. EACH GLOBAL BASE MAP IS MADE UP OF MILLIONS — LITERALLY MILLIONS — OF INDIVIDUAL ESCALATE IMAGERY IES THAT WE’VE SWITCHED TOGETHER. USING THE TIME LINE, YOU CAN NAVIGATE QUICKLY ACROSS THE WORLD IN SPACE AND IN TIME. TO DATE, SATELLITE MAPS HAVE BEEN STATIC AND WE’VE CHANGED THAT. PLANET HAS ADDED THE TIME AXIS TO MAPS THAT’S THE KEY DIFFERENCE

LET’S TAKE A LOOK AT GILROY IN CALIFORNIA, ZOOM IN AND SEE A LITTLE BIT CLOSER WHAT YOU CAN SEE SO IF WE ZOOM IN HERE, WHEN YOU ZOOM IN YOU CAN SEE CHANGES ON A MUCH MORE GRANULAR LEVEL. YOU CAN YOU CAN SEE IN THIS CASE THE FIELDS CHANGING WITH THE VARIOUS HARVESTING PROCESSES IN THESE FIELDS. BUT THERE’S MORE ONCE YOU LOG IN AND YOU CAN DO SO WITH A FREE ACCOUNT, YOU CAN SEE A FULL SET OF IMAGERY. WE HAVE TAKEN IMAGERY — ONE SECOND. WE’VE TAKEN, ON AVERAGE , MORE THAN 150 IMAGES OF EVERY POINT ON THE LAND AREA OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE AND YOU CAN BROWSE THIS FULL STACK OF IMAGERY WITH A FREE ACCOUNT.’ YOU CAN SEE THOSE NEW IMAGES AS THEY COME DOWN DAY BY DAY, AND YOU CAN COMPARE CHANGES AS THEY HAPPEN WITH A CHANGE TOOL THAT ALLOWS YOU TO SEE CHANGES AS THEY HAPPEN DAY BY DAY. LIKE IN GILROY, SEEING THE CHANGES IN THE FLOODING EXPLORER ENABLES US TO EASILY VISUALIZE CHANGE AND COMPARE AND SEE THE CHANGE AS IT HAPPENS AROUND THE PLANET. THERE ARE LIMITS. PLANET AT THE PRESENT TIME IS LIMITED IN ZOOM OUTSIDE THE U.S. AND THE IMAGERY IS AVAILABLE ON OUR BROWSE ER FOR PERSONAL AND NONCOMMERCIAL USE WE ENCOURAGE COMMERCIAL USE, OF COURSE, BUT FOR THAT YOU HAVE TO SIGN UP FOR A PAID ACCOUNT AND THEN YOU CAN DOWNLOAD OUR FULL IMAGERY AND AND AT FULL RESOLUTION NOW, THERE ARE ZILLIONS OF USE CASES OF THIS DATA, WHICH IS WHY WE’VE CREATED AN OPENAPI TO BUILD APPLICATIONS ON TOP OF IT HERE’S A FEW EXAMPLES IMAGINE ON A COMMERCIAL SIDE SIDE, YOU CAN COUNT SHIPS INTO AND OUT OF PORTS. IN THIS CASE, SHIPS AND INTO OUT OF THE PORT OF SYDNEY. YOU CAN TRACK DeFOREST DEFORESTATION AND EVEN MEASURE CARBON STOCKS HERE IN THIS CASE IN BOLIVIA EARLIER THIS WEEK OUR PARTNERS, DESCARTES LAB, RELEASED GEOVISUAL SEARCH. HERE A USER HIGHLIGHTS A FEATURE AND THEN IT FINDS THOSE FEATURES CARROT A. SOLAR ARRAYS IN THE WHOLE OF CHINA. IT’S PRETTY FRIGGIN’ COOL [ APPLAUSE ] OUR PARTNERS AND DEVELOPERS ARE BUILDING APPS ON OUR GEOSPATIAL DATA AND WE WANT TO GROW THIS COMMUNITY WHICH IS WHY I’M HERE TODAY, TO INVITE YOU TO COME AND JOIN OUR GLOBAL COMMUNITY OF DEVELOPERS WITH PLANET EXPLORER BETA RUNNING ON GOOGLE CLOUD, PLANET IS NOW DELIVERING POWERFUL INSIGHTS ABOUT OUR CHANGING PLANET MADE AVAILABLE ON LINE AT YOUR FINGERTIPS THE GOAL OF THIS IS TO ENABLE USERS TO BROWSE OUR IMAGERY AND EXPLORE HOW IT CAN HELP THEIR NEEDS. WE HOPE THAT IT WILL LEAD TO MORE COMMERCIAL PARTNERSHIPS PARTNERSHIPS, MORE BENEFITS ON THE HUMANITARIAN SIDE YOU’VE BEEN USED TO STATIC MAPS AND PLANET EXPLORER, YOU NOW GET THE REAL VIEW, WHICH IS A CONSTANTLY CHANGING PLANET PLANET HAS ADDED THE TIME AXIS TO MAPS AND ANYONE CAN COME TO PLANET.COM TODAY TO VIEW THAT IMAGERY. WE INVITE YOU TO COME AND EXPLORE WITH US. THANK YOU VERY MUCH [ APPLAUSE ] AND NOW I’M INTRODUCING WOMEN FROM ODEN TECHNOLOGIES WIL WILLEM WHO IS FROM ODEN TECHNOLOGIES WHO IS GOING TO JOIN US ON STAGE [ APPLAUSE ] Willem Sunblad: HI. MY NAME IS SUNBLAD. I’M COFOUNDER AND CEO OF ODEN TECHNOLOGIES TECHNOLOGIES. I’M HERE TO TALK ABOUT THE MOST IMPORTANT SECTOR IN THE U.S. ECONOMY MANUFACTURING. IN 2015, GROSS OUTPUT OF U.S. FACTORIES WAS $6.2 TRILLION OR 36% OF GDP IT’S EASY TO FORGET THAT THE CAR YOU DRIVE, BE IT A VOLVO, FORD, TESLA, IS NOT JUST BUILT BY VOLUME SARAH, FORD AND TESLA TESLA. IT’S MADE UP OF SOME 30,000 COMPONENTS COMING FROM A COMPLEX NETWORK OF MANUFACTURING SUPPLIERS. THESE MANUFACTURERS, THEY MAKE EVERYTHING THAT WE TAKE FOR GRANTED IN OUR DAILY LIVES. BUT THEY HAVE NOT SEEN THE BENEFITS OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENTS THAT HAVE HAPPENED IN THE COMPUTER INDUSTRY AND OUR CONSUMER LIVES IN THE PAST 15, 20 YEARS TAKE THE U.S. PLASTICS INDUSTRY AS AN EXAMPLE. 16,000 FACTORIES, OUTPUT OF ABOUT $370 BILLION, BUT MOST OF THE DATA THEY COLLECT AND ANALYZE TO CONTINUOUSLY IMPROVE THEIR PRODUCTION IS DONE WITH CLIPBOARDS AND TIMERS, PEN AND PAPER. NOW, I’M NOT SAYING THAT THERE ISN’T INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY, BUT IT HASN’T BEEN ACCESSIBLE TO THE WIDER AUDIENCE IT’S ONLY BEEN ACCESSIBLE TO THE 1% OF MANUFACTURERS. MOST OF THE HARDWARE IS BUILT ON PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS ALMOST ALL SOFTWARE IS HOSTED LOCALLY. THE DESIGN OF IT LOOKS LIKE IT’S FROM THE ’90s, AT BEST, ’80s IF YOU’RE LESS LUCKY,

AND IT’S ALWAYS BEEN EXTREMELY EXPENSIVE AND IT CAN TAKE MONTHS TO YEARS TO IMPLEMENT, EVEN BUT IT DOESN’T HAVE TO BE THAT WAY ANYMORE. THROUGH UBIQUITY OF NETWORKS, DRASTIC DECREASE IN COST OF ELECTRONICS AND CLOUD COMPUTING, COUPLED WITH THE TREMENDOUS GROWTH IN POWER AND TOOLS THAT ARE AVAILABLE AVAILABLE, SUPERIOR TECHNOLOGY IS NOW ACCESSIBLE BY MANUFACTURERS LARGE AND SMALL IN ALL VERTICALS. WE FOUNDED ODEN WITH A CORE MISSION: TO EMPOWER MANUFACTURERS WITH DATA AND TOOLS SO THEY CAN ELIMINATE WASTE IN THEIR PRODUCTION, DECREASE RATES, DECREASE MACHINE FAILURES AND UNPLANNED DOWNTIME , UNDERSTAND THEIR SETTINGS AND MINIMIZE THEIR MATERIAL CONDUCTIONS THAT EVERY MANUFACTURER CAN MAKE THE MOST OF THEIR CAPACITY AND MAKE AWESOME PRODUCTS FOR US US TO DO THIS, WE BUILT A DEVICE BASED ON THE RASPBERRY PIE THAT CAN COMMUNICATE WITH MOST INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY AND EXTERNAL SENSORS, TAKE DATA IN REAL TIME, SEND IT AS TO OUR CLOUD-BASED ANALYTICS PLATFORM THE DATA THAT WE’RE COLLECTING CAN BE GRANULAR INFORMATION ABOUT HOW THE MATERIAL IS BEHAVING THROUGHOUT THE PROCESS, WHAT’S HAPPENING INSIDE OF THE MACHINE, BUT ALSO HIGHER LEVEL METRICS LIKE WHAT’S THE THROUGHPUT FROM HOUR, PER RPM, PER HORSEPOWER. WHAT’S THE UTILIZATION OF YOUR PRODUCTION LINES OR YOUR WHOLE FACTORIES AND WE DO THIS BUILT AND HOSTED COMPLETELY ON GOOGLE CLOUD PLATFORM. THE MILLIONS AND MILLIONS IN DATA POINTS THAT WE COLLECT PER PRODUCTION LINE PER DAY IS INGESTED WITH PUB/SUB OUR REALTIME STREAM PROCESSING FRAMEWORK WHERE WE CAN DO COMPLEX TRANSFORMATIONS ON THE DATA LIVES IN CONTAINER ENGINE WE’RE ABOUT TO MOVE THAT TO DATAFLOW. STORAGE, BIG BIG TABLE. AND THE MICROSERVICES THAT SUPPORT OUR PLATFORM ALL LIVES IN CONTAINER CONTAINER ENGINE AND THE WEB APPLICATION ITSELF, COMPUTE ENGINE. SO MANUFACTURERS GET REALTIME STREAM OF ALL THE IMPORTANT METRICS COMING FROM THEIR PRODUCTION LINES SO THEY CAN TAKE BETTER DECISIONS IN REAL TIME, HIGH-LEVEL-OVER VIEW OF WHOLE PRODUCTION OF LINES OR MULTIPLE FACTORIES ON YOUR UTILIZATION STATE, THERAPEUTIC, WHAT PRODUCTS YOU’RE MAKING, COMPLETE TRACEABILITY. YOU CAN SEARCH THROUGH PRODUCT, TIME TIME, EVENTS, SO ENGINEERS AND EXECS CAN SOLVE PROBLEMS, QUALITY FAILURES, MACHINE FAILURES, IN MINUTES INSTEAD OF WEEKS OR MONTHS. AND ALSO, OF COURSE, LABEL AND CLASSIFY THE DATA IN DIFFERENT STATES SO THEY CAN SHARE AND COLLABORATE, BUT ALSO BUILD UP MACHINE LEARNING MODELS SO WE CAN TAKE THEM EVEN A STEP FURTHER ON MAKING THINGS MORE EFFICIENTLY, MAKING THINGS BETTER IN THE SAME WAY THAT WE BUILD TOOLS AND CAPABILITIES THAT ALLOW OUR CUSTOMERS, THE MEN AND WOMEN ON THE FACTORY FLOORS EVERY DAY, TO BUILD BETTER PRODUCTS AND RUN THEIR FACTORIES MORE EFFICIENTLY, GOOGLE CLOUD BUILDS PRODUCTS AND TOOLS THAT ALLOW US TO BUILD BETTER PRODUCTS FASTER AND RUN OUR OPERATIONS MORE EFFICIENTLY WE PROBABLY WOULDN’T BE ABLE TO FEEL COMFORTABLE SCALING UP TO THOUSAND AND THOUSANDS OF FACTORIES WITH TENS OF THOUSANDS OF MACHINES ALL STREAMING DATA IF WE DIDN’T KNOW WE HAD THE INFRASTRUCTURE OF GOOGLE TO ALLOW US TO DO THAT AND WITH THAT SAID, I WANT TO HAND OVER TO HERMAN FROM IMPROBABLE AND SAY THANK YOU YOU [ APPLAUSE ] Herman Narula: HELLO. IT’S AN ABSOLUTE PLEASURE TO BE HERE SO IF WE WANT TO BUILD MASSIVE GIGANTIC SIMULATIONS OF VIRTUAL WORLDS OR COMPLETELY NEW WAYS OF MODELING CITIES OR CELLS OR ECONOMIES, HUGE SIMULATIONS THAT RUN ON THOUSANDS OF COURSE, IT’S IT’S A REALLY CHALLENGE TODAY. IT’S SOMETHING THAT PREVIOUSLY HAS ONLY REALLY BEEN AVAILABLE TO PEOPLE WITH SUPERCOMPUTERS AND IT GENERALLY PRESENTS A VERY CHALLENGING PROGRAMMING MODEL FOR DEVELOPERS YOU’VE GOT TO MANAGE SERVERS SERVERS, YOU’VE GOT TO COME UP WITH THE SYNCHRONIZATION WITH THE INFORMATION, YOU’VE GOT TO DO SO MANY THINGS BEYOND JUST BUILDING YOUR APPLICATION SO AT IMPROBABLE, WE’VE BUILT A DISTRIBUTED OPERATING SYSTEM WE CALLED SPATIALOS THAT RUNS ON GOOGLE CLOUD AND MAKES IT POSSIBLE TO BUILD THESE KINDS OF APPLICATIONS. EXACTLY THE TYPES OF VIRTUAL WORLDS AND MASSIVE SIMULATIONS THAT WE’VE ALL DREAMED OF BUT PUT INTO THE HANDS OF DEVELOPERS SO THAT IT CAN BE ITERATED ON AND BUILT QUICKLY AND EFFICIENTLY. AND AT THE END OF THAT LAST YEAR, WE ANNOUNCED A MASSIVE INNOVATION PROGRAM WITH GOGGLE WHICH MAKES IT ALMOST COMPLETELY FREE FOR HUNDREDS OF GAME STUDIOS TO BUILD COMPLETELY NEW APPLICATIONS ON TOP OF SPATIALOS , AND BUILDERS FIRST AND IT’S ONLY BEEN A COUPLE OF MONTHS THERE’S BEEN AN ENORMOUS NUMBER OF REALLY COOL PRODUCTS PRODUCED I WANT TO SHOW YOU SOME EXAMPLES OF SOME OF THOSE THESE INCLUDE VIRTUAL WORLDS LIKE WORLDS ADRIFT. THERE ARE 2,000 SQUARE KILOMETERS IN SIZE WORLDS WITH THEIR OWN ECOLOGIES, WORLDS WITH MASSIVE NUMBERS OF PLAYERS SHARING THE

SAME SPACE. NO MORE SHARDING, NO MORE SEPARATION. EXPERIENCES THAT IN MANY CASES THAT HAVE BEEN BUILT BY TEAMS OF 3 OR 5 DEVELOPERS AND OUR BETA IS LIVE AND ACTIVE RIGHT NOW AND WITH THE COMMUNITY WE’RE CONTINUALLY IMPROVING AND ADDING TO WHAT SPATIALOS CAN DO FOR GAMING BUT TODAY I’M ACTUALLY HERE TO TALK TO YOU ABOUT THE NEXT STEP, THE REALLY BIG SIGNIFICANT AND IMPORTANT PROBLEMS WHICH IN ONE MOMENT WE WILL SOON BE ABLE TO TALK ABOUT SLIDE TRANSITION THERE WE GO SO THINKING ABOUT LARGE- LARGE-SCALE SIMULATION AS A WAY OF SOLVING PROBLEMS, A GOOD WAY TO BEGIN IS TO THINK ABOUT AN EXAMPLE. THINK ABOUT THE MOST IMPORTANT DECISION THAT A COMPANY OR A GOVERNMENT MAKES, RIGHT? LET’S TAKE AN EXAMPLE OF WHAT THAT COULD LOOK LIKE IMAGINE THINKING ABOUT HOW TO CHANGE A MASSIVE CELLULAR NETWORK THAT SPANS AN ENTIRE CITY OR A COUNTRY. ANY CHANGE YOU MIGHT THINK OF MAKING, WHETHER IT’S A MODIFICATION TO THE INFRASTRUCTURE, A CHANGE TO A PROTOCOL, OR AN ALTERATION IN POLICY, IS GOING TO HAVE MILLIONS OF CASCADING EFFECTS WHICH ARE INCREDIBLE Y DIFFICULT TO COMPREHEND OR THINK ABOUT, AND THE REASON FOR THIS IS THAT WE’RE DEALING REALLY WITH EMERGENT SYSTEMS AND THIS IS AN IDEA I WANT TO PUT ACROSS TODAY THE IDEA THAT OUR WORLD, THE CELLS IN YOUR BODY, OUR ECONOMIES, THE BIG INFRASTRUCTURE THAT WE’VE BUILT TOGETHER, THEY ALL REPRESENT MILLIONS OF COMPLEX EMERGENT SYSTEMS, AND IF WE REALLY WANT TO UNDERSTAND THESE SYSTEMS, WE HAVE TO GO A LOT FURTHER THAN JUST USING MACHINE LEARNING OR PATH DATA. WE NEED TO LEARN TO COMPLETELY RECREATE THESE SYSTEMS IN THEIR ENTIRETY. I MEAN, ACTUALLY REPLICATE ING ENTIRE CITIES ON MASSIVE SIMULATIONS, BUILDING MODELS OF THESE NETWORKS THAT HAVE NEVER BEEN POSSIBLE BEFORE. THIS IS A GIGANTIC AND DAUNTING TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGE. IT CAN’T BE SOLVED THROUGH PARALLEL — LARGE-SCALE PARALLEL SYSTEMS SYSTEMS. WE NEED TO BUILD NEW KINDS OF SEMI-PARALLEL DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS THAT CAN MAKE THIS STUFF WORK. AND IF WE REALLY WANT TO CHANGE OUR WORLD WE NEED DEVELOPERS LIKE YOU TO BE ABLE TO RUN THESE SYSTEMS IN REAL TIME, BUILD NEW BUSINESSES AND BUILD NEW SERVICES THAT RUN ON TOP OF THIS STUFF AND THAT’S PRECISELY WHAT WE’VE BEEN DOING WITH SPATIALOS. AND I’M PLEASED TODAY TO ANNOUNCE THAT WE’RE GOING TO BE OPEN SOURCING MORE AND MORE CONTENT AND SHOWING MORE AND MORE FRAMEWORKS OVER THE COURSE OF THE NEXT SIX MONTHS THAT ARE GOING TO MAKE IT MORE POSSIBLE FOR NEW DEVELOPERS TO ATTACK NEW PROBLEM DOMAINS. AND JUST LIKE GOOGLE WITH THE SPIRIT OF OPEN DEVELOPMENT AND SHARING CONTENT, WE INTEND TO DO EVERYTHING WE CAN TO FOSTER A COMMUNITY WHERE DEVELOPERS CAN SHARE CODE, SHARE FRAMEWORKS, SHARE INTEGRATIONS AND START TO BUILD AND CREATE NEW BUSINESSES AND SERVICES. WE DON’T ALL HAVE TO START FROM SCRATCH. WE CAN START TO MAKE AN ECOSYSTEM TO MAKE THIS STUFF POSSIBLE. AND THAT’S WHY WE’VE CHOSEN TO PARTNER WITH GOOGLE AND WE TRULY BELIEVE THAT THE CLOUD IS NOT GOING TO BE A ZERO- ZERO-SUM GAME AND THE AGE OF CLOSED SYSTEMS AND TRYING TO TO, IN EFFECT, HOTHOUSE DEVELOPERS INTO COMMITTING TO A CLOSED ECOSYSTEM ARE OVER. WE CAN’T SUCCEED UNLESS YOU SUCCEED AND I THINK GOOGLE RECOGNIZES THAT AND THAT’S THE GENUINE REASON WHY I’M HERE TODAY AND WHY WOVEN CHOSEN TO MAKE THIS PARTNERSHIP HAM. WITH SERVICES RANGE ING FROM MACHINE LEARNING SIMULATIONS THAT CAN BE ADDED INTO OUR TECH TO INTEGRATIONS WITH SERVICES LIKE YouTUBE WHICH WE’LL BE TALKING MORE ABOUT THIS YEAR THAT ARE GOING TO MAKE OUR TECHNOLOGY EVEN MORE FUNCTIONAL AND EVEN MORE USEFUL TO YOU. SO I’VE TALKED A LOT ABOUT WHAT’S POSSIBLE BUT I HAVEN’T SHOWN YOU ANYTHING REALLY COOL YET SO I WANT TO SHOW YOU SOMETHING THAT WE BUILT IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE U.K. GOVERNMENT. IT’S BEEN PRETTY SECRET UNTIL JUST BASICALLY THIS WEEK. AND I’M FINALLY ABLE TO SHOW IT TO YOU THIS IS THE LARGEST SIMULATION OF ITS KIND EVER CREATED. THIS IS A COMPLETE SIMULATION OF AN ENTIRE U.K. CITY. IT’S TELCO NETWORK, ITS POWER GRID, ITS TRANSPORT NETWORK, ITS SEWAGE SYSTEMS, ITS HOUSING DEMOGRAPHICS, EVEN THE WAY IN WHICH PEOPLE MOVE AROUND AND INTERACT WITH THE CITY. WE’RE GOING TO BE OPEN SOURCING SOME OF THIS CONTENT LATER THIS YEAR THIS RUNS ON THOUSANDS OF CORES AND IT’S ABLE TO RUN IN REAL TIME USING UNITY FOR VISUALIZATION AND INTERACTION WITH THE SIMULATION. THIS IS ALREADY STARTED TO TRANSFORM THE WAYS WE LOOK AT CASCADING FAILURE IN EMERGENT SYSTEMS CHANGE HOW WE DO INFRASTRUCTURE PLANNING, CHANGE HOW WE THINK ABOUT RUNNING SERVICES, AND MY CONTENTION TO YOU TODAY IS THAT THIS IS THE FUTURE FOR HOW WE’RE GOING TO LOOK AT HOW ALL THE SYSTEMS IN OUR WORLD OPERATE NOT JUST LOOKING AT PAST DATA BUT RECREATING THEM, RETHINKING HOW WE CAN MAKE THIS WHAT IF DECISIONS. THERE’S EVEN COMPANIES THAT ARE BEGINNING TO USE SPATIAL TO RUN SYSTEMS OF AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES, BEING ABLE TO MANAGE THEM AS FLEETS SO I WANT TO LEAVE YOU WITH AN IDEA. THIS THING HERE, AI, GOOGLE TALKS ABOUT IT ALL THE TIME. YOU CAN’T GO ON TECHCRUNCH WITHOUT SEEING AN AI ARTICLE. BUT THIS IDEA, R ECREATING REALITY, BUILDING REALITY SCALE SIMULATIONS AND SERVICES, IS JUST AS IMPORTANT, AND I BELIEVE IT’S GOING TO UNDERPIN HOW OUR WORLD IS GOING TO TRANSFORM, WHETHER IT’S S IMULATIONS OF TUMORS IN CELLS THAT CAN HELP US UNDERSTAND DISEASE OR MODELS OF INFRASTRUCTURE THAT CAN HELP US SAVE MONEY AND MAKE BETTER CHOICES SO WITH YOUR HELP AND THE ABILITY TO BUILD AN OPEN COMMUNITY ON OUR TECHNOLOGY, WE HOPE TO KICKSTART THIS. IF YOU’RE EXCITED PLEASE CHECK OUT WHAT WE HAVE ON LINE. YOU CAN DOWNLOAD OUR SDK RIGHT NOW AND GET STARTED MAKING GAMES. THANK YOU. WILL [ APPLAUSE ] Alison Wagonfeld:

HI. LET’S GIVE A ROUND OF APPLAUSE TO WILL, WILLEM, AND HER MAN WHO ARE DOING SUCH GREAT WORK ON THE CLOUD [ APPLAUSE ] IF YOU WERE HERE ON WEDNESDAY, YOU PROBABLY HEARD ONE OF OUR MANY EXCITING ANNOUNCEMENTS, THAT WE AT GOOGLE HAVE ACQUIRED KAGGLE. SO I’M THRILLED TO BE ABLE TO INVITE THE CEO ON STAGE WITH US NOW TO SHARE A FEW THOUGHTS ABOUT WHAT THAT MEANS PLEASE JOIN ME IN WELCOMING ANTHONY GOLDBLOOM [ APPLAUSE ] Alison Wagonfeld: HEY, ANTHONY THANK YOU SO, ANTHONY, WHEN WE FIRST MET A COUPLE OF YEARS AGO WE TALKED ABOUT KAGGLE AS BEING THIS GREAT PLACE FOR MACHINE LEARNING COMPETITION. AND THEN WHEN WE CONNECTED MORE RECENTLY, I GOT TO LEARN ABOUT SOME OF THE GREAT NEW INNOVATIONS AND WHERE THE COMPANY IS GOING. CAN YOU SHARE A LITTLE BIT ABOUT THE EVOLUTION OF KAGGLE? Anthony Goldbloom: , YEAH, SURE ALISON, AS YOU SAID, KAGGLE STARTED OUT RUNNING MILLION COMPETITIONS. STILL, I SUSPECT THAT’S THE THING WE’RE MOST WELL-KNOWN FOR. WE WANT TO BE THE PLACE WHERE DATA SCIENTISTS DO ALL OF THEIR DATA SCIENCE SO IN AUGUST LAST YEAR WE LAUNCHED AN OPEN DATA PLATFORM SO THIS IS A PLACE — WE HAVE A VERY LARGE COMMUNITY. AND THIS IS A PLACE WHERE THEY CAN SHARE AND COLLABORATE ON OPEN DATAS SO PEOPLE IN OUR COMMUNITY WILL PUBLISH DATASETS THROUGH THIS PLATFORM. WE HAVE EVERYTHING FROM VERY GRANULAR REAL ESTATE DATASETS FROM AROUND THE U.S THROUGH TO — I THINK WE HAVE DATASETS ON ALL CONTEST ANTS FOR THE FIRST IT 1 SEASONS OF “THE BACHELORETTE.” IT TURNS OUT OUR USERS HAVE ECLECTIC TASTE. WE HAVE LAUNCHED KAGGLE KERNELS, THIS ALLOWS DATA SCIENTISTS TO TRAIN MODELS USING PYTHON AND SHARE THEM IN AN EASY REPRODUCIBLE WAY. IF YOU WANTED TO PREDICT WHO’S GOING TO WIN SEASON 22 OF THE BACHELORETTE, RATHER THAN START WITH A BLINKING CURSOR, YOU CAN SEE WHAT OTHERS IN OUR COMMUNITY HAVE ALREADY DONE Alison Wagonfeld: THAT’S SO GREAT. I LOVE HOW KERNELS ARE REALLY A GREAT EVOLUTION OF KAGGLE. I’M EXCITED TO SEE HOW THE COMMUNITY WILL NOW ENGAGE WITH THAT I KNOW ALL OF US AT GOOGLE ARE VERY EXCITED TO HAVE YOU AS PART OF OUR TEAM. AND I’M INTERESTED TO HEAR FROM YOU ABOUT WHAT IT MEANS TO KAGGLE TO BE PART OF GOOGLE Anthony Goldbloom: ABSOLUTELY I THINK THIS IS GOING TO BE HUGE FOR OUR COMMUNITY. SO IF YOU THINK ABOUT MACHINE LEARNING, HISTORICALLY MACHINE LEARNING HAS — FIRST OF ALL, WE HAVE A VERY LARGE COMMUNITY IT’S ABOUT 850,000. THEY SHARE LOTS OF DATASETS AND LOTS OF KAGGLE KERNELS, LOTS OF CODE WITHIN KAGGLE. IF YOU LOOK WHERE MACHINE LEARNING WAS A FEW YEARS AGO WITH DATA SCIENCE, IT WAS MOSTLY TRAINING RANDOM FORESTS AND REGRESSION WHICH YOU CAN DO ON A SINGLE MACHINE MACHINE LEARNING HAS EVOLVED IT’S FAR MORE SOPHISTICATED NOW AND DO MORE POWERFUL THINGS. IN JOINING WITH GOOGLE, WE GIVE OUR COMMUNITY ACCESS TO THE WORLD’S MOST ADVANCED MACHINE LEARNING CLOUD. SO WE’RE GOING TO ENABLE FAR, FAR, FAR MORE OUR COMMUNITY TO DO FAR MORE POWERFUL THINGS. I THINK IT’S GOING TO BE A VERY EXCITING JOURNEY WITH YOU GUYS Alison Wagonfeld: GREAT. THANK YOU SO MUCH. I’M REALLY LOOKING FORWARD TO WORKING TOGETHER Anthony Goldbloom: THANK YOU VERY MUCH Alison Wagonfeld: THANK YOU [ APPLAUSE ] SO WE BELIEVE THAT COMPETITION INSPIRES CREATIVITY. AND IN THAT SPIRIT, I HAVE ONE FINAL ANNOUNCEMENT TO MAKE HERE AT GOOGLE CLOUD NEXT WE ARE ANNOUNCING A MACHINE LEARNING START-UP COMPETITION SO THAT WE CAN WORK WITH ALL OF YOU TO THINK ABOUT HOW WE CAN CONTINUE TO GROW AND BUILD AND CREATE GREAT COMPANIES SO WHAT DOES THAT MEAN? WELL, HERE IS THE ENTRY CRITERIA THIS COMPETITION IS OPEN TO EARLY-STAGE START-UPS. AS THE NAME WOULD SUGGEST, ALL IMPLEMENTING MACHINE LEARNING BUT NOT JUST GOOGLE CLOUD’S MACHINE LEARNING BUT ANY MACHINE LEARNING IN OUR SPIRIT OF OPENNESS AND, FINALLY, THIS IS OPEN TO ANY VERTICAL FROM ENERGY, TO RETAIL, TO HEALTHCARE. WE ARE EXCITED TO WORK WITH START-UPS OF ALL KINDS AND IN ALL SPACES, THINKING ABOUT HOW TO LEVERAGE MACHINE LEARNING TO BUILD GREAT THINGS AND AS FOR THE PRIZES, THERE’S TWO SETS OF PRIZES. THE FIRST FROM GOOGLE. SO GOOGLE IS GOING TO BE OFFERING UP TO $1 MILLION OF GCP CREDITS. ACTUALLY NOT UP TO 1 MILLION — $1 MILLION OF GCP CREDITS TO THE WINNER IN ADDITION, WE ARE OFFERING THE OPPORTUNITY TO WORK ONE-ON-ONE WITH OUR GOOGLE ENGINEERS TO CONTINUE TO BUILD AND TUNE YOUR MODELS. AND, OF COURSE, G SUITE SEATS. BUT BEYOND GOOGLE’S PRIZES, I’M EXCITED THAT WE HAVE PRIZES FROM ANOTHER COMMUNITY

AND THAT’S VC PARTNERS. WE TEAMED UP WITH SEVEN GREAT FIRMS, SEQUOIA, KPCB, GV, DATA COLLECTIVE, EMERGE CAPITAL GREYLOCK PARTNERS WHO ARE SUPPORTING THIS COMPETITION AND HOT OFF THE PRESS, TWO OF THESE FIRMS HAVE NOW STEPPED FORWARD, DATA COLLECTIVE AND EMERGENCE CAPITAL TO OFFER INVESTMENTS TO THE WINNER SO EACH OF THESE FIRMS IS PLANNING TO OFFER $500,000 TO THE WINNER OF THIS START-UP COMPETITION SO NOW I’M PLEASED TO WELCOME ON STAGE PARTNERS FROM EACH OF THESE TERMS, SANTI SUBOTOVSKY FROM EMERGENCE CAPITAL AND MATT OCKO FROM DATA COLLECTIVE WHO ARE GOING TO SHARE A LITTLE BIT ABOUT WHAT THEY ARE LOOKING FOR WHEN THEY THINK ABOUT MACHINE LEARNING START-UPS. PLEASE JOIN ME IN WELCOMING SANTI AND MATT [ APPLAUSE ] Alison Wagonfeld: MATT, GREAT TO HAVE YOU HERE. HEY, SANTI FIRST OF ALL, THANK YOU FOR TEAMING UP WITH US. I’M REALLY EXCITED ABOUT THIS COMPETITION AS YOU KNOW, I HAVE A BACKGROUND IN VENTURE AND I LOVE WORKING WITH EARLY-STAGE COMPANIES. ALL OF US DO AT GOOGLE AND SO I WANTED TO GIVE EACH OF YOU AN OPPORTUNITY TO SHARE WHAT YOU’RE EXCITED ABOUT AND WHAT YOU’RE LOOKING FOR IN THESE EARLY-STAGE ML COMPANIES. MATT, LET’S START WITH YOU Matt Ocko: OKAY. SO TO UNDERSTAND WHAT WE’RE LOOKING FOR, FIRST YOU HAVE TO UNDERSTAND A LITTLE BIT ABOUT OUR FIRM. VCs ARE FOND OF SAYING WE MANAGE $10 BILLION OR, YOU KNOW, WE WERE THE FIRST INVESTORS IN GENENTECH OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT. I WILL SIMPLIFY IT WE HAVE A DOUBLE HANDFUL OF PARTNERS WHO INVEST IN US. OUR LIMITED PARTNERS AGGREGATE ABOUT A TRILL DOLLARS OF LIQUID CAPITAL AND THEY ENTRUST US WITH A REASONABLE PERCENTAGE OF THAT TO BACK AMBITIOUS IDEAS FROM FOLKS LIKE YOURSELF WHAT WE’RE LOOKING FOR BROADLY ARE PEOPLE ATTEMPTING THE IMPOSSIBLE. WE’RE NOT INTERESTED IN APPS. WE’RE NOT INTERESTED IN WIDGETS. WE INVEST IN WHAT’S CLOAKALLY COLLOQUIALLY KNOWN AS DEEP TECH. I GREW UP IN A DARK, POLLUTED TIME, NOT TODAY, THE 1970s, WHEN A ONE MEGAHERTZ PROCESSOR WAS A THING OF WONDER AND 16K OF RAM WAS A BLESSING I WATCHED MY GREAT UNCLE SPEND A YEAR AT STANFORD SEQUENCING A SINGLE GENE. WHEN THE SPACE SHUTTLE LAUNCHED, EVEN WHEN IT ROLLED OUT OF THE HANGAR, WITH THE WORD “ENTERPRISE” ON IT, MY NERD’S HEART LEPT WITH JOY THESE WERE CRUDE, PAINFUL THINGS RELATIVE TO WHAT WE HAVE IN HAND NOW. AND THANKS TO MOHR’S LAW, THANKS TO SELF-REINFORCING VIRTUOUS CYCLE OF ALGORITHMIC INNOVATION, WE HAVE THE ABILITY TO EXPONENTIALLY GO BEYOND WHAT I GREW UP WITH, WHAT WAS TRUE IN THE PAST WE’RE LOOKING FOR PEOPLE WHO APPLY DEEP COMPUTE, DEEP TECH, NOVEL ALGORITHMS, PROPRIETARY DATA TO ATTACK THE IMPOSSIBLE IN GIGANTIC INDUSTRIES AND CREATE MULTIDECADE MONOPOLIES. THAT’S HOW WE MAKE OUR MONEY, BUT THAT’S ALSO — AS HACKNEYED AS THIS PHRASE MAY BE, MAKE THE WORLD A BETTER PLACE. AND WHAT WE’RE LOOKING FOR IS PEOPLE WHO WILL ACCEPT THAT CHALLENGE, WILL RISE TO THAT CHALLENGE, AND MAKE SOMETHING GREAT Alison Wagonfeld: THANK YOU SO MUCH, MATT [ APPLAUSE ] Santi Subotovsky: SO, THANK YOU, ALISON. WE ARE SUPER THRILLED TO BE PARTNERING WITH GOOGLE AND WITH DATA COLLECTIVE ON THIS COMPETITION. JUST TO GIVE YOU A LITTLE BIT OF BACKGROUND, AT EMERGENCE, WE HAVE BEEN INVESTING IN ENTERPRISE CLOUD COMPANIES FOR THE LAST 15 YEARS AND AS EARLY BELIEVERS, WE SAW THIS MASSIVE TECTONIC SHIFT FROM CLIENT SERVER TO THE CLOUD NOW WE BELIEVE WE’RE STARTING TO SEE ANOTHER MASSIVE CHANGE WITH ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE OF MACHINE LEARNING AND IT’S GOING TO HAPPEN IN THE NEXT TEN YEARS. WE BELIEVE IT’S GOING TO EFFECT EVERY PROCESS WITHIN THE ENTERPRISES. AND THE WAY WE THINK ABOUT THIS IS MOST ENTERPRISE CLOUD COMPANIES ARE TAKING WORKFLOWS AND MOVING THEM TO THE CLOUD. WITH MACHINE LEARNING AND OUR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, WE FEEL THAT WE CAN START BENDING THOSE WORKFLOWS AND CLOSING THE LOOP AND CREATING WHAT WE CALL A COACHING CLOUD, WHERE YOU CAN

CLOSE THE LOOP AND AUTOMATICALLY THE SYSTEM GETS BETTER AND BETTER EVERY TIME A NEW WORKFLOW IS BEING PROCESSED WE’RE EXCITED BECAUSE WE BELIEVE THAT THAT HAS THE POTENTIAL OF DISRUPTING THE NOW INCUMBENTS OF THE CLOUD IF THEY DON’T MOVE FAST ENOUGH. THAT’S WHAT WE LIKE TO DO. I MEAN, WE LIKE TO BUILD GREAT THINGS WITH OUR ENTREPRENEURS AND IN TERMS OF THE AREAS WE SEE THIS HAPPENING, JUST THINK ABOUT WHETHER THERE’S A TON OF DATA AND WHERE THERE’S HUMAN INTERACTION. THINK OF, I DON’T KNOW, LOW-HANGING FRUIT, CRM, CUSTOMER SUCCESS, MARKETING, A TON OF DATA AND A LOT OF REPEATED PROCESSES THAT SHOULD BE GETTING BETTER AND BETTER AUTOMATICALLY AS YOU CLOSE THIS LOOP AND WE’RE ALSO EXCITED BECAUSE WE DID SOMETHING SIMILAR TEN YEARS AGO. AND THE WINNER OF THAT COMPETITION WAS A COMPANY CALLED SERVICE MAX THAT RECENTLY GOT ACQUIRED BY GE FOR ABOUT A BILLION DOLLARS. SO WE EXPECT TO REPLICATE THAT OUTCOME WITH GOOGLE AND DATA COLLECTIVE IN AN EVEN MORE MEANINGFUL WAY Alison Wagonfeld: THAT SOUNDS GREAT BECAUSE WE WERE THINKING ABOUT INVESTING BETWEEN ALL OF US $2 MILLION IN THE WINNER AND A BILLION DOLLAR OUTCOME IS SOMETHING I’M SURE EVERYBODY WOULD LOVE TO SEE. SO THANK YOU VERY MUCH Santi Subotovsky: THANK YOU Matt Ocko: PLEASURE [ APPLAUSE ] Alison Wagonfeld: AND THIS BRINGS US TO THE END OF OUR KEYNOTE FOR GOOGLE CLOUD NEXT IT HAS BEEN AN INCREDIBLE THREE DAYS. ON WEDNESDAY, WE HAD THE OPPORTUNITY TO HEAR FROM GOOGLE LEADERS AND ENTERPRISE COMPANIES THAT ARE TRULY ENGAGING AND BUILDING WITH GOOGLE CLOUD AND USING G SUITE TO REALLY COLLABORATE IN THEIR ORGANIZATIONS YESTERDAY WE SAW — GOT TO LISTEN TO OVER TWO DOZEN PRODUCT ANNOUNCEMENTS AND EXCITING GROWTH AREAS IN OUR PRODUCTS AND SAW DEMOS OF THOSE. IF YOU DIDN’T CATCH THEM LIVE, BE SURE TO LOOK AT THEM ON YOUTUBE AND THEN TODAY I REALLY ENJOYED HEARING ABOUT THE OPEN CLOUD COMMUNITY AND HOW START-UPS ARE BUILDING WITH GOOGLE CLOUD I WANT TO GIVE YOU A MOMENT AND A LITTLE INFORMATION ABOUT SOME FUTURE EVENTS COMING UP. SO WE’RE GOING TO BE GOING GLOBAL WITH GOOGLE CLOUD NEXT, LONDON AND TOKYO. AND THEN PLEASE SAVE THE DATE FOR 2018 BACK HERE IN SAN FRANCISCO AND, FINALLY, I WANT TO THANK ALL OF US WHO YOU WHO HAVE BEEN HERE AND ENGAGING WITH US OVER THE PAST THREE DAYS AND A BIG THANK YOU TO ALL THE GOOGLERS THAT HAVE HELPED BRING THIS ALL. ON BEHALF OF EVERYONE AT GOOGLE CLOUD WHAT REALLY INSPIRES US AND MOTIVATES US IS BRINGING GREAT TECHNOLOGY TO MARKET AND THINKING ABOUT WHAT ALL OF US CAN BUILD TOGETHER SO THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR BEING PART OF THIS GREAT CONFERENCE AND I’D LIKE TO CLOSE WITH A PHOTO MONTAGE OF SOME OF MY FAVORITE MOMENTS OVER THE LAST