100 Greatest – 100 Khám Phá Vĩ Đại – Ep3: Chemistry (Hóa học) Sub Việt-Eng-China

Upload by APTXvn 对我们来说 生活藉由人类的尺度而展开 For us, life unfolds on human scales 比如英里 Miles 英尺 Feet 英寸 Inches 但在万物表面下有个比人类世界小了数十亿倍的领域 But beneath the surface of things is another round, a billions times smaller than we are 这个领域范围掌握的秘密能帮助我们了解世界 A dimension that hold the secrets in understanding our world 是什么让钢铁如此坚固? What makes steal strong 为什么冰淇淋如此美味? Why ice cream is delicious 什么能让生命成为可能? What makes life possible? 这些秘密帮助我们创造想象中的事物 Secrets that help us create what we imagine 人类对于化学的创造力没有比这更美妙的了 The human creativity of chemistry there is just nothing more beautiful than it 这就是化学的领域 This is the realm of chemistry 以下就是化学中的重大发现 And these are the greatest discoveries 翻译:TIV 时间轴制作校对:特大碗牛肉面@CHD 世界百大发现 化学 古希腊哲学家相信世界上只有4种元素 Ancient great philosophers believed that there were just four elements 土,空气,火,水 Earth, air, fire and water 而空气是最重要的元素 And the air was the underlying element 空气这一单一物质能构成世界上所有的东西 A single substance responsible for the makeup of everything in the world 几个世纪后,达芬奇是第一个提出不同见解的科学家 Centuries later, Leonardo Da Vinci was among the first to suggests that 他认为空气并非单一物质 而是由2种气体组成 instead of being an element, air might consists of two different gases 空气的组成一直是个谜直到我们的第一个伟大发现 It remained a mystery until our first great discovery 氧气 18世纪晚期的英国 England, the later part of eighteenth century 牧师兼业余科学家约瑟夫-普里斯特利做一连串试验寻找新空气 clergy man and sometimes scientist Joseph Priestley conducted a serious of experiments searching for new airs 今天我们称为气体 What today we called gases 为了进一步了解普里斯特利的研究 我拜访了阿诺德-查克里 To find out more about what Priestley was up to, I paved a visit to Arnold Thackray 他是宾西法尼亚州费城化学传统基金会的总裁兼历史学家 President and historian in the Chemical Heritage Foundation in Philadelphia Pennsylvania 普里斯特利的著作涵盖范围十分广 超乎想像 Priestley wrote and wrote and wrote on every subject that you have thought of 历史宗教政治 He wrote about history. He wrote about religion. He wrote about politics -科学? -他在著作中不断探讨科学 Science? He wrote about science endlessly 普里斯特利无所不知 And Priestley was among who knew everything 他会告诉你如何使用,来龙去脉以及理论 他真的无所不知 He would tell you the principle 不确定of it,the history of it, the theory of it and he was quiet literally the man who knew everything 除此之外,普里斯特利还进行这个著名的研究,是吧? But along with everything else, Priestley did his famous experiment right ? 完全正确,这个实验要研究2种东西 That’s exactly correct.And there are two things that go into that experiment 一种是水银,水银是奇特的金属 它既是液体又是金属 The one is mercury, this strange substance simultaneously a liquid and metal –很怪异,当人们听到… 液态金属 And that’s just crazy, I mean, whoever heard a liquid metal —确实 And so 都很疑惑这究竟是什么东西? 人们对水银很好奇 很想探索 it was really puzzling what is this thing and people were fascinated by it, and so they want to explore it 而实验中另一个项目是处理气体的技术 And cause another thing went into it, was the technology to deal with gases 普里斯特利实验并观察了各种气体 And here in Priestley’s experiments and observations on different kinds of it 我们有技术能从液体中抽取气体 We have the technology of collecting gases over liquids -从试管中就能看见 –没错,我们看见了气体,就可以看见气体发生了什么事 In tubes, you can see through. Exactly, so you can see the gas, you can see what’s happening to the gas 现在可以进行研究了 And now, you really are in business -普里斯特利拿了一片聚光透镜 –镜片 What Priestley dose is takes a burning glass to get around heat lens 去加热,他让镜片聚焦在这橘色粉末,就是水银灰 He focuses it on this orange powder, the mercuric cawks不确定 水银灰加热后分解为金属水银和一种气体 He heats it, changes it in to this metal mercury and a gas comes off 但当时普里斯特利并不了解他发现了什么 But Priestley doesn’t really realize what it is that he has found 答案到1774年才解开,在普里斯特利去了巴黎后 The answer was emerged in 1774, after Priestley paved a visit to Paris 他把他的发现告诉另一位科学家 安托万-洛朗-拉瓦锡 And shared the story of his discovery with another scientist Antoine Lavoisier 对来访的普里斯特利而言,巴黎是个神奇的地方 Paris was a marvelous place for Priestley to visit 因为拉瓦锡是城里的热门人物 because Antoine Lavoisier is in Paris talk of the town 他当时的工作成果 最后编纂为<化学概要>一书 Doing the work that will end up as his” elementary text on chemistry” 拉瓦锡那时也正在为气体问题感到疑惑 And Lavoisier who is also marking about with the gases

他听说普里斯特利的研究后 He has aware of what Priestley has done 对于这个新气体很感兴趣 决定重做一次同样的实验 He’s fascinated by the report on the new air, decides to repeat the experiment 他有很多仪器比普里斯特利的好 同时他也是严谨的实验者 He has lots of apparatus, better apparatus. He is a meticulous lab experimenter 最重要的是他会测量物质的重量 And among all the things, he weighs the things 拉瓦锡测重时发现有东西从水银灰中挥发出来 Lavoisier by weighing says something being emitted 他称这种东西为“氧气” He called the thing emitted, oxygen 他从根本上改写了化学 He rewrites the whole script of chemistry 还创造了一张元素表沿用至今 And he creates a list of elements that we still use today 包括氧,氢,硫等等 Oxygen, hydrogen, sulfur 你可以准确的说普里斯特利发现了氧 You can correctly say that Priestley discovered oxygen 而拉瓦锡发明了氧 But Lavoisier invented it 普里斯特利的气体实验,氧的发现 So, with Priestley’s experimental work on gases, with the discovery of oxygen, 拉瓦锡编纂成有系统的化学语言 And with Lavoisier l ‘s articulation of the system of language 我们对19世纪的学术成就有了大略的观念 We have the whole conceptual skim which 19th century’s academic works is built 20世纪工业革命后 我们有医药,生物科技,手机 20th century’s industrial innovation. We have pharmaceuticals, we have biotechnology, we have cell phones -塑料 We have plastics -塑料 没错 That’s exactly right 这一切都源自发现氧气 这是一切的起源 And all these things begin with the discovery of oxygen.That’s where it starts 氧气真是奇妙无穷 That’s a lot to breed in不确定 原子论 19世纪早期英国教师道尔顿勤奋地研究化学 In the early 19th century, a British god teacher named John Dalton was hard at work, pursuing the fascination with chemistry 引导出下个伟大发现 Which would lead to our next great discovery 道尔顿的实验显示已知元素比如氧,氢,碳 Dalton’s experiments showed that the known elements such as the oxygen, hydrogen and carbon, 都是明确且比例固定的化合物 combined in definite inconstant proportions 根据他的计算,他假设元素都是由更小且肉眼看不见的物质组成 From his calculations, he hypothesized that the elements must be made up of smaller invisible pieces of matter 这些物质具有相对质量和特定质量 With relatively distinct weights 他称这些物质为“原子” He called these pieces of matter atoms 道尔顿究竟发现了什么? So, what did Dalton discover? 道尔顿将自己的伟大发现称为终极粒子的相对质量 Dalton’s great discovery was what he called the relative weights of ultimate particles -终极粒子 -他这样称呼,很棒的名字 Ultimate particles. That’s what he called it. It’s a lovely phrase 不久之后当他公开他的发现时,名称也改为“原子量” Later on, when he went public, it becomes atomic weights 今天我们所熟知的“原子量”原本称作“终极粒子” And we know it as atomic weights, but it was ultimate particles -他用了原子这个名字 So, he used the word atoms -他用了原子这个名字 He used the word atoms 原子的概念可以追溯到古希腊哲学家得谟克里斯 And the idea of atoms calls goes, back to Democritus 问题是这个概念有实际用处吗? The problem is, is the idea, is it in use 道尔顿将概念变成现实 这是他的伟大贡献 And Dalton was the man who made the idea useful. That was his great contribution 道尔顿的研究成果发展为原子论 Form his work, Dalton developed what came to be known as his atomic theory 这个革命性的新系统界定出原子和元素的关联 A revolutionary new system that defined the relationship between the atoms and the elements 这个系统非常简单 道尔顿想的简单,具视觉化 And this is enormously simple system and Dalton thinks very simply, very visually 这边是元素 这边是元素的重量 Here are the elements. Here are the weights of the elements 这边是复杂分子 这个系统非常有效率 Here are the complex molecules. And it’s a wonderfully effective system 给化学家一种方法 用平衡法来测量肉眼看不见的分子的重量 It connects the thing that chemists can do weighting and balancing with the thing that you can’t see 原子的终极世界 真是天才 The ultimate world of atoms. That’s genius 道尔顿的发现有多重要呢? How important was Dalton’s discovery? 他的原子论帮助好几代的科学家 His atoms theory helped generations of scientists 进一步揭开原子和分子世界的奥秘 further unravel the mysteries of the atomic and molecular world 包括下一个伟大发现 Including our next great discovery 分子由原子组成 19世纪初叶,法国化学家盖-吕萨克 In the early 18the hundreds, French chemist Joseph Gay-Lussac 进行一连串实验 研究道尔顿的原子论 观察到怪异现象 Was conducting a series of experiments, designing to study the Dalton’s atomic theory, when he observed something odd 他混合同等份量的不同气体并测试其反应 When he combined equal volumes of different gases and measured their reactions 气体产生的量是预期的2倍 The gases often produces twice the volumes than he expected 这是怎么回事呢? How was this possible 答案在1811年由意大利杜林大学的物理学家亚佛加厥教授发现 The answer was provided in 1811 by Amedeo Avogadro, a physics professor at the University of Turin in Italy 亚佛加厥在研读盖吕萨克的研究时 突然有了灵感 While he studying the results of Gay-Lussac’s research, Avogadro had an insight 当时气体被认为由单一原子组成 亚佛加厥认为这个假设有错 At the time, it was believed that the gases remained of single atoms. Avogadro realized that this assumption was wrong 气体是由复杂原子组成 后来称为“分子” The gases were remained of multiple atoms. What came to be known as molecules 知道原子能重组并组成分子 这是科学界的一大突破 The realization that the atoms could be rearrange to form molecules was the breakthrough 让科学家走出化学的黑暗时代 that enable scientists to move out the chemistry dark ages 开始有系统的创造化合物 And began systematically creating new compounds 尿素的合成 下一个伟大发现在19世纪 Our next great discovery occurred in the 19th century 当时许多化学家相信 来自有机体或生物的有机物质 When many chemists believed that organic substances from organisms or living things 不同于来自非生物的无机物 Were somehow different from inorganic substance, from nonliving things

不过这个观念就要改变了 But that was about to change 1828年德国化学家威勒在实验时发现一个现象 In 1828, Frederick Waller was working in his lab, when something caught his eye 威勒把两种无机化学物质放进烧杯 氰酸钾和硫酸铵 Waller had placed two inorganic chemical in a beaker, potassium cyanate and ammonia sulfate 发现烧杯里有大约1克 又小又白的针状结晶 Now, when you looked at the beaker, it contained a gram of small, white, niddle shaped crystals 威勒记得曾经看过同样的结晶体 what made this remarkable was that Waller thought he had seen exactly the same crystals once before 不过有不同 之前的结晶体都来自有机物 But there were important difference. Those crystals had been organic 他在研究尿液中各种物质的化学特性时造出的结晶 He had crystallized them or studied the chemistry of various substances found in urea 为确认没有误判 威勒分析这些新的结晶体 To make sure he wasn’t mistaken, Waller analyzed the new crystals 结果证实没有错 新旧两种结晶完全相同 There was no mistake. These crystals were the same as those he had isolated before 尿素原本由生物制造 现在无机物质也能产生尿素 He had made urea, which was something that come out of living thing he had made out of inorganic substance 然后他在私人信件,非报纸中写道 Later he said in a personal letter in a paper he wrote about that “我不需要肾脏也能制造尿素” I had made urea without kidney 他明白自己的成果 And he knew what he had done 这位是霍夫曼博士 1981年诺贝尔化学奖得主 Meet Roald Hoffmann, winner of the 1981 Nobel Prize in chemistry 获奖理由为开发能解释有机化学反应的理论 For developing a theory to explain organic chemical reactions 为什么人工合成尿素的发现这么伟大? So why is this discovery of artificially making urea, why is that a great discovery 历史上有时候需要一个发现 You know, in a constant of time when you need a discovery that sometimes a single one 只需要这一个发现就能跨越界限 打破障碍 to cross a border, to break down the wall 尿素的发现就是这样 This is what this discovery was 倒不是这个发现到底有多伟大 It’s not that it was so important of itself 而是当时能使用2种无机化学物质就能简单的制造尿素 But at the time that came the simple making of urea out of two inorganic chemicals 这就引起了大家的注意 When it came, it caught people’s attention 这个发现的重点就是 The whole story of the discovery is about 组成所有物质的基础 无论有机或者无机 the underlying basis that building blocks of all matter organic and inorganic 都是一样的 就是原子 Being the same, atoms 化学结构 如果这些乐高积木19世纪初期就存在的话 If these LEGO Bricks had existed in the early part of 19th century, 化学家就能用这个来解释实验中看到的现象 chemists could use them to help illustrated something they were seeing in their experiments 这个现象可以解释下一个伟大发现 A phenomena that led to our next great discovery 特定元素比如钠或者氯的原子 似乎是以固定的比例相结合 The atoms of particular elements such as Sodium and chlorine seem to combine with each other according to fix ratios 原子间的结合能力启发了德国化学家凯库勒 It was this combining power atoms that inspired German chemist August Kekule 他发展出一套系统地能具体化呈现各种分子的化学结构的理论 To develop a system for visualizing the chemical structure of various molecules 凯库勒用符号表示各个原子 加上标记显示原子彼此结合的方式 Kekule represented the atoms by their symbols. Then added marks to indicate how they bodied不确定 with each other 彼此用链状联结 这种方程式简洁优雅 Like links and chains. It was a simple yet elegant formula 使得化学家现在有方法清楚图示研究中的分子化学结构 Chemists now had devised for clearly illustrating the chemical structures of the molecules they were studying 但还有1个问题 只有苯元素无法套用凯库勒的化学式 There was just one problem; benzene was the only chemical that was not fit Kekule’s formula 苯的碳原子与氢原子链可能需要比这些化学式更强大的结合力 Benzene ‘s chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms required more combing power than the formula would allow 有机化学教授都对此现象很疑惑 提出不同见解 And all these organic chemistry professors were puzzling about it, offering different explanations 在这其中 凯库勒某晚在壁炉旁坐着入睡 And one of them, August Kekulei sitting by the fire one of the evening, falls to sleep 然后梦见了蛇 And starts to dream about a snake 想象一条蛇,在凯库勒的梦中,蛇咬住自己的尾巴 And if you think about the snake what kekule dreams off is a snake catches its own tail 他想,或许原子组成是环状 解开了这个谜团 And if you think about this,May be, the thing is a ring. And that gives you an answer to the puzzle 苯分子的6个碳原子并非链状连结 而是象那条蛇一样环状 The 6 carbon atoms of the Benzene molecules linked in a chain. Like the snake it formed a ring 每个碳原子以单或双链连接一个氢原子 Each of the hydrogen atom attached with alternating single and double bond 凯库勒的见解迅速得到证实 产生了革命性影响 Within a short time, kekule’s insight was confirmed. And its effect was revolutionary 化学家知道有机物质分子中含有单个或多个碳原子 Chemists knew that all organic substances contained one or more carbon atoms in their molecules 借助凯库勒的发现 with kekule’s discovery, 如今他们有基本的化学式解释碳如何结合其他分子 they now had the underlying formula to how carbon combined with other molecules 构成化学化合物的世界 现代有机化学因此诞生 To form a world of chemical compounds. The modern era of organic chemistry was born 既然这个概念如此简单,就像蛇咬住自己的尾巴 Now ,with this thing being simple. like it say the snake bite to its tail 为什么算是伟大发现呢? Why is this considered a great discovery 利用这个方法能发展新药,新医学,对化学的全新了解 Here is a recipe for new drugs, new medicine, new understanding

回想道尔顿时代只有数百种化合物 To go back at time in Dalton’s day, couple of hundreds compounds, 很快可以增加为上千上万种 soon as couple of thousands, 很快会增加为数十万种化合物 soon as ten thousands, it ‘s astonishing, soon as hundreds thousands 去年有1500万种新化合物被注册 Last year, fifteen million new compounds were registered 都是利用这个简单的模式 这是天才的杰作 All built on this simple template. This is the work of genius 化学元素周期表 1869年,俄国化学家门德列夫正在为学生编写教材 In 1869, a Russian chemistry professor named Dmitry Mendeleyev was writing a text book for his students 他绞尽脑汁想让学生用最佳方式了解当时已知的63种元素 When he began to wonder how he could be best explain them the 63 elements that were known at the time 为了理清思绪 他在一张张卡片上写下各种元素 Help formulating thoughts, he constructed a card for each element 卡片上有元素的名称,原子量,特性 与其他元素相似处 On each card, he wrote the name of the element, its atomic way, its typical properties and its similarities to other elements 他把卡片摆在桌子上像玩单人扑克牌 He then laid the card like a game of solitary 再三重复排列卡片,寻找规则 And began to arrange them over and over, searching for patterns 伟大发现的时刻降临 Then came the moment of discovery 他发现元素排列非比寻常 Before him is something extraordinary 所有元素可排进7个垂直族群内 The elements fell into 7 vertical groupings 每一组周期族群内的元素在物理上和化学上彼此类似 Each periodical grouping had members that resemble one and other, both chemically and physically 门德列夫发现了化学元素周期表 Mendelevium had discovered the periodical table of the elements 这是一张显示元素彼此之间的关系的地图 a map showing how all the elements related to one and another 这张表十分精确 A map so precise that 门德列夫相信甚至可以预测尚未发现的3种元素和特性 Mendelevium believed he could also use it to predict the existence and properties of three elements known yet to discovered 1种是硼 1种是铝 1中是矽 One would like be boron on he said. One like aluminum and one like silicon 这3种元素最后都被发现了 Eventually, the elements were discovered 证明门德列夫是对的 And Mendelevium was proved right 当时出现一点小争议 当时德国化学家迈尔也有类似概念 It was actually a little bit of controversy because German chemist named . Lothar Meyer had come up with roughly the same idea 但迈尔没有勇气进一步尝试预测 这其实很有意思 But Meyer didn’t quiet have as much courage, so that’s actually interesting thing 迈尔也提出同样的周期性概念 也有线索 Here this German come up with the same idea of periodicity of which there were hints already before 但他没有象门德列夫一样预测 But he doesn’t like the predictions like Mendeleev does 我们见识了大胆预测的力量 So, here we see the power of our risky prediction 要世人接受新理论 没有任何力量比预测暧昧不明的未来要强大 In having people accept a theory. There is nothing more powerful than making a prediction that is not obvious -而且这预测又成真了 And have it come true -没错 Yes have it come true 化学元素周期表就是我们的逻辑图象 我们从这张图开始认识化学 The periodical table is our icon. I mean that’s what we associate with chemistry 走进任何化学教室都有这张图 You going to any chemistry room you’ll see it 为什么化学元素周期表这么重要呢? Why is the periodical table of elements significant? 它永远改变人类学习并了解元素的方法 It forever changed the way that everyone would learn and understand the elements 元素周期表对于化学 就像音符对于贝多芬奏鸣曲一样 The periodical table of elements is to chemistry as notes of music are to Beethoven’s sonata 为纪念门德列夫 他的名字也放进元素周期表 And in honor of Mendeleev, his name is now literally attached to the periodical table 原子序数101的元素即以他的名字命名 叫做钔 The element 101 was named after him. It’s called mendelevium 不只化学家喜欢元素表 我听说你也随身带着 It’s not only the chemists who like the periodical table. I hear you carry one around 没错,我是随身带了一张 I do carry one. Yes sure -给我看看 Show me -指不定何时就用到,其实我常常用到它 You ‘ll never know And I seem to use it a lot 我看看 Let’s see -很小呢 This is small -我要考考你 氮的下面是什么? So I am going to give you a test. What’s under nitrogen in periodical table -氮的原子序数是7 Nitrogen is seven -没错 Yes 我得想想 是硫 I have to think of a second. It’s sulfur -你错啦~ No, you are wrong -所以我随身携带 so I carry it often -很接近,差一点,是磷 So, it’s phosphorus -磷,15 磷的序数是15 Oh. Phosphorus. Phosphorus is 15 -没错,你得加上8 Yeah. You have to add 8 that point 所以我随身带着这个表,因为我记不住 Yes, that’s why I carry it. I can’t remember 7加8是15 就是磷 So it’s seven plus eight, fifteen phosphorus 这真的有规律可循 it’s ok. There is a pattern there. I get it now 电解化学物质 进入19世纪后,电的研究盛行一时 At the turn of the nineteenth century, electricity was all the rage 人们忙着制造电池,连接不同的东西观察反应 People were busy making batteries and connecting them just about anything to see the reactions 电池就像新形态的火 Electricity was like a new kind of fire 其中一位电池迷,英国化学家戴维,靠自学研究化学 One of the great battery junkies of the day was Humphrey David, a self-taught English chemist 1807年戴维在自家实验室进行电池实验时 他融化一些碳酸钾 In 1807, David was performing a battery experiment in his lab

碳酸钾是泥土中的矿物质 木柴灰烬里面也有 He melted some potash aluminum found in the ground that also forms in the ash’s wood 化学家怀疑碳酸钾为数种元素的化合物 但无法证实 Chemists had speculated that potash was a compound of several elements, but are not able to prove it 戴维想试试电流能否提供解答 David wanted to see if electricity might provide the answer 他用金属丝将最大的电池连接融化后的碳酸钾 He reared some wire from one of his biggest batteries to the molten potash 纯钾出现了 Pure potass began to emerge 戴维发现电流能引发化学反应 转换化学物质 David had discovered the power of electricity to react to chemicals and transform them 电解化学最后引发 Eventually, electrical chemistry led to 制铝工业的兴起 the rise of aluminum industry 半导体 The production of semiconductors 太阳能板 Solar panels 发光二极管显示设备 LED displaces 甚至可以充电的锂电池 Even rechargeable Li-ion Batteries 原子有光的特性 19世纪50年代德国物理学家本生和同僚基尔霍夫进行一连串实验 In the eighteen fifties, Robert Bunsen and his research collaborator Gustav Kirchhoff conducted a serious of experiments 研究为什么燃烧物质时 火焰会发出特定的颜色 To determined why substances emitted specific colors When placed in a flame 他们查出颜色代表组成该物质的元素 The color they determined indicates what elements are present in the substance 比如燃烧钠,火焰是黄色 For example, if sodium is place in a flame,they observed sheaves不确定 of yellow 铜是绿色 Copper, sheaves of green 锶则呈现红色 Strontium, sheaves of red 这真漂亮 Oh it’s a good one 实验中基尔霍夫想到用三棱镜能将光线分成七彩 While watching the experiments, Kirchhoff was reminded that how a prism spreads light into a rainbow of colors 利用三棱镜和一具小望远镜 So, using a prism and a piece of small telescope 本生和基尔霍夫制造了史上第一具分光镜 Bunsen and Kirchhoff built the first spectroscope 希望分光镜能让他们看见物质加热后的光谱 And analyticale device they hope would help them to see the spectra coming from heated substances 果然成功了 And it worked 当元素放入本生灯火焰燃烧时 As an element was put into a flame of a Bunsen burn, 加热后物质发出的光通过分光镜里的三棱镜 the light from the heated substances passed through the prism of the spectroscope 就会分散成缎带般的色谱 并镶着黑边 Where they spread into a ribbon-like spectrum of colors, riddled with dark lights 明亮的颜色和暗黑线条的组合有如条码一般 The combinations of bright colors and dark lines were like bar codes 显示有哪些原子 Indicating what atoms were present 燃烧各元素时 会制造独一无二的光谱 When burned, each element produced a completely unique spectrum 本生和基尔霍夫利用分光镜发现两种新元素 Using their spectroscope, Bunsen and Kirchhoff were able to discover two new elements 铯和铷 Cesium and rubidium 有一天本生和基尔霍夫把分光镜拿去测试阳光 One day, Bunsen and Kirchhoff decided to test their invention with the sunlight 太阳的光谱中有2条线 和钠光谱中的线条一样 It produced the spectrum that featured two lines that were identical to those in the spectrum produced by sodium 本生和基尔霍夫发现9300万英里外的太阳中有钠 Bunsen and Kirchhoff had discovered the presence of sodium in the sun ninety three million miles away 突然之间科学家有了工具能帮助研究天体的化学物质 Suddenly, scientists had the tool to help them study the chemistry of the heavens 升空了,升空! Lifted off. We have lifted off 这项发现,今天持续应用于太空探险 Today, the legacy of this great discovery lives on the exploration of the space 用光谱来研究行星的大气层 寻找水与生命的迹象 A formal spectrum has been used to study the atmosphere of the planets, to search for signs of water, signs of life 电子 下一个伟大发现是汤姆逊发现了电子 Our next great discovery is the story of Joseph Thomson and the electron -任何可见的事物都由化学物质组成 So, everything that we can see is made of chemicals -没错 That’s right -那未来呢? What’s the future? -化学物质都以电子交互作用连接起来 They are all bounded as electronic actions 为了找到答案,我造访哈佛大学 To find out about it, I paved a visit to Harvard University 赫施巴赫教授是1986年诺贝尔化学奖得主 Dudley Herschbach is a professor here and the winner of the 1986’s Nobel Prize in chemistry 因为微观反应动力学的研究而获奖 For his research in the dynamic chemical elementary processes 那么…汤姆逊其实没有发现电子? So, Thomson didn’t discover the electrons 话虽这么说,他虽然并没大喊“我找到了” Well, it’s said that way, but he didn’t discovering it said” here it got, I’ve got this things. Here it is.” 但他做了一个实验 能测量电荷的比率和质量 He did experiment it a lot and did measure the ratio of the charge, the electric charge , the mass 后来他测到粗略的电荷 得到的质量也很小 其质量大约为已知最轻的原子 氢原子的1/2000 And later he got a rough measurement of the charge, and therefore showed the mass was very very small 这表示他可以抽取并测出原子的极小部分 It was about one to thousand to the mass that light is known as atoms, hydrogen atom -非常震惊,当时世人并没有这样做… So, it showed that he could expect a very small piece of an atom -说双关语,呵呵 All, I was command a shock, Punch attended. Yes

原子的带电部分 是非常小的一部分 The electrical piece from atoms was a very small part of the atom 当汤姆逊做研究时,他是英国剑桥大学教授 At the time of his discovery, Thomson was the professor of England University of Cambridge 他在实验中用了一种仪器 克鲁克斯真空管 He was using a device called the Crookes tube in his experiment 我这儿正好有1个小仪器 和汤姆逊在1897年用的类似 I happened to have here a little apparatus that’s akin to the one that J.J Thomson used in 1897 叫做阴极射线管 It’s called a Cathode Ray Tube 抽光空气的小玻璃管 上头装有电极 Just evacuated its little glass cylinder, with some electros 把它连接起来,就能显示实验重点 And we can hook this up -十分简单 So, the key points of this experiment is very simply -第一支阴极射线管的复制品 The replica of the first CRT 没错,这就是第一支阴极射线管 Yeah. It’s the first cathode ray tubes is 其实就是电视显像管的前身 the accentor of the television tubes as a matter of fact 你完成最后步骤,应该会有阴极射线或者电子出现 You do the last one, and we should get the stream the cathode rays or electrons 会有部分撞击瓶内的涂磷的硬板 Going there and showing of banning in this phosphor cold piece of cupboard there 你可以制造磁场 让电子偏斜 Here I give you a magnetic field and you use to deflect the electrons 当汤姆逊让阴极射线暴露在磁场下 When Thomson exposed the cathode ray to a magnet 射线就会弯曲 由于磁场只能影响物质 The stream would bend, since magnets could only affected matter 这代表阴极射线是由某种带电物质组成 叫做辐射物质 This one of stream of rays were composed of kind of electrically charged substance, called radiated matter 经过多次的实验后,汤姆逊明白自己找到了次原子级的粒子 After many hours of observing and measuring, Thomson realized he’d found the first sub-atomic particles 这射线由电子组成 这是革命性的发现 The ray was a stream of electrons. It was a revolutionary discovery 几年后,汤姆逊的学生拉塞福找出了原子的正极 Some years later, student of Thomson Ernest Rutherford was able to show that the positive charge of the atoms 正极当然一直都存在才能平衡电子的负极 Which is there to balance the negative charge of the electrons 这些电子被限制在微小的原子核里急速移动 which was scooting around, was localized in a tiny tiny nucleus 原子核比原子小10万倍 Hundred thousand of times smaller than the size atoms 而且原子的质量几乎都集中在原子核 So, almost all the mass was of course in that nucleus as well 因为电子非常轻 Well, because electrons are so light, 这个模型我们沿用至今,是吧? And that’s still the model we have today 这是原子的基本模型 是了解有关原子一切的关键 That’s the basic model for atoms and is the key on understanding the everything involving this -比如化学 Like chemistry -特别是化学,没错 Yes like chemistry particular. That‘s right 电子构成化学键 科学家开始探索原子的架构 Scientists were just beginning to discover the anatomy of the atom 现在他们想要了解原子的行为模式 Now, they wonder to understand its behavior 他们特别想了解这奇妙的机制 Specifically the mechanism 为什么能使某些元素中的原子能与其他元素中的原子结合产生新物质 that enabled the atoms of certain elements to combine with the atoms of the other elements to form new substance 20世纪初,美国化学家路易斯发展出一个原子模型提供解答 In the early nineteenth hundreds, American chemist Gilbert Lewis developed a model of the atoms that provided an answer 他解释了原子中的电子及化学现象 That’s he who explained the electrons in atoms, 是关于电子的,而非原子核 The chemistry about electrons, not about nucleus 原子中的电子绕着原子核壳层运动 That the electrons in atoms went in shells around the nucleus 路易斯的原子模型中 每个壳层仅能容纳最大数量的电子 In Lewis’s model of the atoms, each shell allowed only maxima number of electrons 路易斯提出理论 认为两种化学元素可以结合成化合物 Lewis theorized that two chemical elements might combine to form a compound, 只要它们放弃或接受壳层外的电子 When they give up or accept electrons from their outer shells 举例来说 钠和氯本身是有害的 For example, on their own, sodium and chlorine are hazardous 但当钠原子放弃壳层外的电子 而此电子被氯原子外壳接受时 But when a single sodium atom gives up the electron from its outer shell and the single chlorine outer shell accepts it 这个电子交换能让两种元素结合 This exchange allows the two to combine 产生化合物-氯化钠 也就是食盐 And form the compound sodium chloride, table salt 路易斯的理论是大突破 Gilbert Lewis’s theory was an extraordinary breakthrough 科学家从此能制造化学化合物 It enables scientists to begin making chemical compounds 数百万种化合物也改变了现代人的生活面貌 Millions of them, compounds that shift the face of modern life 放射性 下一个伟大发现始于1890年代 Our next great discovery stared in the 1890 始于发现不知名的放射线 X光 With the discovery of unknown radiation called x-rays X光引起轰动 科学家们立刻开始寻找物质 It caused sensation and scientists immediately began looking for other substances 能够放射奇特甚至有价值的放射线 that made it strange, perhaps valuable forms of radiation 接下来数十年,许多科学家深入研究此现象 Over the next several decades, a number of scientists investigated the phenomena 共同为现代科学重要的侦察研究揭开序幕 And together ended up shedding the light on one of the greatest scientific snooping episodes of modern science 法国物理学家贝克勒尔首先有了重大突破 French physicist Henri Becquerel made the first significant breakthrough

1896年他进行一连串研究 观察各种矿物是否具有放射性 In 1896, he conducted a series of experiments to see a various of minerals emitted radiation 其中他测试的矿物质之一是铀 One of the mineral he happened to tests was uranium 贝克勒尔将不同的物体放在没有曝光且覆盖黑纸保护的底片上 Becquerel’s technique was to place different objects on top of an unexposed photographic plate, still wrapped 不确定in black paper 他将铀洒在另外一张黑纸上 然后将一个物体放在铀和底片之间 Which sprinkled uranium onto another piece of black paper, then enclosed the object between the uranium and the photographic plate 稍后他将底片洗出来 Later Becquerel were developed the plate 他发现,物体的模糊轮廓一定会出现在底片上 and without fail a ghostly photographic outline of the object would appear 经过这些实验 贝克勒尔作出结论 From these experiments Becquerel was able to prove conclusively 他发现了大家都在寻找的神秘放射线来源 That he had found a source for the mysterious radioactive rays that everyone was looking for 那物质就是铀 That source was uranium 贝克勒尔的研究后继有人 那就是居里夫人 From Becquerel, the investigation of radio activity was taken up by Marie Curie 居里夫人和丈夫皮埃尔设法提炼铀矿中的放射性元素 Curie and her husband Pierre undertook the job of isolating whatever elements were responsible for the radio activity in uranium ore 2年间,居里夫妇煮沸 筛选 过滤及处理数吨铀矿 For two years, the curies boiled, sifted, filtered and processed several tons of uranium ore 最后终于成功从铀矿中提炼出两种新元素 即 钋和镭 Finally, they succeeded in isolating two new elements containing the uranium which they called polonium and radium 居里夫人的结论是镭的放射性比铀强数百万倍 Marie curie concluded that radium was a million times more radioactive than uranium 更重要的是 她观测到让放射线穿透物质的神秘能量 More importantly, she determined that the mysterious form of energy which enabled radioactivity to penetrate other materials 并不是化学反应的结果 而是和原子有关 Was not a result of chemical process, but seemed to be atomic in nature 不幸的是这个伟大发现让她付出巨大代价 Unfortunately, her discovery came at a great cost 当时没人知道暴露在放射线下的危险 The danger of being exposed to radioactivity was still unknown at the time 1934年,居里夫人因白血病病逝 In 1934, Marie curie died of leucocythemia 后人认为病因是受辐射伤害致死 Believed to be caused by radiation poisoning 她生前记录实验结果的笔记本 至今仍视为辐射含量过高而无法碰触 Even the notebook that she use to record observations, are still considered too radioactive to handle 放射性的原子特性吸引了发现电子的物理学家拉塞福 It was the atomic nature of radioactivity that eventually attracted the interest of physicist Earnest Rutherford, Whom we already mad 不确定the discovery of the electron 拉塞福发现放射性物质会自然衰变 Rutherford found that radioactive material go through a natural process of decay 在衰变过程中 放射线会自然释放出不稳定但高电荷能量的粒子 As the move soothe the 不确定process, the radioactivity spontaneously emits unstable and highly charged particles , 这粒子足以穿透物体 with the power to penetrate matter 拉塞福称之为α(阿尔法)粒子 β(贝塔)粒子 γ(伽马)射线 Rutherford called them alpha and beta particles and gamma rays 自从这些发现以来 放射性的好坏两面日益了解 Since those discoveries, we’ve learned a lot about radioactivity, the dangers as well as the benefits 放射性能为医学提供影像 Radioactivity has given us medical imaging 提供肿瘤的新疗法 A treatment for tumors 能计算地球年龄 A method for calculating the age of the earth 还能给太空船提供燃料 探索太阳系 And the power source for our space craft to explore the solar system 甚至有些烟雾探测器 也包含有少量叫做镅的放射性物质 Even some smoke detectors contain a small amount of radioactive material called americium 能制造稳定的电流 Which helps create steady electrical current 当烟雾粒子扰乱电流时 警铃就会想起 A smoke particles disrupt that current and the triggers alarm 数百年前 炼金术士的目标很高 Centuries ago, alchemist set their sights high 他们想透过神奇的物质转换 寻求无限的财富和永生 They thought infinite welfare and immortality through miraculous transformation of matter 他们发明许多有用工具和玻璃器皿 They came up with useful tools and glassware, 但其他成就却不多 But not majels不确定 另一方面,化学家把目标设定降低 chemists on the other hands, set their sights a bit lower 结果改变了物质世界的外观和感受 And ended up changing the look and feel of the material world 下一个伟大发现就是如此 As did our next great discovery 塑胶 1860年代,约翰-海亚特是一位纽约印刷厂老板兼业余化学家 In the eighteen sixties, John Hyatt ,a printer and amateur chemist in orbital in New York 突然成为新闻人物 Made news 他用天然植物中长纤维素分子制造出历史上第一个塑胶 when he discovered a way to explore the long stringing molecules of cellulose found naturally in plants and created the first plastic 50年后,比利时化学家贝克兰在这个发明中承前启后 Fifty years later, Belgian born chemist Leo Baekeland took the next step in the discovery process 贝克兰是伟大的先驱者之一 One of the greatest pioneer was Leo Baekeland, 他制造出一种聚合物叫电木(酚醛塑料) who made a polymer called Bakelite 机遇只留给那些有准备的人 The usual thing transfavorring不确定 the prepared man 他把东西混在一起 他知道如何探索 他看出这玩意的有趣特性 He was make the same things. But he knew how to explore them.He saw the interesting properties of this 由从木炭中提取的2种化学物质 From two chemicals derived from coal, 贝克兰发明了全世界第一个百分百的人造塑胶 Baeckland discovered the wourld’s first fully-sympathetic plastic

20世纪的景象完全改观 And the landscape of the twenties century’s was forever changed 塑胶究竟是什么? What exactly is a plastic 塑胶是聚合体 聚合体又是什么? Plastics are polymers. So what are polymers 它是长链分子 不是一堆黏结成固体的单一分子 Polymers are long chain molecules, not individual molecules that plumed up into any solitary or some sort 这种分子可以拉伸很长 碳原子链有时含有其他元素 They are really molecules that can stand out very far. Chains of carbon atoms sometimes with some other elements 聚合物的优点是什么呢?可塑性很高 So, what are the advantages. Well, it’s mutable 能以液体形态倒进模具里 You can pour it in some liquid form into some modes, 强韧,不易毁坏,你可以用塑胶做防弹背心 Stranks待定 that’s not bad. You can made bullet-proof vest from plastics 我们也见过聚合纤维 可仿造甚至超越天然纤维的特性 and we’ve certainly seen that in terms of fibers they can mimic or even surpass the properties of natural fibers 全世界没有渔夫还在老旧地用棉花做渔网了 现在渔网用尼龙制成 No fisherman in the world is going to go back to having nets out of cotton. You can bet. those nets are goanna be of nylon 你认为塑胶的发明算是伟大发现吗? So, would you say the discovery of plastics is a great discovery 我们的科学能制造聚合物,制造尼龙和人造丝 We have science making polymers, making nylon, making rayon 它们起初来于自然,但最后却塑造成聚合体 which has natural starting point 制造塑胶玻璃 聚乙烯 这些都是人类文明建构出来的物质 But is modified into a polymer, making Plexiglas or polyethylene. Those are the structure of our material of civilization 我认为聚合物是一例展现人类对于化学的创造力 I think polymers are, in that sense, a example of human creativity of chemistry 没有任何事物比这更美的了 That’s there is nothing more beautiful than them 富勒烯 这1公克的黑色粉末要价500美元 The single gram of black powder costs five hundred dollar 是黄金的30倍 About 30 times of the price of gold 值得一提的是,这种特别的灰 Remarkably, it is a special kind of soot 由碳纳米管的分子组成 Made of molecules called carbon nanotubes 每个纳米管的直径只有1米的十亿分之一(即1纳米) Each nanotubes is about one billion of a meter in diameter 比DNA(脱氧核糖核酸)的一股还要小 Thinner than a strand of DNA 却装满了世间的期待 许多人因此非常兴奋 Yet full of the world’s promise that lots of people excited 包括发现他们的科学家 Including the scientists who helped discover them 理查德-斯莫利是得克萨斯州休斯敦莱斯大学化学教授 Richard Smalley is a professor of chemistry of Rice University in Huston Taxas 1985年他和两位同僚 化学家罗伯特-柯尔和哈罗德-克罗托 In 1985, he and fellow chemists Robert Cole and Harold Crotone 一同研究外太空的化学环境 were studying chemical conditions in outer space 利用精密的激光以及分光仪器 Using sophisticated laser and spectroscopic equipment 他们寻找能帮助揭开星际介质的化学特性的证据 They were searching for evidence that might help reveal chemical nature of interstellar matter 不过他们却发现了别的东西 Instead, they found something else 因此共同获得了1996年诺贝尔化学奖(2005年,斯莫利因病去世) For which they shared the 1996’s Nobel Prize for chemistry 你们到底发现了什么 What exactly did you discover? 1985年的一个星期,我们发现了特别的碳簇 Well, in 1985, over a period of week, we discovered that there was one special cluster of carbon atoms 具有很精确的60个碳原子 That had precisely 60 atoms 很惊奇 而且稳定性比其他任何原子团都要高 That was magic, it was specially stable compared with any other cluster 我们觉得很奇怪 And we wondered why 斯莫利,克罗托和柯尔将新分子命名为“巴克球” Smalley, Crotone and Cole named the new molecules Buckyballs 以纪念设计多面圆顶屋的建筑师理查德-巴克明斯特-富勒 After Buckminster Fuller, the architect designed the geodesic dome 他们发现的是一种全新种类的大型纯碳分子 What they really discovered was a whole new cluster of large all-carbon molecules 最后定名为富勒烯 Which came to be called fullerenes 这分子并不只是一堆原子紧密结合的产物 Molecules are not just when some atoms start together by good bonds 还有一个特性 There’s another proper molecules 当你将这些碳原子的最后一个原子放进去时 分子就突然成型了 and that’s when you put the last atom, it’s kind of clicks. It’s done -而且稳定 It’s stable -你无法再多塞一个原子进去 一个都不要了 And if you offer another atom, it says no, I am happy the way I am 这就是C60的特性 And that’s what C60 was 我们试着在我们制造的仪器内加进其他的碳原子 但是它拒绝接受 We were offering other carbon atom in the apparatus we built, and it said, no I am gonna stay with the 60 它只有60个 所以这个分子,在我心目中 So, here’s the molecule, and this was a molecule my mind 似乎解释了所有已知分子中最具对称性的分子是什么 are same to explain the results, which has the most symmetry of any molecules ever discovered 这可是大事件 1纳米直径 大约是1埃米 The big thing is about an nanometer in diameter, a ten extra emmi , 1纳米是1米的十亿分之一 an nanometer a billion to a meter 1991年,富勒烯的重要性更加显现 In 1991, the significance of fullerenes gave even more momentum 饭岛澄男,日本NEC公司科学家 发现另一类空心笼状奇迹 when Sumio Iijima, a scientist at NEC cooperation, discovered yet another category of cage like wonders 但饭岛发现的富勒烯有些不同 But these fullerenes were slightly different 它们是纯碳原子组成的空心分子,形成一种无缝的空心管 They were made of hollow molecules of pure carbon that form a seamless hollow tube 叫做碳纳米管 called carbon nanotubes 为了向发现碳60的斯莫利致敬 也叫做巴克管 Or in honor of Smalley‘s discovery, buckytubes -之前有巴克球,是吧 -是 There’s buckyballs right? Yes -现在是巴克管 And then there is buckytubes 对,这东西是放大版本 这个球的直径和这根管子一样 Yes, I’ve got, this is get off a big now, a tube of the diameter of ball is this big 这也是富勒烯,结构相同 这是五角形,这是六角形 This is, this is a fullerene same sort of structure. And here’s the pentagon. Here’s the hexagon

上下6个五角形共12个 中间都是六角形 There are six pentagon here, six pentagon here, twelve total and between all this hexagon 这东西就像是某种巴克胶囊 So, this thing is sort of bucky capsule 你可以把它想象的非常长 But you can imagine the thing very long and 实际上,这东西已经可做出比现有直径长几百万倍 in fact the things are made millions of times longer than their diameter now 这些物质有着不可思议的特性 And these objects have incredible properties -是什么? Like what? -比如说,这个是塑胶做的,很容易被折断 Well, for one thing, if you hold, say, these plastics objects, which I could easy break it apart不确定 但是如果你想折断巴克管 你会发现它是全宇宙最结实的东西 But if you hold buckytube in your hand, you had the poly. You could find the stiffest object in the universe -比钢更坚固? Stiffer than steel -当然 Stiffer than steel -比钻石更硬? Stiffer than diamond -对 Stiffer than diamond 如果你力气很大,你可以试着把它拉长 But you are a big guy compel it ; 你会发现它断掉之前可以变得很长 you’ll find you could strike out quite big before breaks 我们认为它的张力比钢要强100倍 And we expect we’ll find that it’s a hundred time stronger than steel in tension 有史以来制造出的最强韧的纤维 超过所有东西 The strongest fiber which you could ever make up anything ever 即使100万年后,问我什么东西最强韧 我仍告诉你就是这东西 I was mean like a million years later, when you ask me now the strongest thing? same thing 如果世界上会有1种东西比其他的都要坚韧,这就是了 Something has to be the strongest of all the possible objects. This is it 而这只是碳做的 It’s just carbons 你可以将木炭,废水,旧橡胶轮胎变成巴克管 So, you could take coal不确定, sewage, old rubber tires and convert them into buckytubes 想想看我们能用它做什么? 我们可以重新接配全世界的电路 Think we can do with this. So we can rewire the world 新电线的电导性要比铜线更好 而重量只有铜线的1/6 We can make electrical cables that conducted electricity better than copper and one six its weight 您难道不觉得这些有点美妙得不真实吗?仿佛是魔术般? So, when you think about this, does it seem too 待定to be true. Does it seem magical 没错,发现这种神奇东西的机率可不大 It does. How about the chance that you can discover something like this 这是现阶段人类在探讨化学及物理上最令人着迷的一点 But, that’s one of the fascinating things about those current statues of our understanding chemistry and physics 我们可以精确的计算物体的变化 In fact, we can calculate the behavior of things very well in 待定 而巴克球和巴克管最大的神秘不在于能制造它们 The big mystery was buckyballs and its tubes is not that they were be great if you could make them 而在于人类发现真能做出这种东西 It was finding out you could actually make them 碳纳米管是让纳米科技家喻户晓的理由之一 Carbon nanotubes is one of the reason that the word Nano Technology become so well-known 有些人将之形容为现代工业革命 Some are describing they are modern day’s industrial revolution 纳米科技就是从零开始 制造出像这个纳米马达 Nano Technology refers to building things from scratch, like this nano-motor 有能力组织自然结构的原子和分子 It’s the ability to assemble the atomic and molecular building blocks of nature 创造出新一代产品及应用 既坚韧又精确 To create a new generation of product applications that’s stronger and more precise 这将是化学新领域吗?这会是将来的化学重心吗? Is this the next round of chemistry? Is this the next thing in chemistry? 我很高兴你用了化学这个字 这正是它的本质 I am glad to see you use the word chemistry about this because that’s really what this is 我们无法用手拿起将原子并把原子放进去 We can’t afford to pick every atom up our fingers and put them不确定 我们必须让原子自行组合 We have to have atoms self-assemble 而且来源必须是便宜的原子 我们才能增加效率 And they have confronted some source of cheap atoms. So, we can make this efficiently 这就是化学 当然现在我们称为纳米科技 We have name for that. we called it chemistry. of course these days, we called it Nano Technology 但这就是同样我们在追求制造既特殊又精细的结构 The same thing. We are after to make a structure of particular exact form 每秒好几百兆个的速度再做 低成本且环保 And do it hundreds of trillions of time a second, low cost with no environmental impact 制造出物体,使我们能用科技来完成无法以其他方式完成的事情 To give us an object that would allow us to do something had logically we could do another ones do 如果技术精良 我们就能做出最精致的物体 Making objects with, if were really good, the ultimate level of finesse 正如大自然向来制造所有生物体内的分子一样 with nature always built the molecules of living cells.We now do this everywhere -这就是促使你工作的动力 So it keeps you coming to work -是的,这里面有些浪漫 Yes, there is certain romance about it 仅仅过了2个世纪 我们就从怀疑原子存在的时代 It takes only two centuries to go from a time when atoms were mere hypothesize 进步到快要能将原子与分子结合 并可能用神奇的方法创造出新科技 to the break would be able to snap atoms and molecules together and build new technology with fantastic possibilities 刚才目睹的所有伟大发现让梦想成真 The great discoveries that we just seen helped make it happen 在化学领域里 探索事物潜在的内容并改变世界 Exploring the beneath of the surface thing, inside the realm of chemistry, and changing the world Upload by APTXvn