Drivers of deforestation and forest degradation: A synthesis report for REDD+ Policymakers

the first thing I want to do is just thank our funders the government of Norway and the United Kingdom for supporting this work the really what we’re going to do today is just take you on a journey of the issue of drunk drivers as Steve mentioned we’re going to hear from some countries specifically and you know really we’re hoping that for the second half of this we can really engage all of you discussing this issue so welcome your input and your ideas I also just want to recognize Nikki DC Nikki maybe you’d like to stand up she was the other coke co-author with us welcome so the primary reason that we are here is in the cancun decision the cop requested the substa to identify land use land use change in forestry activities in developing countries in particular those that are linked to the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation identify the associated methodological issues to estimate emissions and removals resulting from these activities assess potential contribution of these activities to the mitigation of climate change and report on the findings and outcomes of this work to the cop 18 so this is timely it’s important for us to to spend some time on this issue we will hear from Peter Graham substa co-chair later on substance ideas about drivers and some of the actions potentially to happen there so we’ll look forward to Peters comments and this really is is why we’re here today so I’m gonna hand it over to Martin so we’re really so Martin is going to quickly go over the assessment of current drivers I will after he speaks I will talk a little bit about the future drivers and Martin is also going to take us through the role of drivers in national forest monitoring and in developing forest reference levels so now I’m gonna turn it over to Martin Thank You Gabi good afternoon everyone also from my side as already said I’m gonna start it off by giving a bit of a an overview of the current drivers and our drivers and drive analysis link also be to monitoring and reference levels so one may say more the technical side of the whole driver’s discussion firstly perhaps known but good to reiterate that if you talk about drivers we usually mean several things and particularly the scientific literature which often separated is between proximity direct drivers or causes which are direct human activities or immediate actions that change the forest or forest carbon versus underlying or indirect drivers and activities its direct activities of example you know could some piece of force been converted by agriculture for subsistence for example it’s a direct act activity whereas the other line course is demand for food for example all related popular population growth so these direct drivers are more specific things that can be often linked also to a specific location whereas these underlying drivers are usually a complex interaction between social economic political cultural technological things and they’re often distanced from the actual change that we see in the landscape and that’s it’s also important to address them separately and I’ll come back to that but it’s direct drivers from a monitoring point of view they are easier to assess then and sometimes the link between direct and underlying are sometimes not very easy sometimes it’s pretty clear but sometimes it’s not very easy but oftentimes this is underlying ones that are very important that need to be addressed in particular some somebody has the intention to change behavior or reduce the impact or activities of specific driver drivers so these two you will also see that differentiation throughout to talk so we talk about current drivers we did an assessment of a series of reports that have been provided by countries as part of the red plus readiness the background is if you look at a scientific literature you’ll find a lot of studies that looked at drivers locally or continentally comparing different situations you do find very

little on drivers on the national level and that is because perhaps countries were never really asked to look into drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in the past it’s kind of a new thing one good thing and so that’s why they’re just starting up and actually get a gathering data to actually try to assess what travels are active how important they are and how did that could link to actual policy so we try to put together these sources there are pins the rpps c4 country profiles there’s a couple of studies that have been done and tried to put that together we may ended up getting data for 46 countries which 46 not annex 1 countries which in total is almost 80 percent of the total for forest area and you’ll find some result in the report but there’s also scientific paper that is it’s an environmental research others that is explaining that in a bit more detail if people are interested in a technical detail so I’m going to go to the results if we look at deforestation it can be talking about direct and proximate drivers so we have five different ones that we lumped basically together different two types of agricultural mining infrastructure and urban expansion this is summed up to 100% for the different continents Africa Latin America and subtropical asia and what you see is just compared at that agricultural particular commercial actor is very dum-dum dominant and particularly that in America and then followed by local on subsistence small hold on okay Aggie agriculture this is basically summed up to 100 percent if you do the same graph but just impose the net forest change that you get out of there for your Friday there you see actually the importance of drivers but then by net forest change it’s basically net force loss for developing countries for the very most part is that you see Latin America has the largest amount of forest loss and that’s why the commercial agriculture being very important there are also pops up to be very important there so what you see about a key culture is estimated to be responsible for about 80 percent or most important in all of AD 80% for deforestation world worldwide it’s very prominent Latin America costing about 2/3 whereas in Africa in subtropical asia you see about it in almost equal distribution between commercial and subsistence agriculture whereas the other ones of minor importance if you look at degradation again it’s the same graph 100% three different continents and four different categories and you see in blue that is logging timber logging which is most important in subtropical asia and latin america less important in africa where in fact few wood and charcoal charcoal are the most important drivers an active day I mean these results kind of make sense and they in fact somewhat comparable what you get out of the out of the liberal so but these assessments was kind of the first try to really put that together from kind of using national data when it comes to the underlying driver stick what the countries report is quite variable and since gabby is going to come back to that a bit perhaps the most important underlying ones economic growth population growth and it related demand for timber and aquaculture products the key thing is that in the future they all kind of expected to grow now which is very important to notice what is also reported by countries is oftentimes big forest sector governance institutions conflicting pala policies or the former from other sectors and tenure issues also that’s maybe not too big of a surprise that these things show up there but that seems to be important things related to causing forest forest change but Gabby we’ll come back to that a bit later on I’d like to talk to any bit about the role of drivers national force monitoring and there are as I said it’s a bit of a new data stream that countries are starting to explore and use as part of their red plus readiness but there are important data countries it’s lots of benefits of countries to understand what drivers are active and who and where and and and and why it’s important for defining inter interventions if you planning red plus interventions you do want to address the drivers most drivers are in fact outside of the forest sector so it’s also an important pathway to engage with non forest sectors so important to track them over time in particular to assess impacts of met mitigation it’s also important understanding the drivers in terms of finding priorities on how to set up your monitoring and mov system I’ll come back to that a bit later it’s important for reference levels particularly fun things about adjusting and reflecting national circumstances and but we have to realize that assessing drivers is an additional requirement so it does require additional resources in addition to estimating emissions for example so that’s that’s something that has to be note being be noted but ideally both

should be very well integrated so if we looked at these countries and you compare the quality of travel data reported and you see that here in the Y in basically the vertical axis and we have different quality indicators for driver data one as countries would only list the drivers second quality of what countries would actually rank them and the third one what country would actually provide quantitative data like 50% of our deforestation is caused by this activity for example and that’s the quality criteria and if you compare that to the forest area change monitoring capacity there was success out of the FAO FRA you do see that’s quite a correlation between the two that so if countries have good data on forest area change they oftentimes have a pretty good understanding also on on the direct drivers that are related to these changes there are also some deviations or we have countries that have good forest area change capacity area change monitoring capacity but don’t with good data on driver states where an example where countries could actually build upon their forest area change monitoring and interpret drivers as an additional variable for example and you also have situations where countries have low force area change monitoring capacity but have good travel data which is a good example where I say that the two monitoring things are not very well integrated or that a coordination could could actually help to fill that fill that gap but so what are some of these methods what we learn from here is that if you have could follow serie change assessments so examples remote sensing and not and then analysis you could interpret for example the follow-up land-use and the kind of things that happen to the to the piece of land that after after some forest change event has actually happened you can use special context location other features such as road networks or changing road network settlements they can help in the interpretation very important it’s local and regional knowledge so the input from ground observations from people on the ground such as communities local experts landowners actors in the in the forest forest world do you really have to be there really very important that to not to interpret the kind of changes that are on ongoing the landscapes it’s very little work has been done in actually assessing how much greenhouse gas emissions are caused by a specific driver that’s something that is really starting out there’s just one paper it just recently came out that really looked at that on a global level so that’s really two starting up at on the national level there’s very little on on that and we have to also realize that some where you may consider drivers of forests of land uses such as a key cultural besides the fact that they cause we discuss emission by converting forests the owner also calls greenhouse gas emissions by themselves such as agriculture for example livestock or forest fires sorry agriculture fires or specific type of rice for example so that’s also something that has but this is commonly separate so here’s one example this is the forest area change data from Indonesia from 99 from 2000 2009 you see this is user set it’s a lot I just interpreted the first change and also it to predict the follow-up land-use to that force change the word respect or something is local subsistence agriculture commercial agricultural urban in the infrastructure so you could if you use for example satellite time series to analyze your forests change then you can do interpret the follow-up land-use that’s not an easy interpretation you need to a lot of local knowledge a lot of regional knowledge that they can goes into that but it can be done and that’s when if you see countries that have good data on drives on the national level that they usually use that kind of is that kind of approach I also mentioned that it’s very important when you think about drivers and monitoring approaches and data so want to show an example where you have carbon stocks on the y-axis and time and if you have a primary forest and the carbon stocks associated with the primary forest and you have a deforestation it’s a conceptual model the carbon stocks go down to a minimum level it’s kind of a permanent conversion for example to grazing land or things like that as the above-ground but if you have different things you can have natural regrowth you could have not deforestation but for example continuous looking which is more of a degradation or shifting cultivation you have different trajectories of carbon stocks which also link to different drivers and you would have to use different monitoring approaches in particular the use of field data versus remote sensing some of these balance really changes depending on what kind of main change processes you have ongoing so there is it’s important if you have a lot of activities a lot of one driver particularly active in specific areas that you can tune and and adjust your monitoring data and tools according to what driver is active so it really helps in that that that that regard in terms of underlying drivers again it was mainly on the proximate drivers the direct drivers that’s of not so easy to assess on a national level there’s been some studies to look at deforestation

patterns and underlying causes although that is important for reference levels for example it’s often very difficult so you see examples of statistical modeling incorporating different kinds of factors variables in the indicators and but of them also these data are not easily available they often come from other sectors so what you find is that the National national leader of not at the same place so there’s really fundamentally a data coordination and exchange task that has to be usually done for us to can actually try to get these data in to try to relate what you see as Divac drivers to those which related to the underlying ones and then recording the reference levels since the reference the force reference levels or immense emission levels is kind of the first key number the countries perhaps to provide good understanding on historical data and force change pattern and related underlying causes are important to reflect national circumstances and particularly to construct scenarios that deviate from the historical trend that’s very important to have a good understanding on drywall travel activities and whether the driver activities may actually change in the end of future you’re shown that driver data are quite scattered the quality is quite scattered variable among the different countries so as alter with other data sources many countries do not have very good data to actually do that at this point in point in time and I guess that’s one of the reasons why that the of a stepwise approach for reference levels have been proposed that’s one of these related proposals that have been made but you have different time of activity date or emission factor data but also the quality of the driver data and depending on what data you have available you can choose some methods to actually construct simple reference levels to begin with and as your data and assessments improve you may apply even more complex and more comprehensive and it in our analysis tools not going to go in all level of detail here but the point is that if you have poor data or data which are comparatively low in quality quality one can start to look into potential reference levels but any particular adjustments in modeling approaches should not be based on poor data so if you have if there’s poor data the data are not very good then it shouldn’t it’s not the idea to assess a complex modeling and keep things simple and only if you have good data and you can actually calibrate and validate your model into a good uncertainty analysis then it’s probably useful to do one more complex analysis so for example you take about step one reference level space for posea so for example two Guiana nobody on agreement also the empty Amazon font these are these kind of simple rule adjustments that you see that have been done using conservative factors or mainly driven by activity data that are being used at this point in time and I saw examples where you can start with what what you have and then really try to improve things as capacities improve stepwise redd+ national monitoring it’s also an issue here so if people are more interested in that there is a side event on Wednesday at 3 o’clock by sea phone call sea gold here at Convention Center there’s also a related report and there’s also the updated version of DaCosta called source book so if people are interested more in the mov and monitoring that national forest monitoring side certainly invite you guys to come and join for this event as well with that I would like to close and pass the ball back to Gabby so as we look at future drivers again it’s really important for us to think about the differences between direct drivers and those that are not direct that are that really sort of underlie the direct drivers one of the most important aspects of this is really economic growth based on the export of commodities and an overall increasing demand for agricultural and timber products really important to note and this is this is based on analysis that I did looking at 31 different country read plans as part of the UN read and F CPF so 31 countries and 93% of those identified weak forest sector governance issues as being critical these countries are also facing conflicting agricultural or mining sector frameworks and pot policies and a lot of countries again 93 percent have different activities that are not late legal that are very hard

for them to track so this is you know when we talk about I’ll speak in a few minutes about how do we address drivers this is this is a really critical issue and with the with the underlying drivers we also have to consider the you know that in in many countries again of the 31 countries that I looked at population growth is a large factor 51 percent of those countries reviewed are struggling with that poverty forty eight percent and insecure tenure is reported by forty eight percent of those countries forty-one percent of those countries are facing international direct drivers and market forces a lot of this is commodity based production also foreign direct in investment I have here some countries that reference agricultural export commodities as direct drivers don’t make the linkage to international and market forces as as important in in indirect drivers but in fact I would say its its most this is a huge challenge that countries face and I quickly want to just take take you through what the future trends look like so the important message here is that as we look over the past and we look at driver activity over the past ten years or the past twenty years those patterns in developing nations will not play out into the future in the same way these patterns will change one of the important aspects of that change is population growth especially the shift of people into urban areas will have eight point two billion people by 2030 and a lot of that population growth is going to be occurring in Africa with an extra two hundred thirty-five million by 2030 and Asia and the Pacific two hundred fifty five million when we look at population growth over the next twenty to thirty years we have this this growth period and then it levels off after about 2050 so when we about drivers where we’re really looking at incredible pressures coming over the next 20 to 30 years economic growth is an important way for us to understand driver pressure there will be quite a lot of growth in Brazil Russia India and China in the developing world about half of global economic growth is going to be occurring until or at least as projected through 2014 and one aspect of this is that mining and other commodities are you know as well going to be growing increasing pressures in those sectors again going back to our current drivers 80% of forest clearing is attributed to agricultural expansion and when we look to future trends this pressure is going to increase so overall we know that we’ll have about a 70% increase in demand for food products by 2050 critical commodities in the developing world such as oil seeds oil palm as well as meat and biofuels will all increase with the oil seeds you know some pretty expansive changes here 23 percent increase oil palm forty five percent increase in output Malaysia and in in Indonesia seeing almost 100 percent of that meat production increasing 85 percent in in volume of meat production by 2050 with the biofuel increase you know it it’s unclear exactly what these pressures will and we’re in a spatial sense this will play out but huge pressures here and wood products as well when we look at future trends the role of plant plantations is important and in fact most of our wood fiber will come from these by through 2020 and of course beyond but it’s important to note that 80 percent of the of the production

potential is located in the tropics and the southern part of our world another important trend looking at wood products really has to do with you know there have been tremendous gains made with import approaches trying to control the the flow of illegal wood and this has been successful however a lot of market demand for wood products will be coming from countries that do not have import controls so while recent efforts to stem illegal wood flows have succeeded we need to rethink how this plays out in those emerging economies and that will also have a huge impact on driver approaches as well another important future trend is looking at the use of fuel wood and charcoal so overall we’ve had a decrease of 175 million people being dependent on traditional fuel wood however in Africa especially in sub-saharan Africa will see a 34 percent increase in fuel wood use so huge print pressures there I’d like to spend a little bit of time going over the policy aspects of this how did how do drivers fit into red policy frameworks and what can be done we’re gonna focus first on national level approaches here and one of the most important themes that I want to share with you is that when we think about red policy approaches we need to be thinking about three different things so there are incentives and they’re disincentives and then enabling met measures that can be approached and oftentimes when we think about red weed we might think of one thing we might think about you know what incentives what red payments can actually stem forest clearing and what we’re finding from different activities happening around the world is that it really takes a bundle of these things to influence direct drivers and we also have policy approaches which are very important and in incentive based approaches so as we think about these tools you know these are all tools that at a national scale we can apply to affect drivers but in order to apply those we need to be thinking about the underlying drivers as well as direct drivers and attuning the development of these tools that we can apply to affect those and again this idea of you know you can’t just use one incentive or one enabling net measure we really need to think of these things as a as a mixture of different approaches that we’re going to apply in the report we spend a lot more time really describing different case studies of how this works again based on review of 31 national level read plans what I found is that 55 percent of those countries as they’re in the process of defining what their approach to red will look like and again these are you know when they submit their read plans they will still have to put this out for stakeholder review and you know these are not final plans but initial country plans are tending towards sustainable forest management as the most common approach countries are applying so 55% of countries are pursuing that 55% are pursuing fuel wood efficiency and cook stove approaches 45% looking at the sort of governance and enforcement aspects really critical 45% looking at community-based forest management approaches agroforestry and tenure and rights by 42 percent respectively cross-sectoral linkages importantly is it is looked at by 32% of those 31 countries and but that’s actually it’s it’s it’s a small number given what the pressure is and then again you know we have to think back to 80% of forest clearing is attributed to agriculture and especially commodity agricultural expansion and yet the approach to intensify agriculture as

part of a read approach is only referenced by 32% of those countries and another important linkage point here that I want to make is that when you intensify agricultural approaches it’s very important to directly in a in a read policy framework to make the linkage then to shifting expansion to areas that are not for forest lands but might be agricultural production lands that are that are already used abandoned or your low carbon stock air air areas and only 26 percent of those 31 national plans that I looked at are identifying that as an important part of their read plan and no country is linking those these two so no country in their read plan is specifically saying we’re going to intensify agricultural production and we’re going to directly then define through land-use planning how future expansion can occur on low carbon lands another really important aspect when we think about how incentives and enabling approaches can work is this issue of land tenure and 48% of countries reviewed are struggling with tenure issues and list that as a key factor that they need to address the illegal logging of course is also very important when we think about the tenure issue it’s very difficult to affect illegal activity if you don’t have secure 10th tenure and there’s been some recent work this was actually an amazing scan that Robinson at all produced last year looking at I think it was a hundred and eighty different circumstances where they they analyzed impacts on forests and the linkage to tent tenure and found that it’s it’s a really critical factor so going back to what Martin was describing it’s really important for countries pursuing Redd to begin to define information approaches that can measure driver activities and impacts a lot of countries are doing this right now they’re beginning to develop data countries are struggling with forestry data that doesn’t mesh with the agricultural sector data a lot of countries as they’re developing their national forest plans they don’t have data on different activities happening and have a hard time spatially identifying where activity happens and what those changes are over time so there’s a lot of information needs that that that are out there that need to be addressed and a lot of countries in there read plans are specifically asking for guidance they’re asking for land use change got guidance and they’re actually also asking in their read plans they’re asking for real real support and guidance on how to address this whole agricultural issue and data related to land use change how to develop the right approaches to that again going back to them shifting from the data and back to the policy framework here one really important message I would like to leave you with is that you know oftentimes we think about in red we think about the finance aspects you know we’re gonna develop the data and MRV systems and then we’re gonna get red finance up and going and we’re going to get payments for for for for emissions reduction approaches going and in order for that to happen to enable that to happen we need to address drivers we need to fundamentally figure out how red activities are going to shift drivers and when we think about applying red fight finance when we look at opportunity cost approaches we become challenged and the reason for that is that so many drivers out there especially you know oil palm is perhaps the most amazing example so the net present value of oil palm on a per hectare basis is six to nine thousand dollars US dollars but estimates of carbon credit in incentives it’s about

six to nine hundred dollars per hectare how are you going to compete you simply can’t if you’re using red finance alone as a way to affect your drunk drivers that’s why it’s so important to think beyond opportunity costs and to think about what other tools and levers you have to actually address this so a really important aspect then is to think about what laws you can affect and put into place different fiscal tools that can be applied public investments you know again the governance aspects enforcement tenure approaches there there are many different tools that need to be applied again it’s this concept of a whole mixture of different incentives disincentives and enabling approaches that need to be applied the other aspect I just want to leave you with here is this issue of applying approaches that are national in scale and one of the most important reasons for that is to is to address the whole leakage issue which when you’re doing a more local approach becomes very difficult to track that and tend to influence that I think in the in the essence of time I’m just gonna direct you to in the report we actually look at different examples of again how intensifying agricultural yields and output needs to be linked to approaches that reduce pressure on Fort Forest there are some great examples and there was some work that was recently done by the Prince’s international sustainability unit looking at Brazil Indonesia and Ghana I’d really encourage you to read through that some really important models there but again this idea that simply intensifying agricultural yields actually increases in most cases will increase pressure on Fort Forest so so let’s just skip over this I’ll just you know the I think that the the main point I just want to leave you with here is that there are examples out there of of how economic output can continue palm oil can continue in a way that does not decrease forest cut carbon stocks and and the key to that is really appropriately citing new expansion and different research in the Indonesian context in the Brazilian context really spent spatially identify how agricultural expansion can occur to meet market demand without compromising fort forests so this is this is just a very important message and the tool here is again for the policies for the incentives for the disincentives for the enabling approaches to be applied through land use planning through a mix of different read approaches to affect drivers and there are some fantastic case examples of the you know the this idea that to affect drivers you have to get out of the forest you have to look beyond the forest reset sector and look at agriculture look at mining look at the different sectors and bring the different sectors together in accra state in Brazil they’re in the process right now they’re actually creating it’s a it’s a whole statewide PES approach but it’s really defined as a statewide read approach that encompasses all of the different land uses it includes the full range of actors it’s really you know looking at small scale agricultural producers as well as large scale producers mining the forestry set sector and they’re bringing all of those actors together setting really emissions like you know targets for for each of these trying to nest that into their national read plan which is great and then defining the different policies and tools that can apply to effect drivers and from what we see right now Accra has a very

strong enforcement ability so it’s likely we’re gonna see some really tremendous work happening here when we look to affecting drivers we have to think about the different scales that driver activity happens at and the different actors that are involved so again because so much of the driver pressure comes from market fort forces we have to think about demand side and supply side tools there are some that that have been applied in the fort forestry space such as the EU flecked partnership agreements which have been very good have really stemmed the amount of of Meleager wood products we also have very important models of sourcing commitments these are national level sourcing commitments in oil palm and soy I’ll speak more about those in a minute and we really need to think about here how addressing one driver can affect others and I think with the with the the model of the a EU flecked approach what we’re seeing is that those countries that said we’re going to tackle this whole illegal logging issue and and they’ve done so in such a way that has actually affected their their whole governance and enforcement framework and has really built enforcement abilities so there have been some some great strengths and again with these supply and demand side approaches when we’re looking at international commodities there’s a lot of activity that’s starting to take place which is not reflected in a lot of or most-read plans so a lot of countries that are that are developing their red approaches are not referencing the fact that there are you know government facilitated commitments the Dutch and the u UK have have really led demand-side approaches here with oil palm as well as SOI sustainable wood commitments as well and those need to be brought in to read plans there are also import can controls different trade Accords that that can be applied there’s also a lot of interesting work happening especially with these commodities looking at roundtables and sustainability stem standards which can really influence commodity production the other aspect is is really the public and private sector commitments governments can do a lot to promote public private sector approaches that directly stem the amount of commodity production that impacts port forests there is also the Carbon Disclosure and area which from a finance a private sector finance approach can be a huge lever to affect driver approaches and the amount of pressure on forests one example is the global the Carbon Disclosure Project and and so again when we’re thinking about how do you intervene with drivers we’re thinking about if you start on the on the left hand side here you know we have the current drivers and then the the red arrow is the the red plan and a country’s ability to actually to do something about this – to try to address the driver pressures and that really needs to have enabling factors engaged needs to have the full suite of actors involved and these approaches need to address the needs at different scales so from the international scale to the national scale to a local scale and without bringing all of those pieces together the enabling factors the various actors and the levels in which you have to affect change it’s it’s unlikely that that that linkage back to affecting drivers you know so following that green arrow back over to the to the far left to effect drivers will not

happen success will not happen you need all of those things to be brought together to really affect the driver prep pressures so let’s conclude with what can we do about this what can substant and the cop do about this and what can national approaches to red do about this again going just to recap some of what martin mentioned you know a lot of countries are building data right now and they’re trying to track activity data and and they’re trying to just understand the scope and scale of drivers happening but I think one thought that I would like to leave you with is that countries don’t have to have perfect information in order to act a lot of nations out there that are beginning to develop data have enough of a sense of the scope and scale of the key drivers that they can begin to act now there’s no harm done and there are ways in which they can then track what the current activity is and what what the change is so very important to to begin addressing driver dret drivers now either really important message is as we look at how to intervene in drought drivers yes it’s important to look at what’s happening in the in the forestry space but it’s got to go beyond that it’s got to look at the different set sectors that really put pressure on for us and so when we design what an approach to affecting drivers looks like it needs to really bring agriculture mining the different sectors that are putting pressure on a forest bring those together and to figure out how to align interests the there there’s also a need to again just ensure that all of those critical aspects that will influence success of intervening in draught drivers such as you know enforcement abilities tenure combatting you know ill ill illegal activities transparency you know these are important things that you can do no wrong adds a country if you do nothing else and you begin to address these critical aspects you will you will increase your ability to succeed in effecting direct drivers and at the so looking beyond the national scale and again we look at you know commodity pressures and and cross-border pressures there are a lot of activities that can be engaged again countries are facing international driver pressure and they’re not prepared for it and they’re read plans countries are are looking for tools they’re looking for means by which they can track information here to share information between nations and they’re looking for tools that they can apply finance is a really important tool that that can be engaged as well as again as I as I mentioned before government facilitated approaches to influence commodity print pressures and you know this can again be related to roundtables purchasing commitments trade controls tariffs tax approaches there are a lot of different tools that can be applied here international information sharing is is critical countries are asking for this and I think it’s really important to figure out how to actually deliver on country needs here and the other thought I want to leave you with here is is that countries are as well struggling with how do they balance these linkages between red plus and broader approaches to adapting to climate change impacts and whether an agricultural approach under the UNFCCC emerges and how the agriculture and red space merges somehow and what information needs can be linked together to inform both you know creating data to inform decision making as well as creating the right policy frameworks to address it so I’d like to thank you very

much for joining us I’m gonna hand it over to Steve