"Sarge!" History Of NCO Documentary

dr nel >>ELLO. I’M ROGER MUDD WELCOME TO THEISRY CHANNEL SERGEANTS ARE E LINK BETWEEN THE OFFICER CORPS AND THE ENLISTED THEY VOW TO LEADY EXAMPLE, NEVER TO REQUIRE A SOLDI TO ATTEMPT ANY TASK THEY WOULD NOT DTHEMSELVES FROM THE BATTLEFIE EURE TO THE JUNGL OF SOUTHEAST ASIA, SERGEANTS HAVE BACKED UP THESE WORDS WITH ACTION MELIKE AIN YORK AND AUDIE MURPHY PROVED THEIR COURAGE UNDER FIRE, AND COUNESS OTRS PAID E ULMATE PCE FOR FREOM JOIN US NOW AS THE HISTORY CHANNEL ESENTS SARGE! >> Announcer: rgnts have been called thbackbo of the military The best sergets, it’s been said, have seen it all and done it all twice >> Leermey: I wave proud to have achieved the ranof sergeant I felt like Foghorn Leghorn I was thbiggest,addest chicken in the coop >> Narrator: In this two-hour special, we’ll separate Hollywd myth from battlefield reality We’lpresent some of the most famous sergets and see how the public’s pception squares with the truth >> Mort Walker: Sergeant Snorkel is mfavorite character He overdoes everything He overeats He overreacts He overcses >> Sergeant Bill True: I think I was a pretty good sergeant I learnefrom all of the sergeants that I had observed and, uh, admired Mainly I was doing what, uh, what I saw worked >> Narrator: We’ll explore the difficulties of being that person that occupies the ground between officers who lead and thprivates who follow, and we’lfind outhat makes the best sergean great >>ames Whitmore: They were psychologis, y know, in-in many ways They knew the buttons to push on the various guys in the outfit >> Narrator: All coming up next on “Sarge!” [Captiing sponsored by A&E Television Networks] >> Sergeant:urn ligh on rit now R-r-ro out Ten, nine, eight, seven, six, five, four, the! ( shouting ) >> Narrato His daytarts at 4:30 a.m >> Privates: Down on deck serving in the UniteStates Marine Corps, sir! >> Narrator: By 5:01, he’s g 60 g hear his every word and struggling to meet his every demand >> Sant: Your camouflaged trousersoming off right w >> Privates: All right, si >> Sergeant: 27, 26, 25 Faster, recruits 21, 20 Why slow?! Hurry up! You’re going too slow! You need to speed it up! You need to speed itp, y! Get those training trousers on now! Get them on! Faster! Faster! Faster! Sergeant 2: Put them on! Put them on! >> Serant: Faster! Faster! Zero! >> Pris: Rerun! >> Sergeant: Tell these recruits you want to get dressed If you want the drill struor to help you, we’ll be glad to help you That’s what we do Get down where you were! Get down where you were >> Private: Yes, sir >> Sergeant: That is zero! That means you freeze right where you are! >> Sant 2: Carry on >> Narrator: He’s a seeant And for a neMarine Cor cruit, his power may seem boundless >> Sergeant: Eight! >>rivates: Eight! >> Sergeant: Nine! >> Privates: Nine! >> Sergeant: Five! >> Privates: Five! >> Sergeant: Tell me what you should be! Privates: Tough, sir! >> Narrator: Sior Drill Instructor Sergeant Barney Tipps has a simple, crystal-clear mission: take young civilians and transform themnto basically trained Marines It’s aob that he and his staff do wh their entire heart and ul >> Tipps: The Marines aring here, you’reaking ur time That’s good It means everything to be a drill instructor Ever since was in boot camp, I respected them so much that wantedo be a drill instructor I think that’s theay most drill instructors fe is, uh, they get that firsdrill instructor, they say, “Yh, not just the power” and all that, but just I want to be squared away; I want tset the example want to train I want to make Marines and that’s big thing: make Marines Enjoy the intensity inour body? >> Private: Yes, sir! >> Tipps: You everlay football? >> Private: , sir! >> Tipps: You never played football? >> Private: No, sir! >> Tipps: I bet you played football on Nintendo, though, di’t you? >> Narrator: Sergeants are often called the “backbone” of the military, but an accurate description ofheir jobs much more complex The best sergeants fill a crucial role: they are a bridge, that all-important layer of flesh and blood that stands between the officers who lea and the privates who follow >> R. Lee Ermey: felt ,

uh, I d the most importantob in the world and, yes, responsibility. Oh, yes Every platoon haa sergeant The officers are the onewho make theecisions on what nds to be ne, d the sergeants see to it that it getsone It’s as simple athat It’s the way, the way it wos >> James Whitmore: I became a lieutenant in the Marine Cps in World War II, and I relied on sergeant and, uh, I had a number of sergeantspeak their nd to mehen I became an officer, and I didn’like it, but I had to accept it, because they were right >> Larry Sutherland: In Vietnam, you would find they didn’t go home at nit They went the same barracks you did You lived wi them l e time You showered right alongside of them What youou outas is that the ones that were administrators and just pencil jocks, those got separated from theeal men and the real leaders pretty fast >> ( sergeant sutincadence >> Narrator: Typically, sergeants begin their care as a new reuit– at the rank of prive Those privates whohopromise are promoted to Private Firs Class, then to Corporal Each promotion earns them more pa more responsibility and another stripe The next step,he rank of sergeantis a significant milestone It’s a clear indication an individuacan lead With expernce and time, a new sergeant can rise through a whole hierarchy of sergeant ranks, sucas staff sergeant, te sergeant, master sergeant and gunnery sergeant Sergeantajor othe Marine Corps, Alfred McMichael, has been a Mine r 30 years He wears t stripes of the Marines’ highest-ranng sergeant >> McMichael: America hears the name sergean and they know that it means a position of authority They know that you’re inharge of something I can’t tell you how my times I’ve, uh, walked through an airport been seen in uniform, they mot know the level of, of what that sergeant, staff sergeant, gunny sergeant, master gunnery serant, whateveray be, but they know you’re a sergeant ey see those three stripes and to t that is a position of authority That is someonthat has responsibili, and they he a special name for us: Sarge >> Narrato Wt the Army, the Air Force and the Mane Corps call serts, the Navy and the Coast Guard call Petty Officer Sergeants and Petty Officers are also known as Noncommissned Officers or NCOs Regardlessf what brah of the service they are from, the basic responsibility of NCO remains the same: train, to discipline and to ensure the welfare of tir troops, tpass on the knowledge that lets warriors w wars Throughout history, different types of sergeants– the hard father, the lone hero, theest friend– have been held up as examples or chetypeso show what a good sergeant is– or should be >>your way, soldier See you later >> Narrator: In World War I, Sergeant Alvin Yorwas the solo sergeant whose heroics saved his platoon His name became synonymous wh the rank, and today he is still emuled by many as the ideal sergeant >> Sergeant Major James Keenan That sergeant hato be a role model for this kid We don’t have the luxury of saying, “Wl, I’m not somedy’s role model.” That exactly what sergeants are Th’re modeling the Sergeant Yorks >> Narrator: Hollywood has also tried to capture the essence of the sergeant Over the years, filmmakers have brought to the scrn a variety of sergeants >> How far are they? >> Hold the one I’ll letou talk to them >> Narrator: From Seeant Aud Murphy, the reluctant hero who played his own life story in To Hell and Back >> But I’m going out there and get that guy, and the only w you can stop me is to kill me >> That’s just what I’llo >> Narrator: …to John Wayne, who played Sergeant John M Stryker, the condent, unambiguous, tough guy sergeant in Sands of Iwo Jima… there is no shortage of Hlywood sergeant archetypes >> Nobody’s into do nothing >> Narrar: But all of them– real or fiction– are attempts to understand the basic strugg of the sergeant: how bt to take orders from t officers and carry th out witthe troops >> John Milius: The sergeant has the worst dilemma of a because he receives the order to engage the enemy He has to get men to kill each other Everyby else, it’s an order that can be passed on to somebo else He has to directly order the

grunt to attacthe other guy , that’s why a great sergeant is revered at a far eater capacity than anything but probably the greatt of genera >> Ed Zwick: Officers, becse they’re obliged to btactical or strategic, they te a long view, and I think that eisted men, because there looking at, you kn, one yard odirt in front of them, are taking a very short view, and I think that the sergeant is obliged in the shape of things to be the realist– someone trying to actually see a whole and mplete picture, and to a dramatistthat’s very appealing >> Hi ya, Sarge >> Narrator: Some represent the coc sidef the sergea’s struggle..li the verable Sergeant Snorkel who spends his life trying to shape the irrepressie Beetle Bailey into a fightingachine >> Mort Walker: Sergeant Snorkel is my voriteharacter He overdoes everything He oveat overreacts He overcusses and he’s ad of women He’s so dyed-ithe-wool Army that when he occasiolly goes town, he thinks everybody is out of step In the restaurant, he goes right in the kitchen and fixes himself up with food >> Narrator: With all these competing perceptions, how do the best sergeants both accomplishheir mission look out for their troops? >> Matthew DonahueI don’t find tgh to between officers and the privat if you know your job, no mter, what your job is if u’re selling tton candy, if you know your job, nobody will screw with you, and I’ve made it a point to know my job So, for me, ‘s easy to deal with my bosses aa higher vel and my subordinate >> Wre is ? You guys good? >> Jmie Spencer: My style ha always been that you bld teams We do things because we want to make sure that the folks on our left and right believe that we’re the for them and that , in fact, are, uh, part of a team and that we w’t let them down People do extraordinary things under those circumstances because ey want to be perceived by their friends and lleagues as being able to carry their part of the lo and being part of the team and being someone u can depend on >> Ermey: I ner had a soft side with them I don’t have a st side with you I don’t have a sofside with any damn body I’d take a private who can do nine pull-ups, and damn it, by the time I’d finish talking to that private, he cou do 12 Why? Because I’ventimidated this private so severely that-that I’ve convinced him tt hean do2 or he’s ing to die That’s why, and-and so, when it starts to be pnful, he doesn’t quit >> Narrator: From the Command Sent Major, with 30 years of experience, to the newest sergeant, who just received their stripes, learning to accomplish t mission while protecting the troops s been■o and remains the basic struggle of the sergeant en we come back, the origins all-important layer inhe litary hierarchy, posied between officers who give the ordersnd the trowho mustw The word “sergnt” comes from medieval France and is taken from the term “sgeantry,” which means a duty owed from a lesser lord to a greater lord e concept of a “sergeant entered wispread use in the 16th century when the French Army, whh fought with rge infantry units, reorganized its troops into 500-man companies with one sergeant and five corporals lead em That system was followed by the Prussian and British armies thughout the 1700s When t early militias were formed in the Amican colonies, the leaders brought the system of sergeants with them Geor Washington used sergeants theontinentalrmy toight the American Revolutn Some of the jobs of these early sergeants are still in py toda b the lineawarfare of the 1700s added to the sergeant’s job some responsibilities unique to that time >> Robert K. Wright, Jr.: near warfare means two armie drawn up in straight lines about the length of a football field apart, shooting at each other with muskets, and the idea is you’re going to try to crack one side’s will So, you stand there, almost shoulder-to-shoulder, and you watcthe guys on either side of you go down Well, it’s the sergeant’s job to keep you standing there, not breaking and running >> Mils: That type of waare really goes back tthrole of thRoman centurion, who was sort of a ptain and a sergeant, who s in charge of the line and what happened on the line, and the n had to protect the man on hiseft with his shield so there cou

never be a g >> Narrator: While General George Washington was at Valley Forge, he called upon a one-time lieunant for Pet the Great, named Baron von Steube to literay write the book on sergeants Steuben had been broht into the Continental Army by Washington to help organize the troops In 1779, Steuben wro what came to be called the “Blue Book.” Only six pages long, the manual detailed, for the very first time, the sergeant’s job Steuben outled the basic duties of a sergeant still held sacred to thisay: to train, discipline and ensure the welfarof the soldiers >> Wright: He says, “Okay, Sarge, you’re the one who’s got to take care of those soldie hrs a day.” , he starts giving them the responsibility to keep track of every soldier, to maintain the ok on each soler to ensu that that soier gets his food, gets his clothing issued… gets his new shoes >> Narrator: The design of the sergeant stripes, called “chevrons,” has changed many times In the 1700s, the French and the British used the chevrons to signify somee’s ranknd length of service In 1821, the United States War Departmentade its first reference to the use of sergeant stripes At that time, unlike today, sergeanthevrons were larger, and sewn on the sleeve, pointing downward On the frontier in the 1850s, to protect selersrom Indian attacks,ergets started leading small groups osoldiers from frontier forts to patrol large tractsf land in the western territories Because the Army was small, these sergeants led their troops without officers tide them It was a difficultob that required a strong man >> Tom Clemens: The my did not attract a terribly high-class individual Sergeanthad a very tough time bee e privates were in the habiof selling off clothing for liquor if they could get away with , irking duty, and that sort of thing Fothe most part, the regular army were not people that you’d like to have over for Sunday dinn >> Narrator: In 1861, the United at wmbroiled in civil war The oncemall Unionrmy s bursting at the ses as it swelled from 16,000 ldiers to er two million The workload for thoseew sergeants who had been in the military long enough to know how to tin a dcipline recrui was ovwhelng >> Clemens: You’re gettingome very highly motivated people who want tbe soldiers ashey envision what a soldr , and you need somebody to say, “Well, here’s what soldiering really is all about,” and there re jt soery few sergeas around to do that >> Narrator: The basic buck sergeant did his job f only $17 a month, compared to a mere $13 mofor privates and60 for a captain Maining disciplineuring battle became one of the sergeant’s most difficult jobs Expanding on Baron von Steuben’s “Blue Book,” Union General August V. Kautz wrote a new manual, making it clear thathe job of sergeant was not for the faint of heart >> Clemens: One of the things that Kau mentions in his book, Sergeant, he says, “The most important duty of a sergeant is at of a fileloser He is even ruid…- and I ke this word–He is even reired to sot men down when they attempt to run away in timeof danger.” Now that a tgh job >> Narrator: The idea of the grzled, oleteran sergeant was seom a reality in the vil Wa There simp were noenough of ese men Most sergeants, like the privates, were new Th often came from the same to and had enlisted togeer The sergeant might be the cousin or the former classmate of one of the prites >> Clemens: So, they’ve got to erect a barrier between some of their old friendand campmates and boyhood acquntances These men that you are respsible for and at you live with, day in, day out– you have that familiarity being with them– and yet here is this instruction that says, “When these guys don’t do their duty, you are requ to shoot them.” That a heavyhing to carry aroundn ur shoulders as a rgeant >> Narrato It was during the Civil War that the color of the men allowed to serve as sergeantchanged One of the first and most famous all-black units was the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry While led by white officers, the Sergeant Major of the 54th was Lewis Douglass, son of the famous journalist and abolitioni, Frederick Dougss Lewis Douglass was intelligent, articulate, d wanted to be an officer, but because of e prejude at the time, theest

he could hope for was Sergea Majo >> William H. Wiggins, Jr.: This was the highest rank that st enlisted men– black or Negro, colored– could re to So, it was comparable toeing officer if you were white The office of sergeant was aspired to by gro soldiers, and it is held in great esteem >> Narrator: In 1989, the film Glory told the story of a fictional sergeant in the Massachusetts 54th, played by Morgan Freeman >> Major: Attention, company! Rains, front and cente >> Rawlins: Sir! >> Major: Mr. Rawlins, ts regimentas formed th the promise that only white officers would be commissioned to lead it Nothing was mentioned, however, about non-commissioned officers Therefore, in recognition of initiativeaken not onlfor yourself, but on behalf of the entire regiment, you are hereby awarded the rank of Sergeant Major ( soldiers murmuring ) Congratulations >> Rawlins: Thank you, sir >> Man: Hip, hip >> Soldiers: Hooy! >> Man: Hip, hip >> Soldis: Hoora M: Hi hip >> Soldiers: Hooray! >> Colonel: Congratulatis >> Rlins: I ain’t re I wantin’ this, Colonel Colonel: I know ectly how you feel >> Zwick: I think what that mont was trying to encapsulate when he grudgingly accepts the promotion is this step out of a traditional role into the no- man’s nd of beg a sergeant, because the sergeant, of cours is the bridge beeen the offir and the enlisted man >>arrator: Forhe black man unaccustomed to dealing wi the white man om a position of authority, being a sergeant was difficulrole >> Zwick: I think a sergeant typifies that notion of someone who, in fact, comes from one place and is now p in coext ather His identificati initially i with one group, and suddenly, you have to adopt and take on the responsibility of the loration of the authority >> Narrator: But for the African-American community, the opportunity for man to ser as a sergeant was a tremendous step r the first time, the United States government d given African-Americans life-and-death authority over others It made these sergeants some of the most powerful black men of their day >> Zwick: The Army is one of the few institutions that has actually dea with race isome way that’s vy direct and very aggressive, and in some nse, more scessfully than the country at large It’s kind of very aggrsive approach to trying tintegrate and make that just as naturaa state of being as any is… has been a remblthg >> Command Sgt. Maj. Marvin L Hill, USA: Do owthose old veterans such as the sdiers who served in Massachusetts 54th, the Buffalo soldiers? Yes ose are guys who took what was left over Th toothe broken-down horse, they took thworn-out uniforms, they took the rust wpons, and they chose to serve and they were proud to see I just think we owe them a lot Without that, , we wldn’t be serving here today, I dot think ( >> Narrator: The leadership of the American military is made up of what are called “commissioned officers.” They are the generals, the colonels, the majors, the captains, and the litenants They are appointed their rank– also referred to as being given their officer’s commission– by the President of the United States In the 18th and 19th centuries, Americ officers kept their commission even when their active duty was comple They were still considered officers, and entitled to an officer’s ivileges, whether on activduty or retirement If they returned to the military, they did so with thr rank intac >> Arms: In many armies, you’re

called back 20 years later because you have a commission Until you resi your commission, you are an officer in the army >> Narrator: Sergeants, on the other hand, are selected from the enlied ranks and lack such a commission Together with corporals, they are known as non-commissioned officers– NCOs for short >> Arms: The enlisted man enlists for a certain term, or period Athe end of that perd hean walk away and y, “I’ve had enough,”r he can reenlist, but he must be enlisted >> Narrar: For sergeants, the age of mern warfare began when President Woodrow Wilson declared war on imperial Germa on April 6, 1917, and the United States entered World War I America had stayed on the sidelines for three years while the war waged in Europe But when the U.S. finally joined the conflict, sergeants were pushed to the limit It was a bloody war, with victories measured in “thousands of men killed per yard gained.” ( artillery fire thuering ) Four million Americans would fight, placing a huge burden on sergeants to train them Over 38000 men would be promoted to the ranks of sergeant, many with very little experience or training >> Joseph Whitehorne: There is an inevitable dilution o leadership when something like this happens And I think this ione of the great lessons,nd it shows you inegative way how importt an expernced body of non- commissionedicers are You had units that just did not function very well because you didn’t have that first echelon experience and leadership that are necessary for the army to function real well >> Narrator: Stories circulated of sgeants taking advantage of their knledge and authority to abuse new recruits are, the sound of German gs in thdistance, and these instant NCOs say, “For five bucks, I’ll show you how to load your rifle.” You get a breakdown in discipline There’s a great deal of crime, goofing off, becausere’s nobody around whose experienced enough and respected enough to tell the men to knock it off, get back in, andbey orders A sergeant’s who can be relied upon to do the right thing at the right me without someb giving them orders to do it >> Narrator: The vast majority of sergeants, however, were doing their job correctly– training and leading soldiers But the role was again changing In addition to a shortage of sergeants, there was a scarcity of officers roughout World War I sergeants were given learship roles and authority commonly reserved for a commissioned officer The internal combustion engine brought new ventions like th truck, tank, and airplane to the battlefield,reatina ne range of technical NCOs Furthermore, the perfeion of the automatic machingun, and its ability to deliver a wall of bullets across the battlefield, pua permanent end to the formal, linear warfare of the 1700s and 1800s But the sergeant duties in combat were no easiero fulfill He still had to lead men io enemy fi >> Milius: He kns he’s a go sergeant when his people willo this very key thing on e battlefield that is so diicult, the most difficult thing: advance into fire When they advance into fire, he knows he’s done his job well because th’s the hardest thing for human beings to do >> Narrar: For t sergeant, the most morable thing to emerge from World r I was not a machine or a tactic; it was Sergeant York became the most famo sergeant in American history, and set the standard agait which sergeants are still measured today Alvin York w born December 13, 1887, in the bacoods Tennessee mountain town of Pall Ma Because of strong religious convictions, when his draft notice came in May of 1917, he applied as a conscientious objector But his request was denied reported for duty in November, and was assigned to the 82nd Division at Camp Gordon, near Atlanta, Georgia A poor count boy, he was impresd with the pleasures of army life Michael Birdwell: He d a cot to himself for the first timehe didn’have to share a bed with abody He wrote letters to his mother apologizing that he was ting so wl and gaining weight and he apologized that the folks in tharmy cooked better than she did– ich, you know, that’ t to be a first, somebody actually praising Army foo >>arrator: In May 1918, York sailed for France

As a corporain the 328th Infantry, he fought in the front lines in the Meuse-Argonne offensive It was durg that battle, on October 8, 1918, that Alvin York bece a legend His advancing platoon encountered German machineun fire on a hill near Chateau- Thierry, and nine soldiers re kild York found himself in coand of the surviving seven men, and he took it upon mself to ve them Using shooting skills honed hunting turkeys in Tssee, York crawled toward the German machine gun and started shooting >> Birdwell: He pointed out that these re bigger targets than thturkeyhe shot ck home in the hills, you know You know, the turkey head, about this big, you know– a human head ges him a lot more to aim for,nd he did aim for the heads I an, these are all he shots he’s going for After he takes out the machine gun nest, he is charged by six men who are ing at him, and he takes all of them out with his service revolver >> Narratohen the shooting was over, York had single- handedly killed 25 German soldiers 132 more were trapped in their trenches anduickly surrendered York andis seven men brought back the POWs to an tonished American command Overnight, York became fams He was awarded the Distinguished ServCross by Genal John “Blackja” Pershing Within days, he was shipped back to the United States, where he received a hero’s welcome, including a cker tape parade in New York >> Birdwell: York did have a great sense of humor, had a elous see ofum And, as he’s going down the parade route, you know, people are screaming, you know, “Alvin! Alvin!” And he supposedly turns and says, “Ty’s a lot people this town named Alvin, ain’t they?” York was also given a suite of rooms at the Waldorf-Astor, and this will be the first time in his life that he ever had an tire room to himself >> Narrator: York next received e nati’s highe awa, the Medal of Honor, for his solo fort and leadership by example Hihero stus de more dearing by t way he reacd to his fame >> Birdwell: He s given a numberf opportunities to capitalize on hifame Flo Ziegfeld wanted him to be in the Follies In fact, one woman offered him $50,000 to sire a baby, and he turned that down He refuses to capitalize on his fame Heust says, “No. Uncle Sam’s unifm– it ain’t for sale.” >> Narrator: My sergeants have tried to live up to York’s reputation During the Gulf War, the were reports of a so-called “Sergeant York Syndrome” where aitious NCOs tried to single-handedly pture large nuers of Iraqi troops >>irdwell: No one can set out to be Sergeant York You’ve got to be in the situation and en you rise to whatever that occasion is You can’t say, “I’m gonna be the next Sergeant York.” You might get yourself killed that way But if you say, “I’m gon be the st sergeant I could possibly be; I’m going to do whatever the situation commands,” then we may indeed ve another Sergeant York >> Narrator: York returned to the sml town of Pall M Tennessee, and spent the rest of his life farming and teaching Sunday school In 1942, as the untry was entering another great w, York volunteered himself as “read to go” o more time Instead, he was used to prome the war effort Some thought he deserved to be promoted to lieutenant, but York refused Sergeant York-the greatest ro of World War I– he would remain until his death in 1964 r >> Narrator: The United States’ entrinto Wld War II on December 7, 1941placed more demandon the American sergeant than any other war in history 25% of Ari’s manpower would be drawn into the war effort Sergeants would be called upon to train 20 milliomen Thousands of new technical specialistwerenlisd to opere new equipment and weapons and were given the rank of tech rgeant The need for these tech sergeants’ skills was so great, and so many techs were enlisted, that they soon overwhelmed many units Before the war, one in five Army enlisted men was an NCO By945 the percentage had swelled to one itwo There were so many technical sergeas that my were forced to share the duties of privates Also increasing the demand for sergnts was threorganization of the American infantry from

thold eight-man squad, which had been led by a corpal, to a 12-man squad with sergeant placed ovethe corporal as its new leader By the end of the war, there were 25,000 of these sergeant-led squads, a the 300,000 men who foughtn them looked to their sergeanto bring them home alive >> James Whiore: They were pshologists, you know, in many ways knew the buttons to push on the various guys ioutfit, you know, to get them to do the thing they were supposed to do >> Milius: There’s alwaythe great fear that the officer’s going to get you in trouble And the sergeant’s there to keep there to keep that from happenin ‘Cause the sergeant is blue-collar He is every ma He is, he is, you know, directly attached And so he’s dealing directly with what really happens >> Narrator: After he parachuted into Normandy, France on D-Day, June 6, 1944, Sergeant Harrison Summer became onef the countless sergeant heroes of Wod WaII His squad assaulted a a row of rman guns protected in stone houses overlooking Utah Beach, and came under heavy fire enis captain and lieutant were killed, and h men fell back, Sergeant Summer stormed the guns by himself >> Arms: Summer esround to the back of the bunkkicks in the door, takes sub-machine gun and starts killing off everyone Goes to the next bunker, kicks in the door, takes a sub-macne gun, kills eveone Keeps going downhe linlike that >> Narrator: But actions lik Sergeant Summer’s were not uncommon On May 12, 1944, Staff Sergeant Crles Shea was leading his squad near Mount Damiano, Italy, when enemy machine guns oped fire To free his pinned-down squad, Sergeant Shea crawled into the deadly hail of bullets, d, using only his rifle and a few hand grenades, took out all three enemy machinguns >> Arms: I think there is a high dedication to dutyng sergeants No one is really thinking, “I’m going to be a hero if I charge that bunker.” No, they’re sang, “Okay, my men e going to get killed if I don’t charge that bunker I need to chgehat bunker and stop the fire.” >> Narrator: Being a sergeant holds more than physical danger Thgood sergeant may take actions to save s men, b if things go wrong, he can pay a price Bi True was with the 101st Airborne Disioduring World War II a was one of 20,000 soiers who parhuted into France on D-Day He still remembers the sergeant who led him into battle– First Sergeant Willie Mois >> Bill True: He was just the most military person I’d er seen Everytng about him sai here’s, this is a first-rate solider He was so impressive thayou just had to respond to him, “Yes, sir! No, sir!” But he wouldn’t have it am t a Sir That ifor the commissioned men I am your sergeant, soldier You got that?” “Yes, sir!– uh, Sgeant” was frequently t response >> Narrator: He alsoemembers what happeneto his sergeant On June 12, 1944, Morris led the platoon to take the town of Carentan On June 13, when the Germans counterattacd, the company commander, a captain, and Sergeant Morris dered the platoon to fall back But the order had not been clead with battali adquarters Both Serget Morrisnd the captn were punished t the captain kept his rank, while Sergeant Morris was sted to private >> True: If one or the other of them was more responsible for thatetreat, surely it wathe company commander, the captain But the ct that as a commissied oicer he got to keep hars, whereas this career militarman who had worked his way up to a top sergeant is now a buck private, it just seemed the most disgraceful kind of treatment >> Narrar: Morris evenally earned back his stripes, but was killed bfriendly fire from aircraft during a battle near Bastne Sometimes the very qualities that ld a man to become a sergeantan lead to h death Sergeant Julius Houcof the 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment had such a fate >> True: Julius Houck was perhaps the most aggressivof all we raw recruitin August of 42 You could see righon that this guy was probably going to be a

noncom He was very agessive, self-confident guy exactly wh you look for >> Narrator: On the nighthe paratroope loaded into C-47s for the Normandy invasion, one of the airew tooa snshot Sergeant Houck is close to the front, his oimism clearly on displa Ironically, the next morning he was the first ldier Bill True would watch die >> True: I can remember seeing him out in tpen throwing hand grenades, and I thought, “Don’t expose yourlf like that. My God.” At just out the time I’m thinng that there’a bursof machine gun fire got him right in the chest and he was dead right ere But it was so typical of him from dayne was the leader out in front, d that was probably his first opportunity to encounter the enemy And, by God,e was going to be out there in front encounteringhem >> Narrator:n December 1944, six months aft parachung intoormay and just weeks before his transfer to Bastogne where he wou fight in the Battle of the Bulge,ill True was promoted to sergeant At the age of 21, he was making life-and-death decisions for the 12en in his squa He n only had to learn how to lead them, he had to learn how to deal with theireaths >> True: It’s never ea to take, but as you endure more and more combat, you realize more d more that this is inevitable It wasn’t until visiting graves many, many years after World War II that it really hit me real hard When you’re fighti, that has to take a backseat to what you’re doing and what you’re thking and it comes fairly naturally, as a matter of fact, to move on >> Narrator: It’been said that generals plan wars, but sergeants win th thmen on their feet, on thet move, and take them into battle >>ils: He must be a hero or he will fail He’s forced becaushe’s, he’s got the weight of command on his shouers It’s the sergeant that has the most direct responsibili on hishoulders >> True: I would like to thi thatome men are peaps alive today because I did a good job War is aery chancy thing and who did what at what time that made what dieren is hard to nail down But I’d like to think that I providedome good leadership that helped some peoplsurvive >> Nrator: The story of the most famous sergeant to emerge fe smissed as a Hollywood fantasy if it weren’t true As a sergeant for much of his combat career, Audie Murphy fohtn nine major Europea battles He became an Arican legend as the most decorated U.S. combat soldier of World War II He received every American mal awarded for brery– 33 in all Audie Leon Murphy wase son of a poor west Texas sharecropper on June 20, 1924 His mother diewhen he s 16 and Murphy tried to enlist in the Marine Corps, but was rejected becausehis small size On his 18th birthday he tried again, this time with the Army He was accepted and sent to the Third Infantry Divisio >> Rk Morris: In inftry schoole was always known for hidaring acts You know, he walk along a lee that was real high and he wa’t afraid of heights, he wasn basically he wasn’t afraid of anything and kind of showed off, basically, because of th >> Nrar: He shipped t for French North Africa, a on th voyage over, w promoted to acting sergeant While fighting iSicily, Anzio, and uthern France, Mphy came a combat legend for his bravery on the battlefield >> Morrileby example He led from the frt There was nothing thate wouldn’t ask his soldiers to do that he wouldn’t do himself or didn’t do himself If h sdiers were in the mud, by God, heas down there with them >> Narrator: Sergeant Audie Murphy was credited with kling or wounding over 240 enemy soldie Because of his success on the battlefield, hwas offerea promotion to lieutenant, but, initially, he turned it down Morris:e felt that he could best care for hisoldiers and ensure their safety and ensure mission accomplishment as the backne of the Army, as a sergnt Growing good soldiers and

teaching, caring, and mentoring is sethi that you cat st turn off It’s nike a faucet >> Narrator: Buts the awards piled up, the promotion couldn’t be avoided On January 26, 1945,s a Secondieutenant, he was won the Medal of Honor, the highest award for valor given by the Unit States He was relead from active duty in 15 and, befriended by James Cagney, became a mie star In 1955, Universal Pictures made a movie of Audie Murphy’s life called To Hell and Back >> Murphy: Harris, Johon, wee going in! >> Narrator: Murphy played himself It would remain the studio’s biest picture until the 1975 blockbuster Jaws >> Morris: Serant Audie Murphy is truly an American story: A kid with a poor family, not a silver spoon in his moh but just like most Americans’ success stories, start out with nothing, caminto the Army and was given an identity based on his perfmance,iven an opportunity excel >> Narrator: Bause of his citations, and his movies, Audie Murphy bece a living syol of the sergeant as hero.■ In the years followingorld War II, when peoe were hungry for movies depicting courageous n locked in battle, Sergeant Audie Murphy, the genuine article, had also become a Hollywood archetyp >> WELCOME BACK TOHE HISTORY CHANNEL I’M ROGER MUDD PERHAPS THE MOST ENDURING IMAGE OF WORLD WARI WAS OF MARINES RAISING THE AMERICAN FLAG AT IWO JIMA THE LEADER OF THIS DETAIL WAS SERGEANT MIKE STRANK, WHO GAVE THE COMMAND TO FIND A POLEATTACH THELAG,” AND “PUT ‘ER UP.” WITHIN DAYS, SERGEANT STRANK WOULD BE DEAD, HIT BY MORTAR WHILE DIAGRAMING COMBAORDERS FOR HIS N WE NOW RETURN TO SARGE! >> Narrator: World WarI saw a huge influx of new sergeants, both othe battlefield d in popular culture >> So longSergeant I’ll pray for you >> Nartor: In the years immediately following the war, a series of movies emerged, each ing up a different view of the sergeant as an archetype to be aepteor rejected the trueicre of the sergeant >> Thompson:ou know, the sergeant in any military film is, you know, th’re kind of like a jeep or a tank They are the kind of basic unit of drama in these things If you look atollywo’s esentation of sergeants throughout history, I don’t think it’s either unfair or fair or realiic or unrealistic, but it sure exploits them >> Narrator: The films released following World War IIttempted bng the sergeanback from the battlefieland dramatize his stggles for the public Sergeant Kinnie in the 1949 Oscar-nominated film Battleground was one of the more rlisticf these fictionalized sergeants mes Whitmore, the actowho played him, had experienced sergeants firsthand when he was a rine Lieutant during the War >> Whitme: He s trying to survive, number one He wanted to survive Everybody did,ou know, and from that point on, he knew e best way to suive, he had outfithat he had to take care of, and he had to keep ’em on the straight and narroas muchit’s possible >> Narrator: Battlegrou tells the story of a squadm the 101st Airborne fhting in the Battle of the Bulge at Bastogne Wearafter pushing back the Germans, Serant Kinnie and his men are finally allowed to go home It’s on their march out at they pass the reinforcements coming to take their place >> Sergeant: Oh, come on, come on What do you want these guys to think yoare– a bunch of WACs? All right, all right, pick it up now Hup, hupthree p, hup, three, four Hup, hup, three, four >> Whitmore: It’s called pride, isn’t it It’s callepride, pride, pride, pride, pride in yourself and pride in, inour outfit You know that was, oh, it was a big al, you know >> Sgeant: ♪ Huphup, three, four Hup, hup, three, four Hup, hup, three, four Hup, hup, three, fr p, hup, ree, four Hup, h, three, four u had a good home but you left >> Men: You’re right >> Sergeant:ou had a good home but you left >> Men: You’re right >> Sergeanh you left >> Men: You’re right >> Sergeant: Your baby was there when you l >> Men: You’re right >> Sergeant: Sound off Men: One, two >>ergeant: Sound off >> Men: Three, four >> Sergeant: Cadence count >> Men: One, two, three, four, on two. three, fou >> Sgeant: Your baby was

lonely as nely could be >> Men: So Jody provided company Sergeant: Ain’t it great to have a pal? >> Men: Who workso harto keep up morale >> Sergeant: Sound off >> Men: e, two >> Sergean Sound o. ♪ >> Whitmore: think that Kiie was doing that for the guys comingn, as much as he was doinit for the guys going out, you know ying, “It’s alright, guys, you know We’ve been beat up, but go after ’em >> Narrar: Fewf thsergeant archetypes that emerged after the war were as emaced by the public as the sergeant in 1949’s other big film, The Sands of Iwo Jima was the no-nonsense Sergeant Stryker, played by the ultimate hero, John Wayne >> Stryker: They handed meou guys as a present, a regar Easter basket… and they told me to get you intoome kind ofhape so you could handle a litt piece of this war, and that’shat I’m going to do, and that means I’m going to te you what to do every day and every minute oevery day I’m going toell you how to button youbuttons I’ll even tell you when to blow yo noses And ifou do someing I don’t like, I’m going to jump, and when I land, it’ll hurt I’m going to ride you till you can’t stand up, and when you do stand up, you’re going to be Marines >> Thompson: If you were to think the gre portrayal of thtraditional rgeant i American cinema, Ihink you’d have to with John yne’s Sergea Stryker He’s what weant be defeing us in-in war He is not ambiguous He-he kns what he’s doing >> Narrator: John Wayne meets the sergeant’s basic challenge: taking orders fr above and carrying them out with his men, head-on There is nothing conflid in his ptrayal We arehe good guys fighting the bad guys in just war >> Thompson: In The Sands of Iwo e we are using Hollywood to reflt the glory and the patriotism of America mid- century, and this was a heady riod Therefore, we get y like Sergeant Stryker in ThSands of o Jima who so reflects that heroism >> Narrator: Americans have always felt a strong connection to the sergeants they saw in movies Consequentlythose sergeants often reflect the general public attitudeof their time As Arica moved out othe rightesness of the 1940s into the complex, conflicted Cold War of the 1950s, sergeants in the movies changed, too The old Wod War II sergeant archa new, more emotionally complex sergeant >> Okay, fatso, ifif it’killing you want, come on >> Narrator: The most famous was Sergea Milt Warden, as rtrayed by Burt Lancaster in the film Fromere to Ernity >> Thompson: The conflicted nature, the less obvious quality of the sergeant in From Here to Eternity, appears to us mu moreodern day than John yne’s Sergeant Stryker, I think is indicativof the changes that occurred in t brief piod between ’49 and ’53 >> You’re doing fine, Sergeant My husband off somewhere and it’s raiaining outside and we’re th drinking now >> Thompson: Burt Lancaster is ableo be swept awaby his emotions We literally see him sweptway in that famous scene that evybody remembers >> I never knew it could be like th Nobody ever kissed me the wa you do >> Narrator: While t archetypes of seeants that emergeter the war are different, they have one common theme: each is driven by a genuine concern for his n >>hompson: I think If had to describe the sergeant in films d televisions erl throughout htory in a single word, I think, “mother” would be the word that would most come to my mind In the end, these are the people who have to take these poor, young souls who are putting their life on the li and, uh, protect them as a motheruck would protect its brood Sometimes it takes tou love and sometimes it doesn’t >> Narrato Asergeants are en in safer settings far from combat, their portrals often become more comedic >> Now, let’s butch the area, Beetle is ain’t no battlefield Real GI luck >> Narrator: One of thmost endung of ose comic sergeants is Sergeant orkel, seen in the classic “Beetle Bailey” comic strip Created in 10 by Mort Walker, Sergeant Snorkel is the stereotypical sergeant who could t survive outside of Army life Walker himself started as an enlisted man in World War II He toohis inspiration for Sergeant Snorkel from his own drill sergeant, Sergeant Saboo >> Walker: He was out 6’3″, wehed about 300 pounds Toughest guy you evew in your life We came bafter a tough day on the obstacle cose Itas arod Christmastime, d ach one of our pillows was a poem, “Tmy boys, from

Sergeant Saboo,” and I thought, “God, he’s got aeart.” It wasncredible, so incongruous, you know, this guy, dyed-in-the wool real Army, you know, called us his “boys.” ( chuces ) I thought it was a-a great personality trait >> Narrator: Sergeant Snorkel is the classic comic sergeant, who sees it as his jobo enforce the rules He dsn’t think of the soldier; he thinks of the manual >> Walker: He is a dd–the- woolnforcer, a I don’t care if it’s raining, they still take desert training,ou know I don’t caref thet stuck in the top of the mountain They look for a river to ford or mething like that He jt has to go by the book all the me >> Narrator: There is also a serious side to the comics One of the most famous combat cartoons ever crted was “Up Front,” a strip featuring Willie and Joe, two weary GIs trying to survive World War II It was drawn by Army Sergeant Bill Mauldin and appeared in Stars and Stripes from 1943 until 1945 >> Mauldin: To them, war was hell They were not happy in it They didn’t enjoy it very much They were lucky toe alive, and they knew it andheir lives were a celebration of being alive Apparently they managed to express a lot of feeling, and, uh. they had a followi and apparently, uh… the expression got through >> Narrator: The thi that set Willie and Joe apart was the realism with which Mauldin imbued them They knew the enlisted man’s problems froinsi out Fr the hardships of combat to e insensitivity of officers, Willie andoe ske for the common man, carrying a rifle, slogng through m, putting with orders that didn’t make sense >> Whiore: They were jt they were real– you couldmell ’em You know, you could ell ’em, actually smell ’em in those, in those cartoons >> Narrator: In many ways, Willie and Joe said what soldiers tmselves couldn’t As theommandtaff rd them, they could learn how their troopselt “Willie and Joe” was a way for the enliedan to get his message– and s problems– to e top >> Mauld: I was saying ths thatther people couldn’t s You uld say, basically, that I had a consensus in the Army I had a- uh, constituency There was body speing for them and I felt that they needed somebody saking for th >> Narrato Mauldin caught the ire of General George Patton who was unhappy th the attitudes and bevior on display Willie and Joe Mauldin was summed for a private, face-to-face chat with the General >> Mauldin: Patton was a complete idiot Patton wand them to shape up, that’s all He wanted themo shape up to the image that he had the soldier, of the American soldier and how, what he should look like, and he felt that they somehow ed it to themselves and owed it to him to shape up >> Narrator: Mauldin refused to chan his drangs Eisenhower sent a message to Patton, telling him to back off Willie and Joe may not have been ideal soldiers, but they were good for male Thsoldiers knew the sergeant whdrew Willie and e was one them was a mutual respect Mauldin’s feelingsor the enlisted men werdisplayed in how he treated his own sergeant’s stripes >> Mldin: I never sewed them onactually Never, uh… never wore ’em I didn’t see any reason for it, and it seemed to me there re probably people who deserved M the stripes a lot mo than I di >> Narrator: Sergeant Bill Mauldin was awarded the first of two Pulitzer Prizes in 1945 He left e my and beg a re drawing political cartoons.>@t >> Narrator: Follong t tensity of World War II, for a time the NCO core seemed bece more domestic Bachelor sergeants married and moved out of the barracks into family housing Occuing Germany and Japan after the war waeasy duty For many, serving as a sergeant in peacetime became “just a job.” But in 1950, when Communist North Korea tacked neighboring South Korea, an American ally, e sergeantas pressed bk to combat Initially, because of the

suddenness of e battle and the lack of preparedness of the military, there was usion in Korea fothe American forces But soon sergean, many with World War II combat experience, began to re-emerge as strong leaders Much of the fighting in Korea to place in steep valleys and on rugged hitops Itas a type warfare that called for a sergeant to train and lead sll groups of men Once again, the sergeant was ck in the ddle, holding center between the officers who plan battles andhe soldiers who fight them The Korean War ended in stalate 1953 tank of sorts, as many officersg who could no longer keep their commissionwere given sergeant stripes instead But the American NCO corps never again reverted to the relaxed style the post-World War II years The threat of Communism kept the forces on thalert ( speaking foreign language ) In 1963, sergets weramong the firsadviso deployed to the Republic of Vietnam to train South Vietnamese soldiers to fight the Counist-backed North Vietnamese troops Two years later, in 1965, America increased its commitment to Vietnam and the first Amican ground troops were deployed By the e of 1966389,0 U.S troops were in Vietnam Marine Corps basic training was cufrom 12 ek just eight to try a keep up with demand In Stanley Kubrick’s 1986 Vietnam War film Fulletal Jacket, R. Lee Ermey wld co famous as Marine Dril Instructor Gnery Sgeant Hartman 20 years earlier Ermey had been a real sergeant training Marines to go to Vietnam >> Ermey: In 196the sky fell in on us, the roof caved in, and all of a sudden they neede warm bodies in Vietnam Now we’re ckg up 120 privates, which, if you line 120 privates up, boy, oh, boy, it looks like a mule trn So we’ve got twice as many privat; we got fouweeks less to tra them in But yet now we’re not just infiltrating these privates into modern-day Marine Corps; now we’re sending these privates to Vietnato fight the war >> Narrator: From 1966hrough 1973, sergeants in the Marine Corps trained over 335,0 new recruits All of them camehrou the Marine Corps Recruit Depots in Parrissland, South Carolina or n Diego, California, where Lee Ermey served from 1966 through 1968 >> Ermey: You can’t hold yoself responsible But you feel that you are Yofeel that you have a lot to say about whether they’re prared to go into combat or whether they’ not ere’s not a sergeant in the Marine Corps that doesn’t feel th they’reltimately responsible– totally sponsible– for each and every individual in their command And I think the drill instructors were under tremendous pressure back in those days >> Narrator: When the Marine Corps basic training was cut to eight weeks, it ded addition pressure to the sergnts’ job The shortened time to get recrts readyor war made an intense process even me fierce >> Ermey: I didn’t know anyone that didn’t raise a hand to a private, but it was a constructive raise of a hand Itas not a “I want to hit you so that I can hurt you d abuse you” type of thing It was a “Did you learn anything from that, Private? Which side was that, Private Pyle? Right side, huh? Or left se? What sidwas that, Private Pyle?” He knows forever the rest his life– he knows which side is this, which side’s the left side of hiface, and which side is theight face >> Narrator: The world got a dramatic, close-up look at sergeants training recruits when Full Metal Jacket was released >> Joker: Sir, I said it, sir >> Hartman: Wellno ( blp ) What have we got here? A bleep ) comedian Private Joker I admire your honesty Hell, I like you You can come oveto my house and ( bleep ) my sisr >> Hartman: You little scumbag I got your name I’ve got your ass You will not laugh You ll not cry You will learn by the numbers I ll teach you Now, get up! Geon your et >> Ermey: My main objective wa just basically to play t drilinstructor the way the drl instctor was Now let the chips fallhere they may >> Hartman: You had best un- ( blee ) yourself or I will unscrew your head and ( bleep ) down your neck >> Joker: Sir, yes, sir! >> Hartman: Private Joker, why did you join my beloved corps? >> Joker: Sir, to ll, sir >> Hartman: So you’re a ller >> Joker: Sir, yes, sir! >> Hartman: Let me see your war face >> Joker: Sir? >> Haran: You got a war face? ( screams )

That’s a war face! Now, l me see your war fe >> Joker: ( screams ) >> Hartman: Bull ( bleep ) You didn’t cvince me Let me see your real war face >> Joker: ( bestial scream ) >> Hartman: You don’t scare me Work on it >> Joker: r, yes, sir! >> Ermey: You can ask any drill instructor who was down there in 1965 or 1966 That’s exactly the wayhe drill instructor’s demeanor was There was no pchesulled The rine Corps never did condone maltreatment It’s always been against regulations; it’s always been against the law, but our workload was just rrible So rathethan dp him down for 25 push-up it was real simple and re quick forjust to walk past hiand drop him to his knees with little sh i the solar plus, and a little verbal chastising right there the spot Now get up and let rock and roll And let’s learn and let’s train >>arrator: The script received an Academy Award nomination, but many of Ermey’s lines were taken stight from his experiences during the war >> Eey: The way we did iwas we would discuss this scene Kubrick would punch the button on his tape recorder, d I would go on,nd on, and offr, or whaver you want to call it until I ran out of gas I’d do it three or four tis And then we would take the tape and we would send it down to the pructi secretary,he would transcribe that, and send it back up to us And we would just select the juiciest lines out of this ten or 12 pages of typewritten dialogue, just pick the juiciest lines, and incorporate those into the scene >> Narrator: 58,177 American servemen and women were killed in Vietnam between 1963 and 1973 14,837 of them were Marines For the sergeants in charge of training, the casualties were always on theiminds >> Ermey: We had the Stars and Stripes available And every drill instructor, the first thing on his agenda when he got into thess hall was to head right for that table because Stars and Stripes newspapers were there And we’d go right to the back page, anit was the obituaries from Vietnam And you’d read down And if any of your guys were on there, it was painful, very painful >> Nartor: For the sergeant in combat, the war in Vietnam was difficult to fight There were no clear battle lines In the junglit was hard to tell friend from foe Battles were sudden and soon forgotten Morale among many soldiers was on a stey decline U.S. Army Sergeant Major Jimmie Spencer served two tours of duty in Vietnam, ginning December 196 >> Spencer: It was much re difficult than tught it woulbe Leading meunder those circumstances was very diffict In Vietnam with a group of young Americanwho were sent over ere,rafted, probably didn’t want to be there My guess is it was little tougher to handle the soldiers in Vietnam than it was in World War II >> Narrator: During Vietnam, for the first time, much of the ill willoldiers usually reserved for officers was dirted toward seeants as well– sergeants who were often seen as the “career” military men on the opposite side from draftees >> Spencer: You have to remember that you’re getting them to do ingshat just sort of go against nature We’re l born with this inward mechanisms that tells us to stay away from dangerous situations and dangerous places You have to convince them and prepare th to do something that is bigg and more important they are individually >> Narrator: When the North Vietmese soldiers struck, it was usually fier and without warning, and theseldom stayed around for the sergeant to lead a counterattack There was no front from whicto advae or retreat The enemy was all around, yet unseen >> Spencer: Vietnam was 24 hours a day days a wk for a year You haveo constantly reinforce the fact that you’re in a dangerousituatio You want to get your solers to spread out so you’re not as inviting a tgeas you wou be But over tim days and week with no contact withhe enemy you begin to let your guard down And, and these are the times where the leader really has to be strong >> Narrator: While infantry sergeants led thr troops through hot war zones, thereas also a different type of sergeant working behind enemy lines Edward Helfand was a sergeant in Command and Control Central, part of the Studies and Observation group, also called SOG SOsergeants re different from traditional sergeantsnd they didn’t foow conventional roles >> Helfand: In special forces the whole id is not to be ereotypical

And that’s why, the warfare It’s unconveional warfare They don’t want you to be conventional >> Narrar:eading small teams of men drawn from the native population– called Sue– Sergeant Helfand wld be dropped by helicopter into enemy sanctuaries to gher information on North Vietnamese troops The native Sue fillethe traditional role of privates l the Americans on SOG teams held the rank of sergeant or above Because of the dangerous nature of their missions, in SOG,here were no officersiving sergeants orders Leadership was given to whichever soldier had the most experience in thfield >> Helfand: ecial Forces st of thpeople in it are sergeants And whatould take the place of a normal private would be the indigenous population Your grade is based on experience Even if th were lieutenant, captain, it doesn’t ke a difference– or a higher-ranking sergeant than was, I was the person in charge >> Narrator: For the sergeant leading a SOG patrol, nothing was better than to capture a North Vietnamese soldier Such arisoner uld be a tremendous source of information But it was a dangerousob >> Hfand: I memb one time we were watching a trail to bring back a POW We waitea little bit and then what happened is, about a hundred peop came down , after th we decided, well, maybe we reallshouldn’t, you know, grab prisoner here But thene heard all this coion and yelling And we turned to one of the e, and I said, you know, “What are ? So he said, “It’s anfficer telling them to get on line; we’re gonna charge the team”– meaning us >> Narrator: Helfand and his team esced using evasive maneuvers until a helicopter could airlift them to safety But overall, SOG teams had killed or wounded rate of almo 100% The Vietnam War was the first to bring daily images of combat casualti he on the evening news It waslso the first to be fought by soldiers raised on the war moes, and sergeant archetypes, of the 1940s and ’50s– mies at presented images of sergeants thatften could not hold up in real life >> Sergeant Larry Sutherland: I guess one of my earliest memories was, uh, Bu Lancaster in From Here to Eternity playg Sergeant Warden That was what I ought a sergeant should be like The actual reality of what a sergeant was when you’re under him is a lot different than what you’re seeing on TV >> Narrator:uring the Vietnam War, Hollywood produced its own ique vie of sergeants that ofn were strangely out of sync with the times Gomer Pyle, USMC debuted on CBS in September 1964 and ran for five seasons during e heig of the Vietnam war Gomer Py’s Sgeant Vince Carter was a long way from the sergeantn the ground in Vietnam >> Carter: Look, Pyle, you di’t happen to see any civilians on the base? vilian with a beard? >> Pyle: No, sir >>ter: There’s an artist supposed to chk in He’s going to paint the new recruiting poster >> Pe: Yes sir. I heard >> Carter: I hear they’re going to pick somebody right her the base >> Pyle: Yes, sir, I heard >> Carter: I wonder who they’ll pick? >> Pyle: I don’t know >> Carter: My guess is a non- commissioned officer I meanwho else, huh? A sergeant? >> Pyle: You know what? >>arter: What? >> Pyle: I got a suspion I ain’t sure, mind you, but I got a spicion >> Carter: Aut what? >> Pyle: Well, I can’t think of anybody better for tt poster than you, Seeant Carter >> Carter: Me? >> Pyle: Why not? You’ve been in the Marines a lot of yearsnd you’re a sergeant Who bettero represent the Corps thanou? >> Carter: Me? y, the thought never even crossed my mind >> Tson: Hollywood movies and televisi of course, always have a relationship to the time in which they were made But up until a certain point, that relationship tends to be almost the exact oppite of wh’s really going on For example, in Gomer Pyle, USMC, we he got a program that’s #2 in America in 1968 This is the year of the Tet Offensive It’s the year of the My Lai Massacre– a badbad year in the Vietnam War r Pyle, USMC, whh takes place in the contempary Marine Corps, never once mentions the wo “Vietnam.” >> Nrator: From training combat to Hollywood perceptions, the Vietnam War had been a difficult time for the sergeant In 1973, a formal ase-re ended Amera’s involvement in

Vinam The draft was stopped, and the American military set out to buila new type of NCO Since Vietnam, the emphas has been obuildi a professional, highly trained and educated corps of sergean that ly on modern management techniques to lead their troops In January 1973, the U.S. Army Sergeant Major Acamy in El so, Texas arted offering courses for NCOs in leadership and battle tactics Tellingly, one othe Academy’s goals is to help the sergeant adapt to a changing world >> Command Sergeant James Keenan: I don’t think Sergeant York had to worry aboupeople’s families Well, it’s something that we think about at all levels now Yoknow, 60%, 70% of ou militaryow have spous And if we don’t take care of families, if we abuse our prilege of keepingoldiers away from their families, you know, in garrison, if we mess th soldier’s times we’re not gog to retain those families >> Narrator: During the 1960s, sergeants who had been in the Army just a few months could find themselves leading troops in combat But by the Gulf War in January of 1991, thankto rigorous traininghat was carried out duringhextended peacetime, there was a battle-ready corps American sergeants in place and ready to fight Some credit thcoalition’s success the war to the ofesonism of the American sergeant >> Keenan: We had the luxury of gointo DeserStStorm with a healthy, mure, experienced NCO Corps You can train a 19-year-old or a -year-old all the things that non-commissionedfficers need to do, but he really doesn’t those skills don’t get honed unless there a little bit of maturity in that soldier >> Narrator: Sergeants not only have to be prepared, they ve to do the preparing Almost 200,0 new recruits ben military service each year l of them are welcomed to miliry life by a serant >> You are now aboard for San Diego, California The last word ouof your mouth from here on out wilbe “sir Do you understand that? >> Yes, sir! >> I don’t think so Do you uerstand that? >> Yes, sir! >>arrator: This is the Marine Corps Recruit Depot in San Diego, Calornia It’s almost midnight Some of these recruits have been up since 5:00 a.m >> Let’s go, let’s go Hurry up >> Narrator: They will be up 24 more hou before their day is through Most of that time will be spent procsing them into the Corps as they surrenr all things civilian and are issued the sitools of their new military life >> If you have a Bible, you may keep it in your posseson You understand that? >> Yessir! Narrator: For the next 13 weeks, every moment of their lives will be spent under the control of a MarCorps sergeant >>ine one: lname, first na, middle initial >> Tipps: The stereotype that’s the most true about drill instructors is we’ hard woodpecker lips I mean, whoop it on >> Get down there right now! >> Tipps: We’re e top ten percent of the Marine Corps We make Marine All Marines can’t say that ficers can’t s that They can’t say that they make Marines >> Narrator: There are over 1,0 sergeants serving as drill instructors at the Marine Corps Recruit pots in San Diego, Californiand Parris Island, South Carolina They train seven recit baalions–ncluding one made up entiry of females Every year they turn o about 37,000 basically trained Marines That’s equal to one fifth of the enti MarinCorps The battalions a divided into platoons of 35o 90 recruits In keeping with long-time Marine Corps tradition, the sgeants who train em are called drill instructors– not dril sergeants– a distinction they are quick to point out >> Tipps: Exercise. One, two, three >> Narrator: Sergeant Tipps the senior drill itructor for platoon 1085 In addition to the 60 recrui he leads two otherergeants who help him train his platoon >> Tps: Everince I was in boot camp, I aays wanted to be a drill instructor I wa to be squared away I want to set the example I want to ain I wa to make Marines and that’s a big thing: make Marines >> Narrator: Staggered throut the year, the Marine Corps will graduate over 80 recruit platoons Sergea Tipps’ platoon has ju begun its second week of training >> Sergeant Dennis Collins: Stay in line! Stand! Stand! moving! Stabilize yourody! Aye, sir! >> Aye, sir! >> Narrator: Sgeant Dennis Collins is one of e drill instructorin Sergeant Tipps’ platoon He has been training Marines for stver a year >> Collins: My role within the team is to enforce everything the senior drill itructor basically wants ‘re always trying to seek at perfection and oncwe get that, I try to motivate themn a sense to move up a step higher to try to get a littleore, a little me perfection out of Fix it! >> Nartor: In basic training, the rgeant’say begins at

4:30 a.m By 5:00 he’s sred, dre, and on theeck for the recrts ( shouting ) >> Narrator: His day will go hard for the next 16 hours until e lights are turned out at 9:00 >> When “Taps” ibeing played, I want you to remember a the Marines that gave their lives for our untry >> Yes, sir >> Nrator: Afterhat,e can look forward to at lst one more hour of counselin parwork, and preparation Then it’s into bed for six hrs until the wholroine begins ain >> Tipps: Do you want be re or not? >> Yes, sir! >> Tipps: Well, it doesn’t sound like it Do you want to be here or not? Yes, r Narrator: As the weeks go on, e sergeant wilamine and reshape every aspect of their recruits’ behavior until it fits the Mane Corps ideal >>ipps: You’ve got hair on your neck right there Feel it? >> Yes, sir Get rid of it! >>arrator: For years, as part of that aining, rgeants have have been slinging stress at new recruits ( loud shouting ) >> Narrator:t’s a meth of traininghat teacs recruits not to wither under prsure But it requires a sergeant who can keep a cool head >> Collins: It’s a show Never be mad at recruits Act d at recruits And that’s what it is >> Wt? >> Thirecruit does not have his war bag, sir >> Collins: I asked him five times, “Whe is your war bag, recruit?” If I were to stand in ont of them, and I’m not intense or I’m kind of lackadaisical about it, they don’t take it but, if I really seem like I am very angry at them, they’re going to react to that y do Iave your war bag >> Ermey: You’ not m at them My thing that’s gointhrough my mind is, Are all the oth privates able hear me? Uh, should I, let’s see, we’re, we’re pretty close the front of the platoon, I should, I should face him, instead of facing uare, I need to face is way, so that all the st of the platoon, each individual in the plaon can hear tly what the helI got to say to Private whoever it is >> Narrator: One of the mionceptions about sergeants, left over from Vietn, is that modern drill instructors are allowed to hit their recruits during training They’re not If they do, it can mean the end of their ceer >> Tipps: They don’t get beat You hear stories about the old- timers and they say the old Marine Corps “Back in the oldarine Corps, I… youw, I did ts, I did that” And you know, it’s new Marine Corps We d’t punch recruits Ifou look around, most of the drill instructors drop their hands whenhey’re up close >> Aye, si >> Ermey: The y that we thumped the privat back in those days, was so rearsed and so refined that it was nothing more than a light spanking We learn from experience, is what we learn from I can and here and talk to you all y, and I wouldn’t teach you nearly as mu as if I was able to put myands on you Man, if I could put my hands on you, I wouldn’t but a few nutes Just an hour maybe, you’d learn a whole bunch of stuff >>arrator: Today, the sergeant in basic tining has become a more approachable figure He leads classes in Marine Corps values Recruits are encouraged to turn to the sergeant for help ithe need arises As training progresses, the sergeant becomes less a source of fear and more of a mentor.■ >> Tipps: Th kw, well, yeah, he’s a killing machine or whatever, but he is approachable, and I can talk to him aboumyroblems I can throw stress better than all of them because I went up through the nks But then againI’ll come back off,it on their footlockert and thenelax, pump ’em up, motivate ’em so when I leave, they’re algood to go, and they thk, “We pissed m off, but we never want to do that ain.” >> Nartor: Some things, however, have remaed the same ere isand always has been, a certain amount of theatral talent required to be a successful drill instructor You’re starti to piss me off, boys! I want this thing ne! >> Ermey: m a firm believer that thereatest instructors in the Marine Corps today and in yesteryear have always been just da near stand-up comedians >> Collins: You just want to get to know me bette huh Shut up! >> Ermey: Contrary to popula belief, learning howo do a right face when it’s about 95 degree thein the shade is not really very mu fun And it’s n so interestg either So you, you do reallhave to keep theirttention They can’t smile, they can’t laugh, they n’t look around But you know when you’re being interesting and you know when it’s working >> Narrar: While t sergeant’s style has changed over the years, at t rgeant is trying to accomplish has not >> Ermey: They have a poli type of intimidation now I might even disagree with some of the changes that gone about in Marine Corps recruit training But you know, at the end of the day, it’s still a fine private that’s being turned out of recruit training, and that’s the

objective, and how you arrive at that objective, I don’t think it makes a hell of a lot of difference as long as th objective is achieved there, yol want to start You’ll be wearing your Kevlar, LBE and your protective mask >> Narrator: Sergeants who train recruits aren’t rn wearing their ill instruct’s hats They have to earthem In the Army, what the rine Corps calls drill instructors, are knas drill sergeants, and there are ten Army schools where they’re traid The compition to get io drill sergeant school is intense, and ofour out of five candidates graduate and go on to train recruits ( chanting rhythmically ) Sergeant Stephanie Bunker is a caidate t U.S. Army Drill Seeant School at Fort Leonard Wood, Miouri She’s been a sgeant for six ars >> Sergeant: Hip rotation! Bunker: Theirst time I put on sergeant stripes, I-I felt reallyroud, and the first thing I wanted to do was run around a-and wanted to train soldiers I nted to train everybody I think that if you train soldrs properly from the get- go, then they’ll be more effective once they are in t my as regular soldiers Soldiers: Live round, Sergeant! >> Narrato Army drill sergeants dure nine weeks traing Inddition to learning the field techniques to basically train a new soldier for coat, drill sergeant candidates undergo extensive clsroom training a learnow to nage recruit problems >> What if the soldier receives another no-go on the test, or two more no-gos? Wh’s gng to happen? >>arrator: They must memorize more than 130 pages of precise military commands spelled out in You have to return your left hand to the left side, as ithe position of attention! Ready, fr! >> Bunker: I d’t tend to memori things very quickly They’re ing out lot of information us at the same time we’re supposed to be memorizingll tse different things they put Soit’s pretty difficult >> Narrator: Sergeant Jerry Britti has been teamed with Sergnt Bunker for Drill Sergeant Academy training Brting has been a sergea for six years >> Britting: The book is 133 pages We have to know it verbatim Uh, it covers everhing from the history of the drill sergeant all the way through all the positis It covers all e manual arms, all the rest positions position of attention It covers everythi a soldier needs to do to pform the task >> Bunker: Some pele pick it up reallquick, and, um, some people have to sithere and wre it over and over Then, there’s those that can they’ve got it.uple times and So, it depends >> Britting: I’ll ote, let’s y, “Position Attention all right? All right, fst is X Squad fall out, U formation fall in At ee Next position, names planted Oh, can I start over? ( laughi ) I messed it up Move it! Go! >> Narrator: In addition to their field and classroom training, ndidates must endure the same physical training they’ll e day demand of their recruits… but drill sergeants older than privates and it may have been years since a candidate has d to perform up to the physical leveof a young soldier going through basi traing It can be a sobering shock >> Don’t hurt yourself >>ritting: It definitely was easier the first time I did this in 1984 Definitely easier >> Bunker: My butt is through for the day. but it was rth it ( panting ) It’s definitely not something I’d li to go through again today… but it lets know where your PT’s really at >> Man: There you go As soon you g up the, you get your battle buddy and move out to the next obstacle >> Britting: We’re not surhan We’re st like they are ey’ll get highly motivat when they see, “y, drill sarg he’s going up there with us Come on, we n’t t hibeat us,” a they’re a lot younger than us and they know it and right now I wish I was as yog as they were I relyo arrator:f the history of the NCO teaches anything, it’s that sergeants are peoplwith the same limitations as the soldiers they lead Perhaps what sets them apart from their peers is their sire and their heart Seeant Steanie Bunker and Sergeant Jerry Britting met their goalndraduat the Army Drill Serget Academy The history of sergeantsfr those who learned the job reading Baron von Steuben’ Blue Book to those studying in today’s modern classrooms is the story of leadi and ning soldiers The Sergeant Major of the Army Jack Tilley is the highest- ranking sergeant in the Army Like his counterparts in the Marine Cor, Air Force d Navy, he is the link between the

entire enlisted force and the seni officers of his service He knows the best seeants don’t justrainhe soldiers below them; they train the ofcers above them as wel >> Tilley: Sergets help train officers, and you train them every day You know, when I was a young staff sergeant, I got a cole of lieutenantshat ca in and I felt responsible for them,or their education in the military I want to ke them successful If they’re not successful, then I think I’ve failed ned a title Leadership also takes responsibility to have follow- ship, and u ve to be ablto foll, and if I can follow my leaders, I can’t expect my subordinates to follow me >> Narrator: Sergeant York isn’t the only iortal seeant The best sergeants are ner forgotten These sergeantlive oin t troops they have led >> Keenan: The mark of an NCO is, “Would Io to war with that guy?” Would I want him to make decisions when bullets are flying Sergeant First Class Joe Olderman h three tours of Vietnam u know, he had beepulled out of a body baa couple of times This guy was-was the epitome of a rgeant, anhe was… he was the one that I wou go to war with without any-any exception War is notbout dut honor, co■Ñy It is for the first few hours, but th guy was aboutoing back there and helping soldier get t of Vietnam That’shy he went back, was because he had the knowledge to go back and help soldiers ge out of Vietn >> Sherland: I followed od NCOs in mbat Warnsley d Spatterford, Sergeant Campbell and Sutton– all those great men These were the guys that were large That was my Mount Rushmore, and ha complime was… if you c train soldiers tdo what they’re supposed to do without you being ere when they have to do it, that’s the height of being a sergeant >> Soldis: And it wot be long >> Sergeant: Till I back home >>oldiers: Till I get back >> MILITARY OFFICIALS HAVE REPORTED IT INCREASINGLY DIFFICULT TO MEET THEIR RECRUITING QUOTAS ONEúAREA IN WHICH ENLISTMENT HAS RISEN NATIWIDE, HOWEVER, IS AMONG IMMRANT UP 3% IN THE LAST CADE FOR SOME, IT’S AN OPPORTUNITY EARN MONEY FOR COLLEGE FOR OTHERS, IT’S A CAREER, A CHCE, INHE WORDS OF THE N.C.O.’S CREED, NOT TO ATTAIN PLEASURE, PROFIT, ORERSONAL SAFETY, BUT TO SERVE THR ADOPTED COUNTRY REGARDLESS OF THE SITUATION FOR THE STORY CHANNEL, I’M ROGER MUDD THANKS FOR WATCHING p [Captiong sponsored by A&E TELEVISION NETWORKS Captioned by The Caption Center WGBH Education Foundation]