Provost Welcome Lecture: What Really Killed the Dinosaurs?

>> THANK YOU VERY MUCH IT IS SO FABULOUS TO SEE A PACKED HOUSE NOW I KNOW, IF I WANT TO GET PEOPLE SOMEWHERE, DINOSAURS THIS IS PRETTY COOL I WANT TO BEGIN JUST FOR A MOMENT ACKNOWLEDGING THE WE ARE ON THE LAND OF THE COAST SALISH PEOPLES, WHICH TOUCHES THE SHARED WATERS OF ALL THE TRIBES AND BANDS WITHIN THE SUQUAMISH, TULALIP AND MUCKLESHOOT NATIONS GOOD AFTERNOON AND WELCOME I WANT TO GIVE A SPECIAL WELCOME TO OUR REGENTS WHO ARE HERE JOANNE HARRELL, CONSTANCE RICE, ROGELIO RIOJAS THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR JOINING US TODAY THEY HAVE THEIR HANDS FULL TRYING TO KEEP MARK AND I HEADED IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION THEY DO A FABULOUS JOB OF REPRESENTING THE PEOPLE OF WASHINGTON STATE BECAUSE AT THE END OF THE DAY, WE ARE THE UNIVERSITY FOR WASHINGTON THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR ALL THE WORK THAT YOU DO AND FOR BEING HERE TODAY IT IS SO MUCH NICER TO BE HERE DOING THIS THAN A COUPLE OF WEEKS AGO WHEN I WAS DELIVERING MY ANNUAL ADDRESS I AM RELIEVED THAT IT IS SOMEONE ELSE’S TURN TO DO THE HEAVY LIFTING IT IS TRULY A SPECIAL OCCASION FOR OUR COMMUNITY BECAUSE TODAY, WE HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO CONTINUE TO WELCOME, AND TO KNOW, WHAT FOR THE MOMENT, WE ARE STILL CALLING OUR NEW PROVOST BUT WE HAVE MADE IT CLEAR THAT WE HAVE ONLY GOT A FEW MORE MONTHS THAT WE CAN DO THAT HE HAS BEEN HERE FOR A NUMBER OF MONTHS WE HAVE BEEN WORKING TOGETHER, AND DOING SOME GREAT WORK, BUT I KNOW THAT FOR MANY OF YOU, THIS WILL BE YOUR FIRST INTRODUCTION TO HIM AND, IT IS JUST FABULOUS TO BE ABLE TO FACILITATE THAT I ALSO THINK THAT IT IS JUST REALLY THE IDEA TO FOCUS HIS TALK ON RESEARCH WAS THAT OF OUR PROVOST I JUST THINK IT’S WONDERFUL, BECAUSE IT REALLY GOES TO THE HEART OF WHAT WE DO, AND WHO WE ARE AS A UNIVERSITY AND, YOU WILL GET TO SEE THAT THIS IS NOT JUST SOME ADMINISTRATOR BUT, THIS IS SOMEONE WHO HAS TOILED IN THE FIELDS JUST LIKE WE ALL ARE HERE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, WE ALL ARE SEEKERS OF KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING AND WE ARE PASSIONATE ABOUT TRUTH, AND DRIVEN BY CURIOSITY AND NO ONE EMBODIES THOSE IDEALS BETTER THAN OUR PROVOST, MARK RICHARDS, WHICH I WILL CALL MARK AT THIS POINT I HAVE REALLY SEEN HOW HIS PASSION AND CURIOSITY ABOUT GEOLOGY AND THE CAUSES OF MASS EXTINCTION INSPIRE AND EXCITE CURIOSITY IN OTHERS, WHICH IS WHAT WE WANT I KNOW THAT HIS TALK TODAY WILL BE NO EXCEPTION HE LIGHTS UP A ROOM WHEN HE IS TALKING ABOUT HIS RESEARCH AND, IT IS THAT KIND OF ENTHUSIASM THAT HAS BROUGHT SO MANY OF US TO OUR OWN WORK IT IS WHAT KEEPS US LATE AT THE LAB, LATE AT THE LIBRARY, LATE PRACTICING DANCE OR PAINTING AND THAT IS WHAT OUR MINDS WILL MULL OVER WHEN WE ARE STUCK IN TRAFFIC YOU KNOW THAT OH, THIS IS GOING TO TAKE A LONG TIME, LET ME FIGURE THIS OUT. AND IT IS THE SPARK THAT LIVES IN EACH OF US AND IGNITES OUR IMPACT ON THE WORLD WHEN I SAY THIS IS ABOUT WHO WE ARE, I REALLY DO MEAN THIS IS ABOUT WHO WE ARE MARK’S IMPACT ON THE FIELD OF EARTH SCIENCES IS IMMENSE IN A FEW MOMENTS, I WILL LET OUR DEAN OF THE COLLEGE OF THE ENVIRONMENT DO FULL JUSTICE TO IT BECAUSE YES< MARK HAS A DEAN TOO IN HIS 25 YEARS AT UC BERKELEY, FIRST AS A PROFESSOR OF EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE, THEN IS DEAN OF MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES, AND EXECUTIVE DEAN OF THE COLLEGE OF LETTERS AND SCIENCE, MARK WORKED TO ADVANCE DIVERSITY, EQUITY, AND INCLUSION IT IS SOMETHING THAT THE SEARCH COMMITTEE AND I WERE VERY, VERY IMPRESSED WITH I WANT TO SHARE JUST A FEW OF HIS ACCOMPLISHMENTS THAT VIVIDLY ILLUSTRATE WHY HE IS SO PERFECTLY SUITED TO LEADING OUR RESEARCH AND SERVICE MISSIONS HERE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON AS DEAN AT BERKELEY, HE HELPED DOUBLE THE NUMBER OF WOMEN FACULTY IN MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES AND, HE APPOINTED THE FIRST SIX WOMEN TO EVER SERVE AS DEPARTMENT CHAIRS IN THAT DIVISION YES, THAT IS WORTHY OF AN APPLAUSE [ APPLAUSE ] HE ALSO HELPED BERKELEY WITH $800,000 A YEAR OF FEDERAL GRANTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH SUPPORT SPECIFICALLY FOR DIVERSITY IN THE MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES HIS LEADERSHIP LED TO BERKELEY BECOMING THE LEADING PRODUCER OF STEM PHD'S BY WOMEN AND UNDERREPRESENTED MINORITIES, ALTHOUGH, WE WOULD LIKE TO TAKE THAT TITLE SO, WE FIGURE WE TAKE HIM FIRST, WE TAKE HIM, THEN WE TAKE THE TITLE FOR THESE ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN ADVANCING REPRESENTATION IN THE STEM FIELDS, MARK WAS AWARDED BERKELEY'S TWO HIGHEST AWARDS FOR PROMOTING EQUITY AND INCLUSION BUT ABOVE ALL, MARK EMBRACES THE IDEA THAT OUR GREAT PUBLIC RESEARCH UNIVERSITY CAN AND

SHOULD HAVE TREMENDOUS, POSITIVE IMPACT ON THE WORLD HE IS AN ENTHUSIASTIC PARTNER IN OUR DRIVE TO BE THE GREATEST PUBLIC UNIVERSITY, AS MEASURED BY IMPACT AND IF YOU DON’T BELIEVE ME, IF YOU SEE HIS CAR, THE LICENSE PLATE READS, IMPACT YOU WHICH I LOVE AND NOW, IT IS MY GREAT PLEASURE TO WELCOME SOMEONE WHO COULD SPEAK WITH AUTHORITY ON THE IMPACT OF MARK’S GROUNDBREAKING SCHOLARSHIP IN THE FIELD OF EARTH SCIENCES PLEASE WELCOME DEAN OF THE COLLEGE OF THE ENVIRONMENT LISA GRAUMLICH [ APPLAUSE ] >> THANK YOU PRESIDENT CAUCE I AM DEEPLY HONORED TO INTRODUCE MARK RICHARDS I AM EXCITED ON BEHALF OF EVERYONE HERE TODAY FOR WHAT YOU ARE ABOUT TO EXPERIENCE HEARING A PREEMINENT SCHOLAR DISCUSS HIS LANDMARK RESEARCH RESEARCH THAT HAS TRANSFORMED OUR COLLECTIVE UNDERSTANDING OF LIFE ON EARTH IS INDEED A RARE PRIVILEGE IT IS NOT AN EXAGGERATION TO SAY THAT A TALK LIKE THIS ONE CAN BE LIFE-CHANGING ALL OF US, WHETHER OUR PASSIONS, WHATEVER OUR FIELDS OR PASSIONS, ARE HUNGRY FOR INSPIRATION IN MOMENTS LIKE THIS, THAT ARE THOUGHTFUL, INTELLECTUALLY CURIOUS, COMMUNITY REJOICES IT WOULD BE VERY HARD TO OVERSTATE MARK RICHARD’S IMPACT ON FIELD OF EARTH SCIENCES HE IS AMONG AN ELITE GROUP OF RESEARCHERS WHOSE WORK HAS FUNDAMENTALLY ALTERED WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT OUR PLANET’S ANCIENT PAST THIS ACHIEVEMENT ALONE WOULD BE WORTHY OF CELEBRATION AND ACCOLADES AND IT HAS DRAWN BOTH AS YOU HEARD FROM PRESIDENT CAUCE MARK WAS AWARDED NOT ONCE, BUT TWICE FOR HIS OUTSTANDING CONTRIBUTIONS AT BERKELEY TO ADVANCE DIVERSITY BOTH THE ACADEMIC SENATE’S LEON HENKIN CITATION A 2013 AND THE CHANCELLOR’S AWARD FOR ADVANCING INSTITUTIONAL EXCELLENCE IN 2014 RECOGNIZE HIS EXCEPTIONAL COMMITMENT TO DEVELOPING UNDERREPRESENTED STUDENTS IN THE ACADEMY THEY REFLECT HOW POWERFUL HIS IMPACT AT BERKELEY WAS. AND, THEY INDICATE THE GREAT PASSIONATE PARTNERSHIP HE BRINGS TO THE UW AS WE SEEK TO INCREASE DIVERSITY, EQUITY, AND INCLUSION BUT IF YOU WANT TO UNDERSTAND HOW TRULY SEMINAL MARK’S WORK HAS BEEN TO THE FIELD OF EARTH SCIENCES, YOU SHOULD KNOW, HE WAS ALSO THE RECIPIENT OF A PRESIDENTIAL, YOUNG INVESTIGATOR AWARD THIS IS THE HIGHEST HONOR THE U.S. GOVERNMENT BESTOWS ON SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS BEGINNING THEIR CAREERS AND AS HIS BODY OF RESEARCH CLEARLY SHOWS, THE AWARD COMMITTEE CHOSE WELL BUT, MY SINCERE AND PROFOUND ENTHUSIASM FOR MARK’S ACHIEVEMENTS IS GROUNDED NOT ONLY IN MY PROFESSIONAL ADMIRATION FOR HIS SCHOLARLY CONTRIBUTION, BUT IN THE EXTRAORDINARY TALENT AND BODY OF WORK, AND WHAT THAT MEANS FOR US AS AN ACADEMIC COMMUNITY A COMMUNITY THAT NOW GETS TO CLAIM HIM AS OUR CHIEF ACADEMIC OFFICER SO, LET’S PAUSE, AND THINK ABOUT WHAT IS SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY? SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY IS PRODUCED BY A RARE FORM OF ALCHEMY LIKE THE CREATION OF LIFE ON EARTH IT OCCURS ONLY UNDER PARTICULAR CONDITIONS IT REQUIRES INCREDIBLE RIGOR AND PRECISION DEVOTION TO METHODOLOGICAL FIDELITY AND ACCURACY IT ALSO REQUIRES ON SENTING AND SOMETIMES GRUELING WORK THE PATIENTS TO KEEP CHIPPING AWAY OVER THE COURSE OF YEARS, OR A WHOLE CAREER THESE INGREDIENTS ARE HARD ENOUGH TO FIND AND ALONE, THEY STILL COUNT A LOT BUT, IN MARK’S EXAMPLE, WE SEE A THIRD INGREDIENT THAT IS CRITICAL FOR TRANSFORMING JOURNEYMAN SCIENCE INTO DISCOVERY WITH TRUE AND LASTING IMPACT, AND THAT IS THE ENLIVENED SPARK OF IMAGINATION IT TOOK NEARLY BOUNDLESS IMAGINATION TO SEE THAT THE EVIDENCE BURIED, LITERALLY IN THE LAYERS OF OUR ANCIENT PAST, AND CONCEIVE OF A THEORY THAT FIT THE DATA EVEN IF THE THEORY THREATENED TO UPEND CONVENTIONAL THINKING HANDED DOWN BY GENERATIONS OF SCIENTIFIC CONJECTURE MARK AND HIS COLLEAGUES, GRETA KELLER, PAUL RENNIE, AND THE LEGENDARY WALTER AVARICE, WHO IS THERE TODAY –WITH US TODAY CHANGE THE WORLD, BECAUSE THEY DID NOT SHY AWAY FROM BIG IDEAS LIKE GALILEO OR DARWIN THEIR COMMITMENT TO THE TRUTH IS SUPPORTED THE DATA AND BOTH OF THEM TO LET THEIR IMAGINATIONS MAKE THE LEAP FORWARD THEIR WORK -THEIR CREATIVITY IS ESSENTIAL TO DOING GREAT SCIENCE WE ARE ALL THE BETTER FOR THEIR ABILITY TO DREAM FEARLESSLY I AM FOND OF SAYING THAT SCIENCE IS THE TEAMIEST OF TEAM SPORTS AND LIKE ANY GREAT TEAM, LEADERSHIP COUNTS

EACH OF US HERE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON IS IN SOME WAY, SUPPORTING THE GREAT WORK OF OUR TEAM TO SERVE THE PUBLIC TO PRODUCE EDUCATED THINKERS, LEADERS AND CHANGEMAKERS TO ADVANCE KNOWLEDGE, INQUIRY, DISCOVERY, AND INNOVATION AND WE NEED NOT LIMIT OURSELVES TO BEING JOURNEYMAN WE CAN HAVE REAL AND LASTING IMPACT AT THE SINGULAR INTERSECTION OF RIGOR, PERSISTENCE, AND IMPORTANTLY, IMAGINATION I AM OVERJOYED TO HAVE A PERSON WHO EMBODIES ALL THREE AT THE HELM OF OUR ACADEMIC ENDEAVOR SO AS AN EARTH SCIENTIST, YOU CAN TELL, I AM EXCITED TO COUNT AS A COLLEAGUE, MARK AS A MEMBER OF THE UW TEAM, I AM ELATED AT THE THOUGHT OF WHAT HIS EXAMPLE AND OUTLOOK MAY INSPIRE HERE WHAT IMPACT IS BEYOND US IF WE COMBINED RIGOR, PERSISTENCE, AND IMAGINATION? HOW MIGHT WE TRANSFORM THE HOMELESSNESS CRISIS? BEHIND THE CHANGE –OUR MOST PROMISING STUDENTS WE CAN DARE TO DO INCREDIBLE THINGS IF WE ARE UNAFRAID TO IMAGINE THEM SO PLEASE JOIN ME IN WELCOMING A LEADER AND SCHOLAR WHO IS TO WELL EQUIPPED LEAD US IN THIS JOURNEY TO HAVE IMPACT PROFESSOR OF EARTH SCIENCES, AND PROVOST AND VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON MARK RICHARDS [ APPLAUSE ] >> WOW WHO IS THAT GUY? THANK YOU SO MUCH, LISA I AM REALLY HONORED TO BE A MEMBER OF THE FACULTY HERE ONCE AGAIN AS I WAS A LONG TIME AGO THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR KIND WORDS AND PEER LEADERSHIP FOR THE COLLEGE OF THE ENVIRONMENT PRESIDENT CAUCE, AS EVERYONE IN THIS ROOM KNOWS, YOU ARE A BIG REASON THAT I AM HERE RANKINGS JUST CAME OUT TODAY WE HAVE BEEN HONORED AS THE 10th LEADING UNIVERSITY IN THE WORLD BY U.S. NEWS I WANT TO TELL YOU, I THINK WE HAVE THE LEADING PRESIDENT IN THE WORLD [ APPLAUSE ] >> I HAVE A LOT TO TALK ABOUT, AND A LOT OF THANK YOUS TO MAKE SO THIS IS A BLANKET THANK YOU FOR EVERYONE IN THE ROOM WHO HAS HELPED ME ALONG THE WAY TO GET TO KNOW THIS WONDERFUL UNIVERSITY I AM TRULY THRILLED TO BE HERE, AND DEEPLY, DEEPLY HONORED THERE IS A RECEPTION AFTERWARD AND I HOPE I GET TO MEET AS MANY OF YOU PERSONALLY AS POSSIBLE I WANT TO PARTICULARLY THANK ANN ALDRICH AND HER CREW FOR PUTTING ON THIS EVENT THE EVENTS TEAM HERE AT UW ARE SECOND TO NONE ABSOLUTELY FANTASTIC SO THANK YOU, ANN SO LET’S GET ON WITH THIS THIS IS A REMARKABLY TRUE SLIDE, COURTESY OF MY BROTHER THERE IS THIS ENDLESS FASCINATION WITH DINOSAURS WHAT IS THERE ABOUT DINOSAURS? WHEN YOU ARE A KID, IT’S LIKE, YOU COULD NOT MAKE UP ANYTHING BETTER THAN A DINOSAUR AND THEY ACTUALLY EXISTED AT ONE TIME, AND THEY ARE GONNA THE OTHER THING I NEED TO SAY IS, IS UP WITH A SLIGHT AWAY, I AM ACTUALLY NOT A PALEONTOLOGIST SO IF YOU WANT TO LEAVE NOW, YOU’RE DISAPPOINTED I AM THE GEOPHYSICIST BUT I DO WORRY ABOUT WHAT CAUSES THINGS TO DIE EN MASSE MASS EXTINCTIONS LET’S JUST BACK UP A BIT AND GET MORE PERSPECTIVE WILL RECALL BY MANY THINGS, TENACIOUS TERTIARY BOUNDARY ARE THE AND CRETACEOUS MASS EXTINCTIONS WE LOST T-REX AND A LOT OF HIS FRIENDS THIS IS WHY THE LARGEST THREE MASS EXTINCTIONS IN THE LAST 500 MILLION YEARS IN EARTH’S HISTORY MASS EXTINCTION, 70% OF ALL SPECIES ARE SO IN THE FOSSIL RECORD DISAPPEARED VERY SUDDENLY IN THE FOSSIL RECORD KILLED THE NON-AVIAN DINOSAURS, THE AVIAN DINOSAURS OF COURSE ARE BIRDS SO WE STILL HAVE DINOSAURS AMONG US IT HAPPENED A MERE 66 MILLION YEARS AGO WHAT DO I MEAN BY THAT? PRESIDENT CAUCE MENTIONED WE ARE HONORED TO BE HERE ON THE LANDS OF THE COAST SALISH PEOPLES THE SALISH CAME ALONG 10,000 YEARS — AFTER A GREAT ICE SHEET CAME HERE 14,000 YEARS AGO AND COVERED SEATTLE AND ABOUT 1000 FEET OF ICE JUST TO GIVE YOU SOME PERSPECTIVE THIS SEEMS LIKE A LONG TIME AGO THE DINOSAURS DISAPPEARED 3000 TIMES THAT LONG AGO. 66 MILLION YEARS AGO BUT, THAT 66 MILLION YEARS IS ONLY ABOUT ONE 70th –ONE 70th OF EARTH’S HISTORY THIS IS ACTUALLY A FAIRLY RECENT EVENT IN EARTH’S HISTORY BY GEOLOGICAL STANDARDS ONE OF THE REASONS THAT WE ARE SO FOCUSED ON THIS, BESIDES JUST, WE LOVE DINOSAURS,

AND WISH THEY WERE STILL HERE WE DON’T REALLY BECAUSE, WHEN THEY DID DISAPPEAR, THEY MADE ROOM FOR ALL THESE WONDERFUL MAMMALS TO BECOME ASCENDANT AND DOMINANT AND IN OUR PRESENT-DAY WORLD AND THAT OF COURSE IS ESPECIALLY TRUE FOR US, AND IT IS VERY MUCH A TRUE STATEMENT, I BELIEVE, TO SAY THAT WHATEVER HAPPENED 66 MILLION YEARS AGO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE FACT THAT WE HAVE HIGHLY INTELLIGENT LIFE ON THE PLANET TODAY THE DINOSAURS HAVE BEEN AROUND 150 MILLION YEARS OR SO AGO OR SO BEFORE THIS THEY DIDN’T SEEM TO BE GETTING ALL THAT MUCH SMARTER IN TIME BUT SOMETHING VERY SINGULAR HAPPENED HERE AND OF COURSE, IT HAS WORKED OUT GREATLY TO OUR BENEFIT SO, THE STORY STARTS WITH A ROCK A SET OF ROCKS THAT PROFESSOR WALTER ALVAREZ BROUGHT TO BERKELEY IN 1977 AS A YOUNG SCIENTIST WALTER IS ALSO NOT A PALEONTOLOGIST, I SHOULD MENTION AND, THIS VERY INTERESTING SAMPLE, IT IS A HAND SAMPLE IT IS NOT THIS LARGE, OF COURSE ON THE BOTTOM OF THIS, WE HAVE A CRETACEOUS LIMESTONE, AND WE HAVE A KT BOUNDARY CLAY WHERE THE MASS EXTINCTION OCCURRED — LIMESTONE AND IN THE BOTTOM, WE HAVE A CERTAIN SET OF –BUGS THAT ROAMED AROUND IN THE SEAWATER IN THE TOP, WE HAVE SMALLER ONES OF COMPLETELY DIFFERENT VARIETIES AND THEN, THERE WAS THIS BOUNDARY CLAY IN BETWEEN IF WALTER WILL FORGIVE ME FOR OVERSIMPLIFYING THIS ENORMOUSLY, HE BROUGHT THE QUESTION TO HIS FATHER, THE FAMOUS PHYSICS NOBEL LAUREATE, LOUIS ALVAREZ AND SAID CAN YOU HELP ME FIGURE OUT HOW MUCH TIME PASSED AT THIS EXTINCTION BOUNDARY A FAIRLY OBVIOUS AND INTERESTING QUESTION THE SHORE OF A LONG STORY, AND IT IS A BEAUTIFUL LONG STORY, IS THAT THEY LOOKED AT THE PREVALENCE-THE CONCENTRATIONS OF –ELEMENTS IN THIS BOUNDARY CLAY AND, NOW, THE WHOLE WORLD KNOWS THAT THEY FOUND AN ENORMOUS SPIKE OF IRIDIUM , WHICH IS MOST LIKELY DELIVERED FROM AN EXTRATERRESTRIAL SOURCE, METEOR IMPACT AND THE WHOLE WORLD CHANGED THIS IS ONE OF THE MOST SENSATIONAL DISCOVERIES OVER THE LAST 100 YEARS OF SCIENCE THIS IS OFTEN KNOWN AS THE ALVAREZ HYPOTHESIS, BUT IT IS REALLY-IT SHOULD BE CALLED THE ALVAREZ SCHMIDT HYPOTHESIS, BECAUSE, IT IN 1980, ESSENTIALLY THE SAME IDEA WAS PUBLISHED BY A DUTCH PALEONTOLOGIST, JAN SCHMIDT , WHO WILL FIGURE INTO THIS TALK AS WE GO ALONG AND, IT WAS ABOUT A 10 KILOMETER OBJECT SLAMMING INTO THE EARTH THAT 30 KILOMETERS PER SECOND AND THEN, YOU CAN IMAGINE THAT THAT DOES A LOT OF DAMAGE AND THEN, 11 YEARS LATER, THE CRATER WAS FOUND THE GRADUATE STUDENT NAMED — ALAN HILDEBRAND DISCOVERED WHAT GEOLOGISTS HAVE KNOWN SINCE THE 1950s THERE WAS A LARGE, CIRCULAR STRUCTURE FROM GEOLOGY LETS US OF THE YUCAT�N PENINSULA, WHICH THEY MADE IN –. THIS WAS ALSO’S A SENSATIONAL DISCOVERY . MANY DEPOSITS AROUND THE GULF OF MEXICO AND HERE IS WALTER ALVAREZ, AND JAN SCHMIDT IN 1991 , IN A PLACE CALLED MEMBRO MEXICO IF YOU HAVE EVER SEEN THE TREASURE OF SIERRA MADRE WITH HUMPHREY BOGART, IT IS IN THAT AREA JAN HAS HIS HAND ON THE CELANI DEPOSIT IT WAS GENERATED RIGHT AT THE K2 BOUNDARY BY THE CHICKS A LOU IMPACT THERE IS SOMETHING IMPORTANT I WANT TO SAY THAT I WILL GET BACK TO LATER IN SCIENCE, OFTEN , PEOPLE DISCOVER THINGS SIMULTANEOUSLY AND INDEPENDENTLY AND ONE OF THE REALLY WONDERFUL THINGS IS THAT, INSTEAD OF BECOMING BITTER RIVALS, AND I WILL TELL YOU THAT THE WHOLE KT BOUNDARY BUSINESS HAS BEEN CONTENTIOUS, AS MANY OF YOU KNOW WALTER AND JAN BECAME BEST FRIENDS AFTER THIS . AFTER THEIR MUTUAL DISCOVERY, AND ALWAYS HONORED EACH OTHER AS INDEPENDENT DISCOVERIES AND THEN, WALTER WROTE A NICE BOOK ABOUT THIS IT IS ONE OF THE NICEST, BEST WRITTEN SCIENCE BOOKS I HAVE EVER READ CALLED T REX AND THE CRATER OF DOOM, WHICH DESCRIBED THESE DISCOVERIES AND ASK ANY KID WHAT KILLED THE DINOSAURS, IT WAS THE METEOR THAT WALTER ALVAREZ AND HIS -AND JAN SCHMIDT DISCOVERED AND IT WILL PROBABLY NOT BE LOST ON YOU THAT THE TITLE OF THIS BOOK WAS MIRRORING CLOSELY, INDIANA JONES AND THE TEMPLE OF DOOM , WHICH WAS A POPULAR MOVIE AT THAT TIME WHICH GIVES YOU A SENSE OF WHY WE ALL GO INTO THIS BUSINESS >> FLASH FORWARD TO 2013 OUR COLLEAGUE AT BERKELEY, PAUL RENNIE OF THE BERKELEY — CENTER, PUBLISHED A PAPER THAT VERY, VERY PRECISELY PINNED DOWN THAT THIS IS A STRATIGRAPHIC SECTION FROM A FAMOUS

DINOSAUR FOSSIL REGION CALLED HILL CREEK IN MONTANA CREEK FORMATION WE WILL SEE THAT AGAIN AS WELL THE KT BOUNDARY THERE, DEFINED BY THE IRIDIUM C COLLATOR WAS DATED AT 66.043 MILLION YEARS , PLUS OR MINUS A BIT. AND, THE CHICKS LEAD DATA WAS DATED AT –. WITHIN THE PRECISION OF MODERN RADIOMETRIC DATING THESE ARE THE SAME TWO EVENTS THE PALEONTOLOGICAL BOUNDARY CORRESPONDS EXACTLY IN TIME, AT LEAST IN THIS LOCALITY , TO THE AGE OF THE CRATER THIS IS ENORMOUS TRIUMPH FOR SCIENCE AT THIS POINT, YOU MIGHT SAY, IS THE TALK OVER? OBVIOUSLY NOT THE PROBLEM WITH THIS IS THAT AT EXACTLY THE SAME TIME, AN ENORMOUS SET OF VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS IS GOING OFF IN INDIA CALLED THE DECCAN TRAPS ERUPTIONS THIS IS THE WESTERN GHATS REGION OF INDIA A PHOTOGRAPH FROM A TOWN AND PUBLISH WAR . TO GIVE YOU AN IDEA OF HOW BIG THIS EVENT WAS IN 1 MILLION YEARS, THEY — ERUPTED ENOUGH LAVA TO — THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA WHICH SOME PEOPLE THINK IS NOT A BAD IDEA OR THE WEST COAST, HAVE THAT MUCH SO THIS WAS A COLOSSAL VOLCANIC EVENT THE LARGEST OF THE –IN THE LAST 100 MILLION YEARS THE SINKS CAN DO A LOT OF ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE THESE ARE LAVA FOUNTAINS SHOOTING NOXIOUS GASES THE DARKENED THE SKIES OVER EUROPE WITH THIS UNPRONOUNCEABLE VOLCANO IN EUROPE –ICELAND WENT OFF IN 2010 MANY OF YOU MAY REMEMBER THAT IT INTERRUPTED AIR TRAFFIC AND SO FORTH THESE ERUPTIONS MULTIPLIED BY A FACTOR OF AT LEAST 100 IT IS NOT DIFFICULT TO IMAGINE THAT A LOT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRESSURE MAY HAVE ARISEN FROM THESE ERUPTIONS THE QUESTION IS, HOW CAN THESE BOTH BE HAPPENING AT THE SAME TIME? WELL, I AM GOING TO SHOW YOU ABOUT THE 2-3 SLIDES IN THE STOCK WHERE I AM ACTUALLY AN EXPERT I CAME TO BERKELEY IN 1989, HAVING JUST PUBLISHED WHAT ENDED UP BEING THE MOST CITED PAPER THE ORIGIN OF THESE LARGE EVENTS LIKE THE DECCAN TRAPS WHICH ARE KNOWN AS –EVENTS THEY –FLOOD BASALT EVENTS THEY RESULT IN LARGE FLOODS OF LAVA MY COLLEAGUES, BOB DUNCAN AND –COURTIER 1989 THE IDEA IS THAT THESE LARGE — LIKE THE SIBERIAN TRAPS, THE CARIBBEAN PLATEAU, AND THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASALTS HERE, BY THE WAY, IN THE STATE OF WASHINGTON, ALL RESULT FROM GIANT PLUMES OF HOT STUFF COMING UP FROM THE DEEP MANTLE AS YOU CAN IMAGINE, THIS IS A TANK OF CORN SYRUP BEING HEATED FROM BELOW WITH LARGE KIND OF MUSHROOM HEAD LIKE THERMAL UPWELLING’S . THEN, WHEN THESE LARGE MUSHROOM HEADS ARRIVE BENEATH THE PLATE, THEY UNDERGO PARTIAL MELTING, AND YOU GET A MASSIVE VOLCANIC EVENT THIS IS NOT A KIN — AKIN TO WHAT YOU ARE LOOKING AT LOOKING AT A LAVA LAMP ALTHOUGH THE PHYSICS IS A LITTLE BIT DIFFERENT HERE IS WHAT-HERE IS WHERE THIS GETS REALLY JUICY THIS IS AN ODD DIAGRAM THAT GIVES YOU THE PERCENTAGE OF MARINE ANIMALS BECOMING EXTINCT VERSUS CERTAIN TIME INTERVALS , BACK TO 40 200 MILLION –40 200 MILLION YEARS AGO THINGS GET MESSY BACK HERE, BUT THE END CRETACEOUS, CRETACEOUS PERIOD BEING MASS EXTINCTION 66 MILLION YEARS AGO WE HAVE BOTH, TWO POSSIBLE CAUSES THE CHICKS A LYNN CRITTER AND THE DECCAN TRAPS ERUPTIONS BUT THE PREVIOUS THREE MASS EXTINCTIONS, AND EARTH HISTORY, ARE VERY CLOSELY CORRELATED IN TIME WITH VERY LITTLE LARGE VOLCANIC EVENTS OF THE SAME AGE –NATURE –AT THE END OF THE TRIATHLETE THE LARGEST MASS EXTINCTION IN EARTH’S HISTORY COINCIDES WITH –250 MILLION YEARS AGO JUST BEFORE THAT, THE MIDDLE — EXTINCTION CORRESPONDS WITH THE –IN CHINA HOW COULD THIS BE? THOSE OF YOU WHO KNOW THE HISTORY OF GEOLOGY WILL RECOGNIZE THE NAME LYLE THIS UNIFORM A TERRY IT IS IN? IS THIS CATASTROPHISM? WHAT THE HECK IS GOING ON HERE? HOW CAN IT BE THAT WE HAVE NOT A SHRED OF EVIDENCE NOW FOR IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH ANY OF THESE AND OTHER MASS EXTINCTION EVENTS? AND YET, WE HAVE BOTH AN IMPACT AND A LARGE VOLCANIC EVENT IN THE MOST RECENT TIME ULCER AND I SPENT ABOUT 25 YEARS HAVING LUNCH AT THE FACULTY CLUB AT BERKELEY, AND NO MATTER WHATEVER ELSE WE CAME TOGETHER TO TALK ABOUT, IT ALWAYS CAME BACK TO THIS IT IS WHAT IN THE WORLD ARE WE GOING TO DO WITH THIS PROBLEM? THIS IS ABSOLUTELY NUTS

AND WE DID NOT MAKE ANY PROGRESS FOR A LONG TIME AND THEN, I TOOK A VACATION TO CANCUN WITH MY FAMILY THIS IS MY WIFE SARAH, MY CHILDREN HERE WENT TO THE GREAT CITY OF CHICHEN ITZA IN THE GET –YUCAT�N BUILT BY THE MAYANS THE GIANT, LARGEST MAYAN PYRAMIDS, I BELIEVE IN NORTH AMERICA HERE THE REASON THE PYRAMIDS, ONE OF THE REASONS THE PYRAMIDS OF THESE GREAT CIVILIZATIONS ARE THERE BECAUSE HE’S LOVELY LIMESTONE SINKHOLES THAT MAKE FOR GREAT FRESHWATER SUPPLY , YES AND, IN FACT YOU CAN WALK DOWN THE STEPS AND DIVE IN THE WATER, WHICH I HAVE DONE AND I HAPPEN TO HAVE SEEN AN IMAGE THAT WALTER ALVAREZ GAVE TO ME BEFORE I LEFT , THAT SHOWS, IT IS VERY INTERESTING THIS IS THE NORTHERN COAST OF THE YUCATAN PENINSULA THESE ARE THE LIMESTONE SINKHOLES , KNOWN AS SYNTHETASE , AND MEXICO THEY FORM A RING STRUCTURE THAT BEARS EXACTLY THE GRAVITY AN IMAGE OF THE CHICKS: CRATER IN NORTHERN YUCAT�N. I WAS JUST –WHY THESE ARE CONCENTRATED AROUND THE RIM AND SHE –CHICHEN ITZA IS OVER HERE BACK TO THE HOTEL AT NIGHT THINKING ABOUT THIS AND WHAT IT COULD POSSIBLY MEAN AND LITERALLY IS ONE OF THOSE MOMENTS WHERE I BOLTED UP IN THE MIDDLE OF THE NIGHT WHEN MY FAMILY WAS ASLEEP OR I DON’T THINK THEY EVEN KNEW I WAS AWAKE AND I STARTED LOOKING TO THE LITERATURE ON MY COMPUTER I REMEMBERED SOMETHING THAT MY GRADUATE STUDENT, LEIF CARLSON, WHO IS NOW AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHARLESTON AND, SPENT SOME TIME GOING IN THE GRAND CANYON WITH ME THE YEAR BEFORE, HAD TALKED TO ME ABOUT TRIGGERING A VOLCANO BY EARTHQUAKES YOU MIGHT SAY, THE — TRIGGER THE DECCAN TRAPS ERUPTIONS –ERUPTIONS SOMEHOW WE KNOW THAT DIDN’T HAPPEN THE ERUPTION STARTED SEVERAL MILLION YEARS BEFORE THE IMPACT SO THAT WAS , THAT EASY ANSWER WENT AWAY A LONG TIME AGO LEIF REMINDED ME OF SOME WORK THAT PROFESSOR MICHAEL MANGA HAD BEEN DOING AT BERKELEY AS WELL MICHAEL IS –HE IS A MacARTHUR AWARD WINNER HE WAS ALSO SELECTED US ONE OF PEOPLE MAGAZINE’S 10 MOST SEXIEST MAN IN THE WORLD RIGHT HERE ALONG WITH BONOW A FEW YEARS BEFORE THAT THIS IS MICHAEL THOSE OF YOU IN THE AUDIENCE KNOW MICHAEL GET THIS HERE IS THE PHYSICS HERE, IF YOU WILL MICHAEL SHARED THAT IF — SHOWED THAT IF YOU LOOK AT VOLCANOES TRIGGERED BY EARTHQUAKES, AS A FUNCTION OF THE MAGNITUDE OF THE EARTHQUAKE GOING FROM FOR UP TO 9 HERE WE DON’T HAVE LARGER ONE ON — ONES ON THE EARTH HERE NORMALLY THIS IS DISTANCE IN A LOG SCALE SO, 10 KILOMETERS, 100, 1000 THE LARGER THE EARTHQUAKE, THE MORE DISTANT VOLCANOES CAN BE TRIGGERED BY EARTHQUAKE WAVES I AM NOT GOING TO TALK ABOUT THE PHYSICS OF HOW THAT HAPPENS IT COULD BE SOMETHING KIND OF LIKE A LIQUEFACTION AFFECT NOW, THE –CRATER EVENT , PROBABLY RESULTED IN A MAGNITUDE 11 EARTHQUAKE THIS IS A LOGARITHMIC SCALE AND IF THAT IS TRUE, THEN, IT COULD HAVE TRIGGERED ANY VOLCANIC EXISTING VOLCANIC SYSTEM ON THE PLANET INCLUDING THE DECCAN TRAPS, WHICH ALREADY GOING OFF OF THE TRAPS –AT THE TIME I CAME HOME FROM THIS TRIP VERY EXCITED I WENT TO WALTER ALVAREZ AGAIN I SAID WALTER, I WONDER IF WE COULD SEE THE EFFECT OF THE CHICKS: IMPACT IN THE DECCAN TRAP ERUPTIONS COULD THIS BE? WALTER DID NOT WANT TO WORK ON THIS, ACTUALLY BECAUSE, FOR 40 YEARS, HE HAD WORKED ON THE IMPACT PROBLEM HE WAS JUST TIRED OF IT BUT ACCORSI WENT HOME AND STARTED WORKING ON IT WE GOT TOGETHER ON THIS I NEED TO EXPLAIN TO YOU WHAT HAPPENED I NEED TO SHOW YOU A LITTLE BIT OF –THIS IS CALLED THE STRATIGRAPHIC COLUMN IN GEOGRAPHY THE TRENTON SALT GROUPS IS ABOUT 3.5 KILOMETERS THICK AND COMPILE –COMPOSITE –. THESE ARE ALL THE INDIVIDUAL LAVA FORMATIONS WITHIN THE TRENTON NOW, I WANT YOU TO FOCUS ON -THIS IS -TIME IS GOING FROM OLD TO YOUNGER HERE THESE ARE THE YOUNGEST FLOWS ON THE BOTTOM I AM GOING TO SHOW YOU, THE DIFFERENCE THAT WALTER MAPPED, BETWEEN THE AREAL COVERAGE OF FOR EXAMPLE, THE –FLOWS, AND THE LOWER FLOWS, CHARACTERIZED BY THE –FORMATION SO THE TUCKER BODY IS LIMITED TO A REGION NOT TOO FAR FROM A REGION BETWEEN THE CITIES OF MUMBAI AND PUMA IN INDIA THE DECCAN TRAPS HOWEVER, COVER AN AREA ABOUT THE SIZE OF TEXAS

AND INDIA AND THE MANALE AND THE POWER POOR FLOWS COVER NEARLY ALL OF THAT AREA OUTLINED HERE WITH SOME CERTAINTY IN THE GREAT SOME OF THOSE FLOWS WENT ALL THE WAY INTO THE SEA OF BENGAL, 1000 KILOMETERS AWAY FROM THE SOURCE A SINGLE LAVA FLOWS, TRAVEL FROM HERE TO SALT LAKE CITY, FOR EXAMPLE SO, THAT WAS INTERESTING COULD IT BE THAT THERE WAS A CHANGE IN THE SYSTEM? THE NEXT THING WE WORKED ON, AS I HAD SOME PHOTOGRAPHS FROM A TRIP TO INDIA, AND WE RECOGNIZE THAT, IN THE REGION OF THE WESTERN THOUGHTS WHERE THESE LAVA FORMATIONS WERE, THERE WAS THESE IMMENSE TERRACES, THESE ARE AGRICULTURAL TERRACES, THAT WERE FORMED, EFFECTIVELY, AT THE TOP OF THE LUCY FORMATION BELOW THE PAULA PORRAS . THE PAULA –IN THE BACKGROUND OF THESE CLIFFS AND SO FORTH SOMETHING WAS GOING ON HERE IN THE TOPOGRAPHY WHILE TO RECOGNIZE THAT THESE ARE FROM GOOGLE IMAGES, BUT WE YOU CAN DO GREAT GEOLOGY FROM GOOGLE ON THIS THE FALL SEEMED TO JUST TRUNCATE AND WHAT WE CALL THE BUSHY –BOUNDARY WEATHER POLYP OR FORMATION WAS A LITTLE OF –. WITHOUT THAT WAS INTERESTING, TO EXCUSE ME HERE SO, WE THOUGHT THAT WAS PRETTY COOL AND THEREFORE, THIS IDEA WAS COMPLETE –WAS NOT COMPLETELY CRAZY AFTER ALL. AND WE HAD A LITTLE CELEBRATION WALTERS’S WIFE MILLIE TOOK THIS PHOTOGRAPH OF US IN 2014 SO NEXT, I WILL WARN YOU, I WILL SHOW YOU A BUNCH OF SLIDES THAT I DON’T EVEN UNDERSTAND ALL THAT WILL SOMETIMES BUT, THEY CONTAIN A LOT OF TECHNICAL INFORMATION I JUST WANTED TO SHOW YOU HOW THINGS WORK IN SCIENCE SOMETIMES, WHEN THERE IS JUST A PILE ON THE NEXT THING WE NOTICED WAS THAT, A MISIDENTIFIED SECTION OF FORAN’S OFF THE COAST OF THE BAY OF BENGAL –BAY OF BENGAL INDICATED THE EXTINCTION OF ANAPHORA EXTINCTION THESE — SPECIES IN THE CRETACEOUS , TERMINATED RIGHT BELOW THE ALL MANALE FLOWS AS THEY RAN ON SHORE AND THE FOUR EMINEM FOR US SPECIES COMEDIES OF THE NAMES ARE IF YOU COULD READ THEM REAL QUICK THE FOR M&A FOR US SPECIES THAT MANAGED TO GET THROUGH AND SURVIVE THE CENOZOIC OR PASS THE K2 BOUNDARY , WERE ALL FOUND ABOVE HERE WE SAID, SOMETHING HAPPENED WITH THESE VERY MASSIVE FLOWS CAME OUT. AND IT SEEMS TO CORRESPOND TO THE KT BOUNDARY AT THE END OF CRETACEOUS AND THEN EVERYTHING STARTS TO PILE ON THIS IS THE STRATIGRAPHIC COLUMN HERE I AM NOT GOING TO EXPLAIN ALL OF THIS, BUT TO SAY THAT IF YOU’RE A STRUCTURAL GEOLOGIST, YOU SEE THERE IS A MASSIVE CHANGE IN THE NATURE OF THE FRACTURES OF THE DIKES THAT ARE FEEDING THE LAVA FLOWS FROM DOWN HERE TO APPEAR AGAIN, THIS IS THE BUSH IMPALA POOR BOUNDARY.’S IF YOU ARE GEOCHEMIST LIKE SALLY GIBSON, CALLING FROM CAMBRIDGE YOU SEE –ISOTOPE COMPOSITIONS CHANGE . THIS IS VENDOR CLOSE IN, WHO WORKED WITH ME ON THIS AND BASICALLY, WHAT WE SEE AT THE BUSHY POLYP OR BOUNDARY IS A MASSIVE FLOOD, OR INCREASE IN THE LAVA FLOW VOLUME . RIGHT AT WHAT APPEARS TO BE THE CRETACEOUS TERTIARY BOUNDARY, WITHIN THE TRENTON LAVA PILE AT THIS POINT, YOU KNOW, WE DECIDED, WALTER AND I, WE SAID WE BOTH HAVE TENURE WE CAN PUBLISH AN IDEA LIKE THIS AND PROBABLY GET AWAY WITH IT. AND THERE ARE A WHOLE HOST OF AUTHORS HERE BUT WE DECIDED THAT WE WOULD PUBLISH THE IDEA KIND OF TWO PARTS OF THE THEORY STRICTLY SPEAKING, WHAT WE SAID, WAS WE THINK THE KT BOUNDARY WITHIN THE DECCAN TRAPS ERUPTIONS FALLS AT THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN THE BUSHY AND POLYP OR FORMATIONS FURTHERMORE, WE SUGGESTED THAT IF THAT’S TRUE, BECAUSE THE LAVA FLOW VOLUMES INCREASED DRAMATICALLY AT THAT TIME, MAYBE THAT WAS TRIGGERED BY THE IMPACT EVENT AND FURTHERMORE, IF THAT IS TRUE, THEN MAYBE THESE ACCELERATED ERUPTIONS ALSO CONTRIBUTED TO THE MASS EXTINCTION EVENT IT IS QUITE A MOUTHFUL DIAGRAMMATICALLY, WHAT WE NEED WAS A GIANT IMPACT 9000 KILOMETERS AWAY HUGE SEISMIC WAVES OF MAGNITUDE THAT HUMANS HAVE NEVER EXPERIENCED, ARRIVE AT THIS GIANT PUDDLE BENEATH THE INDIAN PLATE IT GOES INTO HYPERACTIVITY, PUTS A LOT OF NASTY STUFF IN THE ATMOSPHERE, SUCH AS CARBON DIOXIDE AND SULFUR DIOXIDE AND ACIDIFYING GASES, AND SIMULTANEOUSLY, THE IMPACT HAS DUMPED A LOT OF BAD STUFF INTO THE ATMOSPHERE, AND THE DINOSAURS DID NOT HAVE A CHANCE SO THE QUESTION IS, COULD THIS POSSIBLY BE TRUE? THE THING THAT AN EARTH SCIENTIST LOVES MORE THAN ANYTHING IS A TESTABLE HYPOTHESIS THEY ARE HARD TO FIND SOMETIMES BECAUSE IT IS A VERY COMPLICATED FIELD AND OF COURSE, THIS BECOMES AN EXCUSE FOR A ROAD TRIP AND SO, A TEAM OF US, ESPECIALLY INCLUDING PAUL — DECIDED TO START WORKING INDIA . THE WEAKNESS, I WILL TELL YOU, IS THAT THESE ERUPTIONS OF THE DECCAN TRAPS HAD NEVER BEEN VERY PRECISELY

DATED YOU’RE CHRONOLOGICALLY SPEAKING THIS WAS GOING TO BE THE ULTIMATE TEST OF OUR IDEA SO, THIS IS PAUL REN�, THE BERKELEY –CENTER DISTINGUISHED VOLCANOLOGIST — MANY OF THIS –PEOPLE IN THIS ROOM KNOW, COURTNEY SPRINGER, ONE OF OUR GRADUATE STUDENTS — WITH THE DECCAN TRAPS IN THE BACKGROUND THESE ARE SOME INTERESTING PHOTOS, JUST TO GIVE YOU A SENSE OF THE ROCKS THESE ARE MIDI –MEDIEVAL HINDU TEMPLES CARVED INTO THE LAVAS — AND THE ISLAND OF — IS A POPULAR TOURIST SPOT PAUL AND STEVE ARE LOOKING AT THE ROCKS WHILE EVERYBODY ELSE IS LOOKING AT THE STATUES BUT, THIS IS STEVE LOOKING UP AT-THIS IS ACTUALLY A LAVA FLOW TOP WITH THE CRUST ON TOP OF IT IF YOU KEEP GOING OVER, ONE OF THEM GOES RIGHT THROUGH VISHNU’S MOUTH HERE IN THESE WONDERFUL MEDIEVAL CARVINGS IN THE DECCAN TRAPS THE WESTERN GHATS LOOKS LIKE THIS GHATS IS AN ANCIENT HINDU TERM FOR STEPS UP TO A TEMPLE YOU CAN SEE WITH THAT NAME MIGHT HAVE COME FROM HAVE YOU EVER –IF YOU HAVE EVER SEEN THE LANDSCAPE GO BY IN INDIA, THESE LANDFORMS ARE DOMINATING THE LANDSCAPE JUST ABSOLUTELY A MAN’S — IMMENSE SET OF LAVA FLOWS THE EVER PRESENT LANGUOR MONKEYS SEEM TO FOLLOW YOU AROUND ALL OVER THE PLACE I THOUGHT THIS ONE WAS CUTE AND HERE IS A PHOTO FROM THE TITLE BILE VALLEY THE SCENE OF THE CRIME BECAUSE, THIS IS THE VERY FAULT, RIGHT HERE, THAT WALTER HAD DISCOVERED , LOOKING AT GOOGLE MAPS AND FINALLY, ACTUALLY WENT THERE AND WE FOUND IT AND SAW IT AND THE FAULT SEEMS TO TERMINATE AGAINST THESE UPPER FLOWS THE STORY IS RATHER COMPLICATED AND I WON’T GO INTO IT BUT IT IS SURE FUN THIS IS MY GRADUATE STUDENT, TUSHAR NATAL OUR DEAR COLLEAGUE IN INDIA –AND COURTNEY AGAIN –IS A HINDU TERM FOR 2 PRONGS OR TWO HORNS OF A BEAST AND YOU CAN SEE THIS DIKE UP HERE THAT IS –. WE ARE STANDING ON THE VERY TERRACE WHERE WE THINK IS THE KT BOUNDARY, AND THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN THE BUSHY ON THE POLYP OR FORMATIONS GETTING DOWN TO BUSINESS, HERE IS PAUL SWINGING HIS MIGHTY HAMMER AT THE ROCKS SO WE CAN TAKE HIM SAMPLES TAKING HOME 900 POUNDS OF ROCKS IN THE POST 9/11 ERA FROM INDIA TO THE U.S. IS ALWAYS A CHALLENGE THIS PHOTO IS FROM THE LABORATORY OF A –AT THE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY IN BOMBAY WE DID GET THE ROCKS BACK AND WE GOT THE ANSWERS FIRST OF ALL, I SHOULD TELL YOU SOMETHING ABOUT PAUL PAUL IS A MARVELOUS SCIENTIST WHO HAS DONE ALL SORTS OF WORK ACCORDING TO ANTHROPOLOGY, AS WELL AS GEOLOGY, GEOPHYSICS HE RUNS WHAT I THINK MOST PEOPLE WOULD CONCEDE IS THE BEST –ARGON RADIOMETRIC DATING LAB IN THE WORLD AND I WANT TO GIVE YOU SOME PERSPECTIVE ON THE ACCOMPLISHMENT I AM ABOUT TO SHOW YOU, WHICH IS REALLY ALL HIS THIS IS THE PART OF THE PREVIOUS FIGURE THAT I DID NOT EXPLAIN TO YOU HERE WE HAVE THE –THE — BOUNDARY THE IMPACT HYPOTHESIS OF TRIGGERING MASSIVE ERUPTIONS IN THESE FORMATIONS, IS THAT THIS HAPPENED AT ABOUT 66 MILLION YEARS AGO, RIGHT AT THE — BOUNDARY THESE BLACK BARS HERE ARE RADIOMETRIC AGES THAT EXISTED BEFORE WE WENT TO WORK . AND THEY ARE ABSOLUTELY USELESS THE ERROR BARS ARE SEVERAL MILLIONS OF YEARS AND THE HORIZONTAL AXIS HERE WHEN IN FACT, WE KNOW EVERYTHING BETWEEN THE — FORMATIONS ACTUALLY HAS TO FALL WITHIN THIS GRAY STRIPY OR BECAUSE OF PALY ON MAGNETIC CONSTRAINTS BUT WHAT I AM ABOUT TO SHOW YOU IS A DIAGRAM OF THE — AGES, THE FALLS ONLY BETWEEN THESE TWO REDLINES SO, KEEP THAT IN MIND WHERE WE WERE AND WHERE WE HAVE GONE AND THESE ARE THE NEW AGES SO, THESE OF THOSE BOUNDARIES THAT WE HAD BEFORE THE LARGEST, THE SMALLEST AREA BARDS BEFORE WE HAD BEFORE, LIKE THESE BIG. AND THESE ARE THE NEW AGES, –. THESE ARE ALL TOWNS IN THE WESTERN GHATS IN CASE YOU RECOGNIZE SOME OF THE NICE AND CUTTER –AND, THE HYPOTHESIS WAS, THIS IS WHERE THE BUSHY POLYMER BOUNDARY SHOULD BE IN TIME 66.04 MILLION YEARS YOU CAN SEE, YOU DON’T HAVE TO HAVE A LOT OF IMAGINATION TO REALIZE THAT WITHIN THE PRECISION OF THESE AGES, IT GOES RIGHT THROUGH THAT POINT IT LOOKS LIKE THE ERUPTION RIGHT DOES IN FACT ACCELERATE, AS YOU GO UP SECTION AT THIS POINT AND IF YOU FIT SEPARATE LINES, YOU CAN DO THIS MANY DIFFERENT WAYS THEY GO RIGHT THROUGH . THE KT BOUNDARY AT 66.04 MILLION YEARS RIGHT AT THE BUSHY PAULA FOR BOUNDARY TWO, THAT WAS KIND OF FUN AT THIS POINT, I THINK, WE ARE READY TO WE HAVE A THEORY, NOT JUST A HYPOTHESIS

WE TESTED THE HYPOTHESIS MY THEORY LOOKS KIND OF LIKE THIS THE CHICK-FIL-A IMPACT MOST LIKELY TRIGGERED THE MOST — THE LARGEST ERUPTIVE SEES — FROM THE ALREADY ONGOING DECCAN TRAPS ERUPTIONS IT IS A BIT OF A COINCIDENCE, BUT THERE ARE –FAIRLY OFTEN EVERY 20 OR 30 MILLION YEARS OR SO AND THEY TEND TO LAST — ALTOGETHER IT IS NOT ENTIRELY IMPROBABLE WITH THE LARGEST IMPACT EVENT WE KNOW IN THE LAST BILLION YEARS HAPPENED TO THE LAND OF THE TIME WHEN ONE OF THESE THINGS WAS GOING OFF THIS IS KIND OF A PALEONTOLOGICAL ISSUE, BUT THE MICROPHONE ON, LIKE THE FOR RENT –DISAPPEAR VERY SUDDENLY WE WERE CERTAIN OF THAT AT THE KT BOUNDARY THAT IS PROBABLY A REFLECTION OF THE IMPACT BUT, THE MEGA FAUNA , LIKE DINOSAURS, BECAUSE THEY ARE BIG AND THEY ARE NOT VERY COMMON, IT IS HARD TO SAY WITHIN 100 TO 200,000 YEARS, WHEN THEY ACTUALLY DIED IN THE STRATIGRAPHIC RECORD I WILL SAY, NO INTECH DINOSAUR THAT I KNOW OF HAS EVER BEEN FOUND ABOUT THE IRIDIUM LAYER AT THE KT BOUNDARY PURPLE PALEONTOLOGISTS LOVE TO ARGUE ABOUT THIS SO I AM SURE THAT SOME OF THE AUDIENCE WILL HAVE AN OPINION BUT, IF POSSIBLE SCENARIO IS THAT IT TOOK BOTH EVENTS TO WIPE OUT THE MICROPHONE AND THE MEGA FAUNA AND CERTAINLY, IT WAS ABOUT TIME 66.04 MILLION YEARS AGO SO, FOR THOSE OF YOU WHO CAME TO THE TALKS THINKING I WAS GOING TO TELL YOU WHAT REALLY KILLED THE DINOSAURS, I AM SAD TO SAY, THAT THE VERY QUESTION THAT YOU MIGHT WANT TO KNOW IS, WHICH OF THESE TWO CAUSES ACTUALLY WIPED OUT THE DINOSAURS? IT IS NOT REALLY KNOWN AT THIS POINT I HAVE GOT TO WATCH MY TIME HERE I AM DOING BETTER THAN I THOUGHT BUT THIS IS AN INTERESTING QUESTION TALKING TO MY GRADUATE STUDENT ABOUT THIS THE OTHER DAY I THINK WE HAPPEN ON A WAY OF TALKING ABOUT THIS, WHICH IS THAT, EVEN WITH THE SIBERIAN TRAPS, WHICH WIPED OUT EVERYTHING, 90% OF EVERYTHING 250 MILLION YEARS AGO, WE CANNOT POINT ANY SINGLE ERUPTION WITHIN THE TRAPS, IT WAS SO BIG, IT MUST HAVE KILLED ANYTHING I THINK WE NEED TO THINK OF MASS EXTINCTION IN TERMS OF ECOLOGICAL , ECOSYSTEM VULNERABILITY THERE ARE TIMES IN EARTH’S HISTORY WHEN THE SYSTEM WILL BE MORE VULNERABLE THAN OTHERS DUE TO NORMAL CLIMATE FLUCTUATIONS, ICE AGES, VOLCANISM, AND THE OCCASIONAL MASSIVE IMPACT SO, CAUSE AND EFFECT STARTS TO GET A LITTLE BIT TENUOUS ESPECIALLY IF YOU HAVE TWO CAUSES TO WRESTLE WITH AND YOU KNOW THAT ONE OF THOSE CAUSES HAS PROBABLY LED TO AT LEAST FOUR MAJOR MASS EXTINCTIONS SO, IF ANYBODY IS UPSET WITH ME AT THIS POINT, YOU ARE WELCOME TO BELLOW –BAIL OUT . BUT ACTUALLY, THE STORY, I HAVEN’T EVEN GONE TO THE GOOD PART OF THE STORY IT >> THERE IS ADDITIONAL SUPPORTING EVIDENCE, FOR EXAMPLE, MICHAEL NEGAS , MY GRADUATE STUDENT –LIKE I SAID, IS NOW A VOLCANOLOGIST IN ORIGIN PUBLISHED A PAPER WITH HIS STUDENT, JOE BURNS, THIS YEAR IN SCIENCE SUGGESTING , FROM EVIDENCE FROM GRAVITY, MARINE GRAVITY DATA, THAT THE WHOLE OCEAN RIDGE SYSTEM MAY HAVE BEEN LIT UP, IN TERMS OF EXCESS VOLCANISM, BY THE CHICKS ALONE IMPACT THIS IS CONTROVERSIAL THERE IS A SIGNAL AND THEY LOOK FOR IN A VERY CAREFUL WAY THERE IS A BUNCH OF EVIDENCE THAT I WILL DISCUSS TODAY, BUT IT HAS TO DO WITH PULSES AND LITHIUM AND CARBON ISOTOPES THAT ARE SEEN AT THE KT BOUNDARY AND GREEN SEDIMENTS . THEY ARE DIFFICULT TO EXPLAIN ON THE BASIS OF THE CHICKS LOVE IMPACT ALONE, SUGGESTING THAT THERE WAS A MAJOR FEAT OF VOLCANISM, THERE WAS ALSO A HUGE SECTION OF OFFSHORE DECCAN TRAPS VOLCANIC SET I HAVE NOT EVEN TALKED ABOUT TODAY, WHICH MIGHT BE TWO OR THREE TIMES THE VOLUME C NOT SURE THIS IS AN ONGOING INVESTIGATION, AND , IT WILL BE A LOT OF FUN TO SEE WHERE THIS GOES AND THEN, THERE IS THE OTHER THING LIKE I SAID, NONE OF US HAVE EVER FELT A MAGNITUDE 11 EARTHQUAKE MOST OF US HAVE NEVER FELT THE MAGNITUDE NINE EARTHQUAKE ALTHOUGH IF YOU STICK AROUND SEATTLE LONG ENOUGH, YOU WILL A MAGNITUDE 11 IS ONE OF THOSE THINGS WHERE , YOU HAVE GOT TO BE HONEST AS A SCIENTIST AND SAY, WE PROBABLY CANNOT THINK LINEARLY ABOUT THIS ANYMORE THIS IS JUST TO BE THERE HAVE GOT TO BE CONSEQUENCES THAT WOULD EXCEED OUR PRESENT IMAGINATION IN OUR PRESENT EXPERIENCE AND SO, IT DOES KIND OF, JUST THE WHOLE IDEA OF THINKING ABOUT, WHICH PEOPLE HAVE NOT REALLY DONE A LOT , THINK OF THE CONSEQUENCES OF SEISMIC WAVES, GENERATED AROUND THE WORLD FROM AN EVENT THAT HAD METERS OF AMPLITUDE IT IS ALMOST UNIMAGINABLE BUT THAT IS WHY WE THINK THE DECCAN TRAPS WERE ACCELERATED INTO MASSIVE ERUPTIONS

ONE OF THE THINGS THAT I SAY, UNRECOGNIZED, YOU WANT TO THINK ABOUT UNRECOGNIZED-PREVIOUSLY UNRECOGNIZED EFFECTS THERE ARE A LOT OF SONATAS THAT HAVE BEEN SEEN AS A RESULT OF –CRATER AND I SAY LARGE AMPLITUDE — AND ENCLOSED BODIES OF WATER WORLDWIDE WHAT THE HECK IS A SAGE ? HOW MANY PEOPLE KNOW WHAT A SAGE IS? A SAGE IS WHAT HAPPENS IN THE BATHTUB WHEN YOU HAVE AN EARTHQUAKE THE WATER SLOSHES BACK AND FORTH OKAY? NOW, WE GET TO GO TO SOMEPLACE REALLY EXCITING SOUTHWESTERN NORTH DAKOTA THIS IS A SITE OF –DISCOVERED , AND I THINK WILL GO DOWN IS PROBABLY ONE OF THE GREAT HALEY LAUNCHES –PALEOLITHIC — PALEONTOLOGICAL DISCOVERED REESE . DISCOVERED BY ROBERT DEPALMA WHO NAMED THE SITE, TENNIS WHY WOULD YOU NAME A PLACE TENNIS? IN SOUTHWESTERN NORTH DAKOTA? YOU MAY HAVE SEEN THIS MOVIE INDIANA JONES AND THE RAIDERS OF THE LOST ARK HE WAS EXCAVATING THE CITY OF TANNIS ON THE NILE TO RECOVER THE LOST ART SO, HERE IS TANNIS >> MAYBE A LITTLE GEOGRAPHY HERE FIRST THIS IS PRESENT-DAY TEXAS THIS IS SOUTHWESTERN NORTH DAKOTA THE CREEK FORMATION, WHICH HAS IN THE LATEST CRETACEOUS, YIELDED HUGE TREASURE TROVE OF DINOSAUR FOSSILS, AND PEOPLE AND SAUDIS WHO HAVE WORKED ON THEM IS RIGHT HERE AND IT EXTENDS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN NORTH DAKOTA NOW, THIS BLUE STUFF IS WHAT IS CALLED THE BOUNDARY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AT THE TIME OF THE CHICKS ALOOF IMPACT, 66 MILLION YEARS AGO AND THIS IS THE WESTERN SEAWAY, WHICH MAY OR MAY NOT OF BEEN A CONTINUOUS BODY OF WATER AT THE TIME IT IS DIFFICULT TO KNOW BUT THE TANNIS SITE, WHICH I SHOWED YOU THE PHOTOGRAPH OF PREVIOUSLY, IS RIGHT HERE WITH THIS LITTLE ASTERISK GOES IT’S AN ARM OF THE WESTERN INTERIOR SEAWAY WHAT THE TANNIS SITE CONSISTS OF, YEARS , HERE’S A PICTURE OF IT CROSS-SECTION WHAT YOU OBSERVED AS A GEOLOGIST, YOU SEE THE CREEK BEDROCK HERE YOU SEE –YOU SEE A POINT BAR, SANDSTONE DEPOSIT.’S RIVER DEPOSIT THIS IS A RIVER CHANNEL EMPTYING INTO AN ESTUARY ON TOP OF THAT IS SOMETHING THAT IS THE MOST UNDERSTATED NAME FOR A GEOLOGICAL FORMATION I HAVE EVER SEEN IN MY LIFE CALLED THE EVENT DEPOSIT AND HERE IS A CROSS-SECTION . SO WE HAVE THE BEDROCK, WE HAVE THE RIVER HERE IT DOES NOT EXIST ANYMORE, OF COURSE THIS IS 66 MILLION YEARS AGO –ON THE SO-CALLED EVENT DEPOSIT ON TOP THAT EVENT DEPOSIT CONSISTS OF TWO SYNONYMY SEARCHES TWO TIDAL WAVE SEARCHES ABOUT A METER AND A HALF TO TWO METERS THICK HERE IS THE FIRST SEARCH HERE, FILING UPWARD OF –SAND DEPOSITED THE WAY IT GOES BACK OUT AND IT COMES BACK IN AND DEPOSITS ANOTHER COARSE-GRAINED SEDIMENT, FINDING UPWARDS AS THINGS SETTLE OUT. AND IT TURNS OUT THE RIGHT OF THE TOP OF THIS, IS THE IRIDIUM , TELLTALE IRIDIUM ANOMALY CALLED THE DON STEEN DEPOSIT OF THE CRETACEOUS TERTIARY AND CRETACEOUS SO THIS TIDAL WAVE HAPPENED EXACTLY AT THE END OF THE CRETACEOUS NOW, INTERSPERSED WITHIN THESE TWO SURGE DEPOSITS , ARE LITTLE- FIRST OF ALL, A LOT OF DEAD FISH AND FOSSILS , SURGEONS AND PADDLE FISH , FOR THE MOST PART FOSSIL PLANTS AND SO FORTH, AND MOLLUSKS AND THINGS AND ALSO, THESE LITTLE DOTS, THESE LITTLE WHITE DOTS, THESE ARE TELLTALE OBJECTIVES FERRULES . LITTLE BLOBS OF GLASS MICROSCALE, UP TO A FEW MILLIMETERS IN DIAMETER THAT HAVE LANDED IN THE DEPOSIT THAT WERE THROWN OUT AS MELT ROCK FROM THE CHICKS A LOOK IMPACT ITSELF THESE ARE FOUND ALL OVER THE WORLD AT KT BOUNDARY SITES USUALLY IN CONCERT, OR JUST BELOW THE IRIDIUM ANOMALY IN THIS CASE, WE HAVE THIS AMAZING DEPOSIT, WHERE WE HAVE , THIS STUFF STARTS FALLING OUT BEFORE THE IRIDIUM SETTLES DOWN EFFECTIVELY AS DUST AND MICROTECH TIGHTS FROM THE IMPACT ITSELF THAT IS PRETTY COOL YOU HAVE EFFECTIVELY, A STROBOSCOPE IMAGE OF THE LAST HOUR OR SO OF THE CRETACEOUS ERA WE KNOW THAT MOST OF THESE SPARROWS ARE GOING TO BE DROPPED OUT OF THE SKY WITHIN AN HOUR, MAYBE TWO HOURS AT MOST, OF THE IMPACT ITSELF

THAT IS PRETTY COOL BUT THAT IS NOT EVEN THE BEGINNING OF HOW COOL IT GETS I TOLD YOU, THESE WERE WET SENTIMENTS AS THE WAVE COMES IN AND DEPOSITS THIS , SUE NAMI DEPOSIT HERE THE WAVE GOES OUT, AND THIS IS EXPOSED TO THE AIR YOU SEE IN A NUMBER OF PLACES, WHERE YOU CAN EXCAVATE IT, OR –REMARKABLE FOR NATION WHERE YOU SEE THE LAMINA OF THE WET SILK, DOWN WARPED, LOOKING LIKE A CRATER AT THE BOTTOM IS AND IMPACTS FERAL YOU CAN IMAGINE THAT TWO OR THREE MILLIMETER PIECE OF GLASS , COMING OUT OF THE ATMOSPHERE AT TERMINAL VELOCITY , ABOUT 200 METERS PER SECOND OR SO, AND IT HITS THE SEDIMENT SO HARD THAT IT BURROWS ITSELF FIVE CENTIMETERS OR TWO OR 3 INCHES DOWN IN THE WET SEDIMENT YOU WOULD NOT WANT TO TO HAVE BEEN STANDING THERE AT THE TIME NOBODY HAS EVER SEEN ANYTHING LIKE THIS, AS FAR AS I KNOW BEFORE ROBERT DISCOVERED IT SO, HERE IS ROBERT ROBERT AND ANOTHER GRADUATE STUDENT, MELANIE, ALSO LOOKING LIKE CHARACTERS OUT OF AN INDIANA JONES MOVIE, QUITE FRANKLY TAKING METICULOUSLY EXCAVATING AND EXAMINING FISH FOSSILS FROM THIS FORMATION RIGHT HERE I THINK THIS IS ACTUALLY WALTER LOOKING ON FROM LAST SUMMER, WE WERE OUT THERE IN AUGUST LAST YEAR SO, HERE IS AN X-RAY IMAGE , OF ONE OF THESE FISH IN THIS CASE, THE FISH HAS BEEN DRAWN FOR YOU THIS ACTUALLY IS A FISH FOSSIL, THE FISH HAD A STURGEON HAD. AND IF YOU ZOOM IN, ON THE GILL REGION OF THAT FISH, THERE ARE LITTLE BLOBS OF THINGS AND IF YOU , AS ROBERT DID, IF YOU MAKE A MICRO-CT CAT SCAN IMAGE , HIGH PERSIMMON –HIGH PRECISION IMAGING OF WHAT THESE LITTLE THINGS ARE THESE ARE LITTLE BLAST FERRULES, FALLING OUT OF THE AIR FROM THE CHICXULUB IMPACT 3000 METERS AWAY THIS FISH HAS BEEN WASHED UP ON SHORE IN A TIDAL WAVE STRUGGLING FOR ITS LIFE THE SPHEROIDS ARE FALLING OF THE WATERPARK AND IT IS INGESTING THIS FERRULES WHAT YOU SEE HERE IS A PRESERVATION OF THE DEATH, THE FIRST ACTUAL DEATH WE KNOW , DOCUMENTED EXACTLY AT THE END OF THE CRETACEOUS THIS DEAD FISH IT GETS MORE INTERESTING I CALLED THIS A SYNONYMY LIKE SEARCH DEPOSIT BUT, THERE IS A HUGE PROBLEM WITH THAT, AND THAT IS WHY I GOT INVOLVED IN THIS, AS A GEOPHYSICIST AGAIN, NO PALEONTOLOGIST HERE THIS ARM OF THE WESTERN INTERIOR SEAWAY IS 3000 KILOMETERS AWAY FROM THE YUCAT�N IMPACT SITE, WHICH IS OFTEN HERE OFF THIS LITTLE INSET MAP SUMMER THE MINIMUM POSSIBLE TIME FOR PROPAGATING A SUE NAMI WAY FROM THE IMPACT SITE TO SOUTHWESTERN NORTH DAKOTA, IS IN ORDER OF 10- 14 HOURS, DEPENDING ON THE DEPTH OF THE WATER BUT ALL OF THOSE FERRULES ARE GONE BY THEN IN FACT, THEY ARE GONE WITHIN THE FIRST HOUR OR TWO OF THE IMPACT MAY BE A LITTLE BIT LONGER, BUT CERTAINLY NOT LONG ENOUGH TO ALLOW A SUE NAMI SO, WHAT IS THIS WAY THAT HAPPENED TO COME IN EXACTLY AT THE KT BOUNDARY? IT’S OF FISH THAT’S WHAT WE THINK IT IS HOW DO YOU MAKE ESSAYS? IN THE 2011 MAGNITUDE EARTHQUAKE IF YOU HAD BEEN SITTING IN A FJORD, YOU WOULD HAVE EXPERIENCED –FROM ASSAYS FROM EARTHQUAKE AROUND THE WORLD THE LARGEST STATION IS A BASICALLY, THE FJORD IS SHAKING BACK AND FORTH WITH LONG PERIOD SEISMIC WAVES THAT ARRIVE 30 MINUTES OR SO FROM AROUND THE WORLD IN JAPAN WITH EARTHQUAKE TOOK PLACE THE LARGEST STATIONS WE HAVE SEEN FROM MAGNITUDE 9 EARTHQUAKES THAT WE KNOW OF INCLUDING THE 1964 ALASKAN EARTHQUAKE, OR 1.5 METERS THE RUN UP HERE AT THIS MODESTLY NAMED EVENT DEPOSIT IS A MINIMUM OF 10 METERS SO THIS WAS A MINIMUM OF A MAGNITUDE 10.5 EARTHQUAKE, AND PROBABLY LARGER THAN THAT, TO GENERATE ASSAYS THAT HAVE THAT AMPLITUDE WHY ASSAYS? WHY DOES THAT WORK SO WELL? BECAUSE, SEISMIC WAVES TRAVEL A LOT FASTER IN A SYNONYMY –THEN THE SUE NAMI DECIDES TO MAKE WAVES FROM CHICXULUB WOULD HAVE ARRIVED HERE IN 10 –TANNIS BEGINNING IN 10-15 MINUTES AFTER THE EVENT CERTAINLY, AND TIME TO CREATE AND GENERATE A RESONANT SAGE PHENOMENON IN THIS BODY OF WATER . AND GENERATE THESE TWO TITLE SEARCHES, WELL THESE POOR LITTLE FISH ARE DESPERATELY

STRUGGLING IN THE WATER AND INGESTING’S FERRULES AS THEY ARE FALLING ON THE WHAT WE HAVE HERE IN THE SO- CALLED DEPOSIT IS LIKE A STROBOSCOPE IMAGE OF THE LAST 45 MINUTES OR SO OF THE CRETACEOUS WHICH TO ME IS A BREATHTAKING STATEMENT, TO BE ABLE TO MAKE FROM MY POINT OF VIEW, THE TENNIS DEPOSIT BECOMES A PALY OF SEISMOMETER WE ACTUALLY SEE THE MINIMUM AMPLITUDE OF THE SAIS THEN WE CAN ASCRIBE A MINIMUM AMPLITUDE OF WHAT THE CHICXULUB ACTUALLY GENERATED IS NOT A CONTROVERSIAL SUBJECT I SAID IT SHOULD BE AN 11.5 DEPENDS ON THE SEISMIC COUPLING EFFICIENCY OF THE IMPACT THIS GIANT ROCKETING THE IMPACT, HOW THE EARTHQUAKE ACTUALLY COMES OUT BUT NOW, I AM WILLING TO SAY, RATHER CONFIDENTLY, THAT MICHAEL MEGAN I ARGUE OVER THE SEVERAL YEARS I THINK HE BELIEVES ME NOW. IS THAT, THIS CHICXULUB WAS NOT A MAGNITUDE 11 THEREFORE, IT WAS INDEED LARGE ENOUGH TO HAVE TRIGGERED VOLCANIC SYSTEMS AROUND THE WORLD, SUCH AS DICK CAMERON, INTO EXTRAORDINARY ACTIVITY AT THE TIME OF THE IMPACT AND SO, THOSE OF YOU WHO UNDERSTAND THIS REFERENCE, HAVE TO BE MY AGE ARE MORE . BUT YES, IT REALLY WAS A MAGNITUDE 11 EARTHQUAKE >> SO, I WANT TO END THIS TALK, I AM SURPRISED I AM ACTUALLY ENDING IT ON TIME BUT, I WANT TO END THIS TALK WITH A FEW COMMENTS FIRST OF ALL, THIS IS JAN SCHMIDT AND WALTER AND ME, ALL STANDING TOGETHER AT THE TANNIS SITE IN SOUTHWESTERN NORTH DAKOTA LAST AUGUST I WANT YOU TO IMAGINE WHAT IT MIGHT HAVE BEEN LIKE TO STAND AT THIS SITE 66 MILLION YEARS AGO THE FIRST THING THAT HAPPENS, PROBABLY, IS ABOUT 10 MINUTES AFTER CHICXULUB HITS THE YUCAT�N, YOU WILL FEEL A VERY STRANGE, LOW-FREQUENCY MOTION OF THE GROUND, LIKE NOTHING YOU HAVE EVER FELT BEFORE A LITTLE LIKE BEING ON A SHIP BECAUSE THIS IS LONG-TERM SEISMIC WAVES COMING IN SHORTLY AFTER THE SEISMIC ARRAYS-WAVES ARRIVE YOU WILL START BEING BOMBARDED BY THE LARGER OF THE LAST NOTE ROCKS FERRULES COMING DOWN OUT OF THE AIR. AND I DON’T KNOW EXACTLY WHAT IT WOULD TAKE TO KILL A HUMAN BEING, BUT MY GUESS IS, OR 3 MILLIMETER GLASS BEAD AT TERMINAL VELOCITY HITTING YOU IN THE HEAD WOULD PROBABLY PRETTY MUCH DO IT NOT A GOOD PLACE TO BE SHORTLY AFTER THIS FERRULES START COMING OUT OF THE AIR, YOU WILL NOTICE THAT WITH THE SEISMIC MOTION GROWING, THERE IS A TIDAL WAVE COMING UP THIS RIVER CHANNEL AT YOU. AND, IF YOU GET TOO BIG SURGES WITH THAT FISH WILL BE STRANDED ON THE GROUND SHORTLY AFTER THAT, NOT TOO LONG AFTER THAT, THIS STRANGE HAZE AND GLOW WILL DEVELOP IN THE SKY BECAUSE, THE DUST AND THE MICROBE PARTICLES GENERATED BY THE IMPACT WILL ALSO START SELLING OUT THE ATMOSPHERE THEY CONTAIN MOST OF THE IRIDIUM ANOMALY AT THE SAME TIME, THE SKY IS EFFECTIVELY BEING INCINERATED TO THE POINT OF BOILING AND EVERYTHING ON THE GROUND AROUND YOU WILL SPONTANEOUSLY BURST INTO FLAME THERE ARE PROBABLY MASSIVE WILDFIRES AROUND THE EARTH, AS INDICATED BY EVIDENCE OF SOOT DEPOSITS IF THAT IS NOT BAD ENOUGH, OVER THE NEXT FEW MONTHS, THE PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE ATMOSPHERE WILL CAUSE A GLOBAL COOLING EVENT , AND THEN OVER THE NEXT DECADE, HUNDREDS OF YEARS AT LEAST, THE CARBON DIOXIDE RELEASED BY THE IMPACT HAPPENED TO HIT A CARBONITE SHELF IN THE YUCAT�N, CAUSES MASSIVE GLOBAL WARMING AND THAT IS JUST THE IMPACT AND THEN, FOR THE NEXT COUPLE HUNDRED THOUSAND YEARS, THE DECCAN TRAPS ARE IN A HYPER MODE AT LEAST 2-3 TIMES THEIR NORMAL RATE OF IRRUPTION AT THE IMPACTED NOT FINISH YOU OFF, THEN MAYBE, THE EFFECTS OF THAT MASSIVE VOLCANISM WOULD SO, THIS HAS BEEN A LOT OF FUN. AND, I HOPE THAT WHAT I HAVE CONVEYED TO YOU IS CERTAINLY A SENSE OF HOW, AS LISA SAID VERY ELOQUENTLY, HOW SCIENCE ACTUALLY GETS DONE I ALSO HOPE I HAVE CONVEYED TO YOU, A SENSE OF ADVENTURE, THAT I FEEL VERY PRIVILEGED TO HAVE BEEN ABLE TO TAKE PART IN PROBABLY THE BEST DECISION I EVER MADE AS A SCIENTIST IN MY LIFE WAS WHEN I ARRIVED AT BERKELEY, I WAS –HAVING PUBLISHED THIS PAPER ABOUT THE NATURE OF VOLCANISM THAT GOT A LOT OF ATTENTION I WAS BEING LOBBIED VERY HEAVILY BY A VOCAL GROUP OF PEOPLE WHO THOUGHT THAT THE ONLY THING THAT CAUSED MASS EXTINCTIONS WAS VOLCANISM AND, I COULD HAVE HAD A DIFFERENT ATTITUDE TOWARD MY NEW COLLEAGUE, WALTER ALVAREZ WHO

I MET IN 1989 WHEN I CAME TO BERKELEY INSTEAD, WE BECAME FAST FRIENDS AND, JUST LIKE WALTER AND JAN HAD BECOME FAST FRIENDS, INSTEAD OF THE OTHER ROUTE THEY MIGHT HAVE GONE AND COMPETING OVER PRIORITY ON THE DISCOVERY OF THE CHICXULUB IMPACT TO MAKE A VERY BAD ONE, OBVIOUSLY, THE TALK ABOUT DINOSAURS, CLEARLY I AM STANDING BETWEEN TWO GIANTS BUT, IT IS MORE THAN THAT AND PERHAPS, THE MOST IMPORTANT MESSAGE THAT I WOULD LIKE TO ADD TO MY TALK, WHICH IS THAT ULTIMATELY FOR ME, AND I THINK MOST OF YOU IN THIS AUDIENCE WHO ARE SCIENTISTS, WHO HAVE HAD SOMEWHAT LENGTHY CAREERS, THE MOST IMPORTANT THING YOU TAKE AWAY IS THE FRIENDSHIPS, THE COLLEAGUES, THE SENSE OF DISCOVERY THAT YOU SHARE WITH OTHER PEOPLE, AND IT HAS BEEN AN ABSOLUTE DELIGHT I FEEL LIKE THE LUCKIEST PERSON IN THE WORLD SO, I WANT TO TAKE A FEW MINUTES AND RECOGNIZE A FEW PEOPLE IN THE AUDIENCE, WHO HAVE MADE MY WORLD A VERY SPECIAL PLACE FIRST OF ALL, I WANT WALTER AND HIS WIFE, MILLIE ALVAREZ, TO STAND PLEASE [ APPLAUSE ] >> WALTER AND MILLIE BOARDED A TRAIN FROM OAKLAND, I GUESS, SEVERAL DAYS AGO, AND RODE UP HERE AND WILL TAKE IT BACK LISA AND ANA MARI WERE ALL KIND ENOUGH TO MENTION THAT I SPENT A GOOD BIT OF MY CAREER WORKING IN THE FIELD OF DIVERSITY I ALSO SPENT A GOOD BIT OF THAT LEARNING AT THE FEET OF TWO VERY SPECIAL PEOPLE WHO TAUGHT ME VIRTUALLY EVERYTHING I KNOW, AND HELPED ME UNLEARN EVERYTHING I THOUGHT I KNEW ABOUT DIVERSITY IN THE SCIENCES AND THEY ARE ALSO HERE FROM BERKELEY TODAY DR COLETTE PAT, AND RODOLFO MENDOZA DENTON FROM UC BERKELEY IF YOU COULD STAND AS WELL AND LASTLY, I WAS ACCOMPANIED HERE ON MY JOURNEY BY MY WIFE, SARAH NEWBERG . SHALL WE SAY ADJUSTED HER CAREER TO MOVE TO SEATTLE, SO THAT I COULD BE HERE TO TAKE THE BEST JOB I COULD IMAGINE HAVING THANK YOU VERY MUCH, SARAH IF YOU COULD STAND, TO SARAH AND I HAVE FELT SUCH AN INCREDIBLY WARM WELCOME HERE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON WE ARE ENORMOUSLY GRATEFUL FOR THIS EXPERIENCE MOVING IS HARD ESPECIALLY WHEN YOU REACH A CERTAIN AGE BUT I AM NOT A DINOSAUR YET. AND I WANT TO THANK ALL OF YOU IN THE AUDIENCE MY MANY FRIENDS HERE WE HAVE GOTTEN TO KNOW WHO HAVE BEEN SO KIND AND HAVE EXTENDED SUCH WARM HOSPITALITY TO US IN MAKING THIS TRANSITION I COULD NOT BE MORE EXCITED TO BE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON THIS WONDERFUL UNIVERSITY THAT ULTIMATELY IS HERE FOR OUR CHILDREN, FOR OUR STUDENTS, FROM THE PEOPLE OF WASHINGTON IT IS A GREAT HONOR TO SERVE I LOOK FORWARD TO GETTING TO KNOW ALL OF YOU THANK YOU VERY MUCH [ APPLAUSE ] >> LET’S ALL THANK MARK ESPECIALLY FOR MAKING ME AND EVERYONE ELSE ON THE SEARCH COMMITTEE LOOK REALLY SMART WE HAVE A RECEPTION OUTSIDE AND, MARK IS AVAILABLE FOR MORE QUESTIONS SO, PLEASE JOIN US THANK YOU