Thinking and Teaching Peace Amid the Social Change around Us

it’s great to be with you all and thank you so much for varying with my schedule with the high school students right now we’re over there in an exercise that we arranged for them where they are members of the Security Council and they’re debating whether or not to or what to do about the fact that moammar qaddafi large the back rewrite history they’re back in March and pretty handful with the baby what to do about the rebellion and libya gaddafi government is attacking and that’s quite interesting and turn up Americans are very altruistic and the Chinese don’t want to do now so they’re very much in care but I’m happy to share with you this morning some of our experiences and our perspectives on addressing pressure that of social change in the curriculum it’s really an important part of what we do it there at the kroc institute for now more than 15 years we’ve been offering the course for our ma students and also for undergraduates that’s called the strategy and tactics of nonviolent social change and now just in the last year we’ve also added of course for our ma students only that relates to the policy change track we have our tractors are a nutritional multi-chain and so now we’re kind of adapting that pd of course to and they focus more on health so it includes some basic background issues of how to organize for social change but it also includes a lot of elements of specific policy parameters that are now facing individual nations and the united nations so i’ll be sharing with you some of the perspectives from those courses and also as George mentioned on our recent experience in Cairo amazing symposium pollution so yeah this book can also be used in your courses and it’s in the second edition and it’s not only shameless self-promotion but also the fact that the publisher called me right out around the time when Egypt was going through its amazing revolution saying is it time for a third edition so we just finished a second edition with couple years ago but you know maybe it is time and I’ll explain as we go through and we were actually joking the other day that because of what we’re learning about the nature of the social stream process in Egypt and Tunisia so far unsuccessfully struggles in other countries in the region we might have to change the title to Gandhi and far beyond but it is a crucial topic and before I get into the substance I thought I’d say a word about my own background because maybe like some of you I often get the question from students how did you get into the piece that instead just lay a polite way of saying rounds you get a real job and in my face I always have already answered that time Rose online which is that I was drafted into the US Army during the Vietnam War 1968 and that is what made me convinced advocate for peace so I graduated actually from lunar day 68 and those of you remember back to the ancient history know that that was a very unfortunate time to be an available young man in there because the military draft was in high gear and they were grabbing every walking person and since I just finished college I was trying target and literally within three days of returning from graduation in the mailbox is a summons from the Selective Service System to report for the military traffic and my physical so a couple months later there i am in the Army in Fort Dix New Jersey in basic training wondering what hit me trying to figure out what’s happening and I was a conservative Catholic working class kid I really didn’t have any political views even going through the University here and so I thought well everybody else is in the army all my friends had already been drafted my brother was in Jeremy I had just a couple weeks there before I got drafted into the army one out back home in Pennsylvania and one of the good

things about it was that since every other guy in town was already in your honor baby girl bad thing was that only last a few weeks but it really was a shotgun and immediately as I’m beginning to experience what it’s like in the army and especially hearing from what the soldiers who are coming back from the Apollo sound questions starting to turn in my mind they’re telling us where they’re communists to defend democracy to defeat communism were the good guys and the first one I’m wearing this this is a tragic war than people so the question started to grow and then I did a very subversive thing I started to read I started to look into the history of the time and within the first couple hours of reading what chemicals by Bernard fall great French it was God well I mean they’re saying from the commander’s or in front of me to what the president the same seems to be correct more I read the more question so within a few months of being in the army I’m going through what how they later call me as a crisis of conscience the more I serve and Martin why the NGOs not only unjust this is a criminal war mommy innocent people I began to sympathize that the other side of CP Ho Chi Minh was like there George Washington so what to do I’m in New York I may be sent over anytime I thought about being a conscientious objector but I was not then and I really don’t think I am now an absolutely pacifist but they always ask you the question when you’re applied for co would you have fought in World War two and i would have to say yes so and also the catholic church at that time was not exactly sympathetic to income wars enemy so I thought about deserting but didn’t want to leave my family and everything so I came up with this crazy idea that it wasn’t so crazy actually because there were others doing it that even though in active duty soldier I’m in the Army have to follow orders I can speak out against the war so I began to that and there were on other soldiers and recent veterans doing the same plates 8 and there was at this time a growing GI peace movement that was great right it’s one of those unknown chapters in the history of the Vietnam era but a very significant movement against the war emerged inside the US military and that was the part first our station that fort hamilton in New York extra director neighborhood Brooklyn and did not I was in diapers so that was that came this loop it for Hamilton’s you guys united against the war began to sign petitions in all and as you can imagine our military members were not exactly thrilled so they began to punish us with any work details and then when we produced a petition that was in the full-page ads in the VR times in November of 69 may remember that was the time of a big moratorium march in washington DC you are the largest rebels with the war and suddenly before full page ads I’ve got 1,300 active duty service members bringing the troops on that I was to sign that organize it so that was that was enough for the military so they issued orders to transfer all of us quote subversives away from Fort Hamilton to the problem of Fort Hamilton is right in New York all the newspapers are there all the anti-war groups of all the lawyers are there so they don’t want us to hear this so thankfully they didn’t send this to be a town actually it turns out that at this time this is 16 actually late 69 there are so many anti-war soldiers already in Vietnam and the morale of the arduous sinking rapidly that they didn’t want to send folk troublemaker so they sent me to Fort Bliss Texas so the main distinction of course list is as far away from any newspapers or reporters but we ended up suing the army that’s all long story I

won’t go into all of that but essentially what i ended up doing is I spent a year or so in the Army doing regular stuff I was actually in the Army Band defending the country by plenty my puppet but then the last couple of years that I was in the Army I was basically organizing against the war by Liam a lawsuit against the US Army and learning that the problem of war is a deep and profound in our society and learning about the problems of militarism and learning about the history of war and the even greater threats that exist around nuclear weapons that will means of mass destruction so I began to have a vocation going into the army had no idea what I was going to do I came out of this crisis of conscience committed to work for peace to try to study peace and now to try to teach the peace and the process of social change so it’s a strange Odyssey but it’s one that I’ve been committed to for now over 40 years there they cannot be changed course since and any of us who are studying war and peace especially the process of non lab change must address understand Gandhi and try to discern the most effective insights that he offers about the philosophy but also the practice of non-violent change those of you who’ve stayed Gandhi know it’s a difficult task I remember trying any five times to read the autobiography it’s story of my experiments and truth how many of you try to read those of you have a try don’t read one of the great biography folk Judith Browne Amanda PDF pr9 luck in India and also even by Radha Mohan guy his grandson wonderful or called too good boatman marvelous and there was another book that you are called Mahama’s so Raj Mohan Gandhi grandson is I think really the most important conquer economies life anthem as many insights and he’s raining today so we bringing it up to pay to our conditioning hanging the Gandhi is essential and selling respect because he was the first to take the idea of non-cooperation with evil permanent parking experience and to raise that to a level of strategic force for change to organize it on a mass scale initially among the immigrant communities of asians in South Africa part of 20th century and then when he came back to India for the whole nation and his genius was his ability to find a way in which the whole country could be mobilized to say no to British colonialism and this was perhaps the most effectively manifest during the great salt satyagraha 30 specific photo from that there but this was when of course people the Great Salt March occurred and the plaintiff it was to come up with a tactic refusing to cooperate or the British on insulting tax that everybody in the country could understand and that everybody could participate in anybody could make salt illegally anyone could accuse to pay assault packs and crystal British authorities said well this is ridiculous you can’t bring down the British Empire about what kind of soul but Gandhi said the point is to provide a way for people to say no to mobilize them into social action and even if it’s on a small thing it begins to build momentum for during that campaign quite literally millions of people participated tens of thousands were arrested those who weren’t involved in making salt are also engaged in VoIP I’m British cloth liquor hurting the British economy to substantial degree by the effectiveness of avoid so he was really pioneering through these actions the ways in which people

could say no to injustice in a purely non-violent way and Gandhi in developing this technique his point was really not to deal with war and peace he was masochist but he also was supporter of military as you know he was part of an ambulance corps we had a division of some Asian troops who were part of the war war in South Africa the main concern was to fight against injustice against the oppression of Asian immigrants in South Africa against so this is a amendment biosystems which is a fool or achieving justice and it’s really not correct I believe to equate it with passages Hasidism of the connotation passivity sometimes and sometimes suggest not wanting to get involved in conflict the Gandhi said yes we have to be very much involved and come so we can be effective in working for justice through and you can understand of course the connections between this Gandhi an idea of fighting for justice who not have needs and the whole method philosophy of healthcare transformation letter oculomotor so same basic idea recognizing the conflict exists that is necessary times the times to press a conflict to achieve justice but that it’s best done and most effectively gone through a there were many strategic insights and principles that developed from Gandhi’s experience Gandhi himself was a doer more than a thinker and writer although you broke a hundred volumes but he never systematically put down the principles of violent action tactics and strategy but that job was performed by gene sharp vespertine sharp who went to India earlier in his life and stay carefully with Gandhi had done and broke some of a group called Gandhi and strategist a whole series of essays and then of course the politics of non-violent action and many other works so today that are fundamentally grounded in the experience and the principles that Gandhi apply in crumlin for justice South Africa of course these ideas then were significantly transfer applied here in the United States by dr. King in the civil rights movement so as part of our pedagogy and our teaching we spend some time with Gandhi but usually it’s only a couple days we show some of the Admiral film especially the first 30 minutes which is virus describing some of the methods we also show parts of the force more powerful video series but then we jump very quickly to dr. King in the civil rights movement because this helps to make it more directly applicable to our students it’s part of our American history and culture heritage so it allows it become more concrete and there are so many powerful a wonderful example of the effective use of nonviolent resistance of drawing the civil rights movement dr. king himself as we know was the family influenced by golly read a lot about comedy while I was still a graduate school and on the wall of his office path forward Jesus and a protocol gonna talk about family both by this Christian beliefs are breaking but pulse of life what he had done he was very effective in applying these methods in very specific campaigns and this allows us to show the students how much this method has been effective because part of our could always hear from students not Lance it’s nice in theory got me yet durable belief they had but it’s not practical and they have worked there the British are they’re sore so nice and waffle Israel that that’s the impression you could never work against Hitler or Stalin or any great tyrants dictators then we say

well could it work in the US and the segregationist system was brutal and vicious many African Americans were killed trying to escape after Katrina not to even in civil rights movement as we know there were 55 martyrs who profess people photographers was the memorial to those diagnosis of wrestling in Montgomery Alabama dr. king himself was blocked by an assassin’s bullet so it shows that it’s effective but it also shows how much sacrifice is necessary and how much a struggle is part of the process nonviolent action can be very effective but it always requires considerable degree struggle I’m sure many of you teach the letter from a Birmingham jail letter I’ve read it two or three times a year every year because I’m teaching it always get new insights among the many wonderful elements in that blur you recall where he talks about the need for creative tension a change only comes about when we who are struggling for justice are able to disrupt the normal functioning of society and we can generate creative attention attention that it causes something really Society but it’s creative in that it’s nonviolent and that it’s oriented towards solution not simply writing for safer anger it’s actually directed by love by a passion for constructive change by a willingness to engage in dialogue with the adversary even the most hateful segregationist must be someone that you love fridge following the teachings of Jesus so he always had that spirit of love creativity and non-violence and dialogue and yet was engaged in a very fitter storm along with the segregationist authorities in the southern city states and cities for a very important lessons that we can still well and today we’re seeing these men justify on a scale that never witnessed before and this is what the especially the revolution agent as George mentioned the Kroc Institute was able to sponsor this symposium in Cairo few weeks ago our colleague ahmad shah is of course egyptian himself we work with them to establish a partnership with Cairo University and we also work with the international center on that amount accomplished and our goal was to really try to focus in on the transformation in Egypt itself what happened in those remarkable 18 days in january 25th to februari 11 how old country mobilized and brought down a dictatorship that seemed preferable just a few weeks before a lot of lot of other questions that we have about what’s going on in the least two now today vision transition in the tip itself will have really evolved for democracy don’t know why has it been such painful process the Arizona Texas those are critical in front preference but we thought let’s try to keep the focus narrow and let’s really try to learn what lessons we can from the unarmed revolution and you I’ll say more that go longer but it was really extraordinary event still sort of high from the opportunity to be able to meet with the quote revolutionaries most of them were about the page of our students performance who were ones who really made a revolution sheriff one thing that was immediately crystal clear to me was how much of a grim difficult swear the waters was the students who went out in the streets January 25 professor Shaheen I was talking to one of students and he would say well you know we do them we try to protest a lot of in Egypt over the year if we haven’t got very far so they called for protests on this day and one of the students said I’m going to bring along my pictionary game because

probably of can be boring having people honor and we can sit around and play the game lower out there in the streets well obviously didn’t get a chance to play that game because it relates a problem or a reason to that but this was a brutal struggle and many q I was talking to these 20-something students some are showing the wounds that they had received one young man had torture marks on his back workshop shotgun wounds leg have the rump on her face from rubber bullet number 17 guy right next to me had a book I had in Baton you they were up against live ammunition Massive Attack’s that will come yet they were able to retain control of the streets SD they be driven out of one Street they come through another Street they were driven out of a typeerror square a couple times they go out to the side streets and slowly back sneak back in and reclaim the territory but many important lessons that i’ll probably still more carefully during moment generally of course the most important aspect of my own social change that we can share with our students is how much this has become the default process by which social change is organized in the world today there’s been a revolution to the revolution even just a few decades ago think back to the Cuban Revolution earlier ones in history there was natural of those who were oppressed countries when will bring about change the form insurgent force deponia guerrilla army take up arms against the city of course that still happens but now more and more people recognized that the most effective way to bring about changes through violent action this is certainly the case in Egypt the idea that the people that lead to port have taken up arms against Mubarak really never occurred it was instinctive understood that this is the best way to go because of what they had seen in Tunisia right next door before but also because of what they seen around the world other home and this book that acronym you all and the video series that goes with it how many of you use this that’s a really important wonderful teaching tool six partnership video series that goes with it it describes how the method of nonviolent resistance has been used literally all across the world to great success it’s not Louise effective doesn’t always win of course but it really is the most effective way to bring about change and it has shown more power than military means the group that we work with in Cairo is the international center of Manhattan constant Peter action is the chair of the organization Jack the walls the president it is I think the most well-connected and important organization now for sharing the knowledge of civil resistance methods for people all around the world they’ve taken Jean sharks work they’ve been helping to promote the translation of sharks works now I’m definitely more than 20 languages including Arabic and they are organizing trains I think actually this week while we’re doing our workshop here they’re doing a workshop at Tufts University for those who are using social change and they’re interested in not only the academic enrichment but also with the actual practitioner so in their workshops they bring people from Arab countries from the caucuses from Burma wherever there may be struggle for social change occurring at world they try to help by teaching the methods and practices of resistance so if you’re not familiar with ICM scanner to encourage you to look through the website sirs very rich many good teaching academic materials there are various curricular iOS syllabi and they also have a news digest so about every 23 days I get this listing of all the different arkansas rural roads bit too much but if you’re interested in being totally up to date with every compound external world was the defensive important and they were wonderful partners for us over here in Cairo Steve’s unas is something you know his work written sort of landing on a

range of social change issues and actually quite familiar Middle East one of the presentations there are many other diagonal teaching tools this is a one hour film that was produced with support from Peter Ackerman and the earlier version of the international center and it’s a story of how nonviolent resistance again led by students brought down the Milosevic dictatorship too conservative how many of you use this I find that the students this is the one that kind of seals the deal so to speak you know they’re interested you know Gandhi has technical civil rights movement but then you show this one and it kind of something plays and I guess it’s because there are the young people who are leading it they’re cool or hit early hospital ER with the current culture and the ways in which a whole country basic been mobilized to finally bring down also ditch and it was kind of a rough and wasn’t truly out of it sit down the arrest of her Club they took the bulldozers and all the trunks and everything and came in and attacked me this partially set up higher but no weapons were used no one was killed it was extremely effective and rid of the tape so it’s a really pretty good teaching now of course we have to be clear about the limitations of nonviolent resistance as well students will catch you on Iran don’t do it yourself so it’s better to just bring it right up that there are many fabulous there are more successes than others will say that show that a minute but there are errors were also great successes that people don’t know about so here we are on the positive side revolution in Nepal and April 06 where the King tried to dissolve and did dissolve the Parliament tried to regain mobile power and the people who was out in resistance and in a mass movement that’s a lot of similarities what happened was recently in peril they were able to break down the monarchy and have established of democracy messing in a difficult transition five years on they’re still working the track up Constitution together but process the change itself was remarkably effective reflect that a mass mobilization Nepalese people not successful has been the extraordinary democracy movement in Burma at least not so far most recent wave of the resistance can go 70 so-called saffron revolution led by the Buddhist monks marketing even through the monsoon but ultimately unsuccessful the military RiffTrax shoot arrest sufficient numbers to be able to be back to existence at least remember but obviously the democracy movement remain strong and son Sergio released from house arrest courageous powerful woman moment she’s free she gets up and say we need to a free and fair democratic elections she goes out and meets with her supporters and various rabbits and so showing that fight goes off may yet succeed what’s happened in some cases is that especially in the Middle East or shifting over to Cairo focus a lot now on what we learned during our symposium there’s been this extraordinary success within Egypt anesthesia but in other settings as we know the rebellion has turned Latin in Libya it began as an odd amount of persistence but of course the Qaddafi regime reacted brutally and within a couple weeks through the devil steps turn to this alarms and I won’t feel that we have a certain position to be able to judge those who decide to have to take a lot defend themselves such circumstance but the fact of the matter is it’s become bogged down still me and rebels may FM difficult struggle and casualty rates

are constantly rising so that’s that we’ve also seen in conflicts in Yemen and Syria especially and to some extent with you the ways in which tribal and other divisions within society affect the dynamics of social resistance and one of those key variables is the relationship between the state and society professor Shaheen is how do you try to understand this one most abilities in Egypt there has been more of a sense of unity between the people on the state especially between the army mistake is he had such a long established in some of the other countries around the region states were formed only relatively recently in the wake of war collapse of the Empire tribal divisions that were prominent previously remain significant and we’ve seen some of these struggles now a fractured different line within the state and then the ruling elites like Gaddafi for Syria can take advantage of those differences in order to repress the rebels and stay and help so again the 911 method doesn’t always work and there are occasions when those who are resisting oppression will feel compelled to take up arms that many contradictions and difficulties that are involved with that there’s been a very significant amount of research just recently on the impacts of nonviolent social change and trying to get an empirical database together to demonstrate or to find out how non have resistance rates compared to the use of armed struggle in this article represent many of you’ve seen this by Chenoweth Stefan and the German international security that’s quite significant this is the top line security journal I’ve been trying to publish their cover yourself accept it yet but those of us who write and security of wanting a publish their it’s a taut line and they publish this article and it’s been one of the most frequently downloaded articles from their national tree and the findings are extremely significant through self-evident looking at this database of 1 in 300 cases to try to analyze relative effectiveness using nonviolent gains vs. latin teens and find that Madame methods tend to be twice as effective at the use of life’s work and they’ve also found that these rates of going to the advantage for nonviolent that’s seem to be going up or recent years the members or hired entry per second and there’s a book now coming out by seven and Chandler the same tile that goes into much greater depth and explores other dimensions of their database and one of the things that they reveal in further study is that they’re trying to look at one of the most important factors that lead to the success and the most significant one is loyalty ships within the government and within the military at the use of a non-violent strategy greatly increases the likelihood that the army and the top security forces will be either neutral or will be sympathetic to the movement for change it makes sense for shooting at the army level activity two friends but if you’re out protesting not by the fit and you are repressed that can be a kind of a sympathetic way reaction from within elements of the security forces handing the state to begin to move sympathetically and politically in favor about the resistance movement it turns out this idea of worldly ships is really one of the key factors that explains the political dynamics of social change this is very important because again with the students they’re healthy skepticism saying so you mean we go out there protesting loudly all these segregationists in the South all these dictators there’s something going to have a good conscience someday in their chain because they suddenly realize but you like that they were wrong of

course that’s not the way it works what happens is that nonviolent social change seeks to erode the power base of the dictators or the segregation forces of oppression and the principal way it does it is by trying to win the sympathy of the masses of the people and especially of the people who are in the security forces who are the main pillars that you will of the oppressive establishment this is what Mara Deming calls the third party attacked we’re trying to win over third party Cesar Chavez talked about the quote strange chemistry battle action you say every time we get beaten up by a grower’s we get more support and the growers lose flowery and legends strength seems counterintuitive everything we talk that’s really the way not levels of support and in their empirical research they’re finding that exactly attacker is most important now the related research has been done through Freedom House that’s looking at changes from authoritarianism toward more open society these are mostly the changes that occurred in Latin America handy in Eastern Central Europe and the former Soviet system and most of those have you enjoyed normal patek societies and most i’ve used nonviolent means to bring about that change and very significantly in those transitions that have been through nonviolent means there’s a much higher percentage of societies that are rated as free or appreciative house characterization the annual publication of the Freedom House listing and when there’s the use of nonviolent methods much greater likelihood of the resulting society being freer more democratic Morkel again it’s fairly intuitive those who bring about change by the gun to the rule vatika I’m going to have a non-violent process and the key factor that they identify is the existence of a large civil coalition committed to non-violence a large civil coalition means it’s a mass movement it means that you have to have hundreds of thousands even millions of people participate it’s very open there’s no coercion people joined because they believe in it so it has within it very characteristics of a free of our open society process of mass and tending to create societies that are but now methods of change are not only more effective in terms of quantitative analysis they bring them out a better result in terms of the faulty no result qualitative Democratic side these empirical findings are important than I think will be especially of interest to your students who may be going on to graduate school these databases are now available for further mining so to speak a lot of research going on to look more deeply into some of the connections that they account for assignment I want to talk more about the released example so focus here class 10 15 minutes on some of the lessons we glean cover of course it began with the struggle internists waxa point at the tennis IV but that in itself was experimenting but it sent a message to those in Egypt to in struggle for change there’s movement that erupted in january of this year didn’t just come out of nowhere that been evolving and developing for at least 10 or 15 years and the various waves of protest that occur in Egypt a number of organization and youth groups in particular and emerged labor groups were very active so there was a already some from it and then the example next door order by in Tunisia sent from electric charge through those movements and sparked

desire to try to come out and really see if the same thing to happen and really trying to understand how this happened how is it possible to success at the time it seemed well this is going to happen through the whole Middle East unfortunately it has so the accomplishment the enormity but what was achieved in Egypt anything you just stand out even more so we’re not really clear yet this is certainly a working progress professor Serena and I will be kind of write-up our analysis there are a number of others who are studying this now while we were there at George Washington University did a seminar at the American University in Cairo so this probably doesn’t or more different research programs already on the way there’s several books or eight published in Arabic so we’ll learn more do what I’m offering here is our not too tentative st. working progress or analysis the most important factor certainly seems to be the degree of popular support the overwhelming mass that was organized and I think this is a general strategic principle that it is necessary for social change to CC to have fast numbers of people the cases that we know where there has been success you have sufficient mass of people to be able to if not completely overwhelm at least clog up the police system in the civil rights movement dr King goal was always to fill the jacket to overwhelm the police and in this case the goal was to occupy and control the urban space not just in Cairo but in all the city food revolution occurred in Alexandria who has all the way up to the upper knowledge to to a salon every major city had huge protests huge gatherings in their central square equivalent to what we saw tucker square well we found varying estimates on a total number of people who are involved but the lowest number was about seven million and some they’re planning up to 15 mil another will ever really know exact numbers is doubtful but certainly we can say that this is probably the largest out form of civic resistance ever an amazing thing is that began with really better say a few hundred dedicated students in some of the groups the April sixth coalition youth for change well how about honored i returned to Egypt after he retired international energy agency and very courageously spoke for democracy and a youth group began to form and supported him and these groups were increasingly organized through Facebook and social meeting and the number tens of thousands of friends really the leaders mostly administered the Facebook pages in all were relatively a small number a few hundred and they describe how they thought about the process of beginning the protests January 25th why was that they picked that’s police stay there was an ironic twist to this because the police in Egypt were known as grew at a rate attack tortured name protesters so the idea was to come out on police state to demand that the oppressive head of the Ministry of Interior to fire at the police be performed and was also a demand that rages be increased and that acrostic living rise of a paisa goods the restricted and limit so the bread-and-butter issues and there were also issues related to police pressure and they decided what we’ll have this protest on general 25 and they communicated through Facebook of course they knew that the police are reading and rough so they very cleverly decides rather than gathered initially Kentucky risk we’re still gathering some other smaller neighborhoods in Cairo and Alexandria as long city often they would pick the poor neighborhoods because they had a grand quarter of capacities they were very clever they were scoping out the neighborhoods and see where the police are having so they didn’t go there they went to the squares where there were no clothes and two in the mosques that lady smaller balls that were on the for our neighborhoods that’s worth them students he said brought out his pictionary game

and they gathered at those squares mosques and begin to chin we want to work for people come joints enter their amazement people began come out of departments and began to join me and the crowd is much bigger than answers people were enthusiastic and then more people were joining and the students described us as well you knew we wanted to go towards Tigers square and we just sort of figured out what route we should go write their own spot it was sort of depending on whether these were our goal was to try to get into the square that will the basket starcraft battles and see if we could get big crowd together in the spring and as you can all from the story they did by that afternoon there were tens of thousands of people gathering at tegra square the amazement of everyone including our advisors and the police began to crack down there was an incredible brutal period of attack on for several days I will show some more so mass numbers is a key strategic factory you have to be able to fill the square the other key factor is the nonviolent discipline we saw this again news clips the constant champ is peaceful peaceful and we asked them you know where did you get this had you read naki had you read it on the MV on have you read jean-jacques remember there were stories and west actually every student we talked to his I’ve never heard of gene sharp after we cheered you about 15 so some did and there was one group that was so the Academy for change came for our symposium and they said they’re based from doha they had done some teaching at least some people around the gene sharp matters the most thing it was an instinctive intuitive sense that this was necessary to win we can’t compete with the objection police with weapons and we also have a goal of winning over the people we can’t win unless the people drive their students for tens of thousands one young woman affordable said it very beautifully she said we were in an image war with the government they portrayed us as terrorist thugs Lima partners we wanted to tell the people that we were their children you were the children of Egypt we love our country and the only way we could communicate this I was through our actions the government immediately cut off the internet first date and they’ve been that access to home 20 press in the mission so they have to communicate to the actions so they really organized that in this image is when they may have seen people formed a human chain around the National Museum to this event museum were priceless artifacts civilization tutankhamun and so many other great treasures our house and just on their own the student subscribers on that first day people said well we need to protect the National Museum and just ran over there and start the poem and nobody plan is nobody organized just have an estate for debate the key thing is struck and it was a brutal horrendous level I asked one of the visors the government how many people were killed and injured they don’t have exact numbers yet he said the estimates that they’re going on now the government is 850 people were killed nine thousand teachers I asked about you know what’s the makeup how many police how many students whatever so what we do know that there were 22 police and security officers killed but most of those apparently were during the prison rows may have seen in the press for several major prison breaks there’s rumors that the police may have opened up some workers criminal tap saw the same difference that’s I’m not going to again really don’t know for sure but there were prison breaks and most person breaks there was shooting people were killed apparently that was a lot of the casualties occurred around those he said there were two police officers who died entirely and that’s all of those protests for 18 days early millions of people bitter clashes like this only two

police officers car so he was a largely nonviolent action but the fact is that the people did protect themselves and when they were attacked by the police starting in the plaintiff especially after the 28 28 x 29 for the worst there are running battles on the bridges going into pectoris were really wasn’t war and for a while with Lisa’s pushing all the way back toward Piazza on the other side river people would slowly start coming back and in the face of water cannons a live ammunition teargas it kept pushing back and pushing back and the police were getting exhausted it were running out of ammunition literally their cell phones running out of battery further and the people just kept coming and coming and they got back into this we’re late that night but many suffered and then he didn’t pick up rocks throw after please almost every police station around Cairo Raymond most of the country was burned the Ministry of the Interior big building their arrival in spirit that was attacked and it was eventually abandoned by the government you can still see a lot broken windows and you’ve learned on cars below the national democratic target so-called which is no barks one party apparatus that was also very you can still see the sport of torching that market like smoke on the outside so this was they use pipes and sticks sheet metal even hinted grab to protect himself from the police also you may have seen these horrendous see images on television when robotics thugs attacked with horses and camels the so-called babolat the camel and actually even when they started the projector said peaceful peaceful they want to typography those thugs had only one purpose in life that was to kill these are as many people as possible and drive them out of square and when that started on the second februari about an hour and the protesters realized that dialogue with these people and they began to protect themselves that’s when the activists from the Muslim Brotherhood really began to support for Ali we protest and they think it was fair to help defend protesters and there was a pitched battle going on at least 12 14 hours that night all into the third of between the protester canonsburg so it was a bitter struggle all throughout Cairo and most of the cities people then organize the so-called popular committees to protect their neighborhood because the funds were not only temporary hours and many other places and yes the most popular committees they had pipes sticks baseball bats whatever they could to fend off any of the attacks I was telling George one of our former students is in Egypt that he picked me up the airport and they’re driving in and he was telling me all about this he said well I wouldn’t want to popular committee leaders in my neighborhood he said but i have to tell you professor we did have not understand my red but there were no offensive actions taken by the protest of the anthem please or the thought it was self protection and as I thought about this I realized going back to Gandhi this is probably not a revolution the Gandhi would have supported you know from the history Howie sometimes called a whole action in the first Pig non-cooperation campaign 1920 we want to consider the doors we called off the options on their loss and attacking him for police in a particular community but in that case they did actually attacking Jill Klees here in Egypt people attacked the police stations and their cars offices and they use rocks and sticks against the police and the bug so it’s deon guy may be far behind but I think it still fits a lot of fun armed Pacific resistance does a lot of debate that we need to have these questions where do we draw the line when have we gone over the line for its use of file teens do people have the right to use these walks or whatever what happened during the course of these

struggles is that the police essentially either gave up or with were withdrawn still unclear what happened professor shahin he thinks they were just defeated they could not control the streets and after four or five days of a de Rivoli some of their commanders began to withdraw and eventually all and on that night of the 29th 30th the transition occurred where the police would through and the army entered and the army was a different form the army was not involved in the oppression the way the police have been and I learned from our colleagues there that there is this tradition of the army and the people working together remember back to 55 and monsters revolution revolution of the Colonel’s when they seized power people came out to support them in 2011 the people try to empower and the army came out and supported that so very soon after the army came in first they cleared off this rare wood fired into the air people ran students told you my god would imagine horrendous fuselage the sound of all those weapons teen pop it was all into the air so the students ran off into the side streets looking what’s going on the tanks were set up around some of the buildings protective and then students said they all started to come back in talking to the folks and they began to offer ways of trying to jump up to go Parker sold it really was a conscious effort buying the protesters as they were seeing the army in the square to your friendly little children all brought to pursue think Colton see that people were really not aiming to attack the army their goal was to bring down the regime so there was a really conscious effort to the friend and work with the military again this wasn’t something they figured out from reading our books it was part of their culture and their tradition and it was also their understanding and their hope the army would come in in safe and from the police funny that students originally said to the army now we want you to go out and attacked the police because they’ve been detected us last night we’re hearing technically but we won’t fire on you and then you know that there was the actual official announcement from the commanders of the army that not attacked a great Egyptian and that really basically opens up the possibilities great change I mentioned earlier that social media was absolutely indispensable but every one of the social media activists said that revolution is not made on facebook it’s made in the streets and the social media are critical for especially putting together friends groups and being able to share information and intelligence are there scoping out neighborhoods plus on cell phones text messaging services to where police are awesome but without the best mobilization without going into those poor neighborhoods they’re not calling on people in the apartments to come down into the streets enjoyment there would have not been a relish and of course the other thing to keep in mind and not to overstate social medias the government cut off social media from so for the first week they couldn’t communicate on Facebook often cell phones won’t work so socially is important but it’s not that and here my final thought there was a statement by alvaro died right after the Revolution he was interviewed he said what’s happening here in Egypt may be the most important thing in the world for underlying al-qaeda and the global terrorist threat that’s of course a man that was wearing who was actually tortured evo Barksdale and became bin Laden cover two how is the leader of

help and their narrative as you know is in order to overcome the dictatorships we have to assassinate to bring down not only for government but too many thousands of innocent people along the way has been a complete and utter failure look to nothing the suffering jet that mostly Muslim people around the world versus the notion of democracy and social change and greater freedom an opportunity in cohesion Egyptian people now to organize their society to express themselves get rid of a corrupt dictators ship and we hope now no but we hope that the process or is open y’all know Callie tiny bunch of heights I was a young logger and she was a political activist and Lucy had proven somehow but the police were involved in a drug deal the police knew that so they attacked him and then they just a joke president allegedly poison president said that bye-bye gunshot and so when they were allegedly died who went to heaven or heaven and he was asking the other cousins they were not given sorry work but how did you die by poison work by gunshot there are several we are all yes it’s a cover so we have a lot of dates here what perspectives I must confess I was initially I thought the no-fly zone at least as a humanitarian I thought that was justified especially since it had Arab League support through others colleagues here who disagreed but of course it’s quickly changed into a air support for an ongoing civil war so tactic comment essential it’s not so then protection there were other why he has actually Bob Johansen Lord peace new sources he talked about creating a humanitarian court along borders of India and maybe along the coast and this would wouldn’t be a completely non loud cost us because you have that security protection security force would be necessary the deal was that this would

be a way to encourage defections like bein safe partners that was I think a useful object international criminal court proceeded certainly another mission and not to forget that Security Council before it improves nor plasm did adopt very quickly a significant resolution for the ICC seizure but also targeted sanctions doing research on sanctions and we were quite impressed at the way in which the Security Council’s they have to move quickly and come to the judgment and decision to impose targeted financial measures and travel sanctions against Gaddafi a select group of regime mccandless array of isolating them putting pressure on me and communicate and you know tens of billions of dollars are putting assets were frozen very pretty and the new sanctions provider authority in u.s. obviously immediately act on your part so those are measures as well that’s midnight and there’s an arms embargo that came with the sanctions sort of Gaddafi’s forces so there’s a range of options I supporting most of those and having to initially spoken for of the no-fly zone when I have the right smart that’s not that’s not the same as they come out version I really think ultimately if this has become a stalemate as it appears then both the alternative has to be some negotiation that some authoritative party needs to begin a dialogue with the Qaddafi regime my loosely important sentences those collapse my first actual is that in Fort consensus to or and then questioned whether if in fact there was a connection would there be but certainly the anti-apartheid movement is huge at that time I was the director of same in Washington and while we were focusing mostly on nuclear issues couldn’t avoid being involved with the park level as well and the chapters of saying your fries were also involved with those campaigns very significant we virgin eyes at a conference on years ago which we booked at the sanctions broadly in case of south of course the UN sanctions very limited but there were these if you wrote bottom upset people section this is divestment movement and yes event from one of the scholars there was that affected about 20 billion dollars from and how much effect it has we really won’t know certain but it is significant that and i think it was 85 86 the south african regime is growing down economically because of the massive resistance movement inside the country but also because of this anti-apartheid movement the investor confidence is declining interest rates are going up yes find out things Jennifer Washington office so anybody all these things are happening and when’s South Africa went to the financial markets to low over his debt and / or short-term at much higher

grade and what we were told this is what sent a shock signals through the establishment in business class this their own wealth was at the state and was soon after that that dialogue began with Mandela and some of the officials of the agency so I think you have to say that the primary factor was certainly the resistance of the South African people themselves Democratic coalition from the goal was to make the society and government they did but certainly the International Solidarity movement a fact that help today there are many student causes here on our campus there’s a lot of student activism around East Africa Uganda today type issues there are there is there is a boycott movement that’s actually i’ll be led by academics to try to boycott some of the companies that do business with israel occupation policies in gaza I think that’s had a lot of traction than mania time consuming time but there’s nothing at all equivalent to what we saw the moral clarity see listen power for you’re absolutely right to focus on a will of economic how economic needs that didn’t well certainly Gandhi’s movement Kings movements and many others boycotts for absolutely and all those cities in the south it was a multi-column efforts not only Philip to do protest for copper downtown store at the merchants put pressure and segregation in Egypt worker strikes favorable as I mentioned they were important in the lead up to several districts in which the students can out to be in solidarity with the workers now the word that many strikes initially in general 25 but the longer the revolution remaining two more there were strikes and in the last couple of days but we’re still trying to get documentation on there were a lot of strikes and there were a lot of threats to go on sweater especially among public workers and of course the very disruption of the society shut down businesses usually most shops in central catalyst shut down the fact when the government cut off the internet for the protesters the most of cut off the internet for all that we tells the source companies everybody else airlines also there was profound economic disruption and that’s part of a mass effect of damage not people acted that business as usual shuts down so these economic tools always exist and they are used in struggles around the world regular used here in the US depends on the struggles that I think one of the strategic considerations always is you can protest an arrest unless we also exert some economic power if dr. King talked it out in the south you know we don’t have any political power cousin one allows but we do that economic how we buy the especially by learning the Easter season when we dress up for easter sunday suit and that’s when they did the boycott hurt the most so it’s always there was some popular threat suez canal

strength and leah single military’s blues military’s operation by Ana Lucia section and knocked off as far as I felt that’s more general question just in terms of the factors that you certain factors that contribute across the board how much attention is pulled an area what’s going on is that we get into the presence or absence of a history of organized labor and wait that’s that’s an interesting question I must know we haven’t really studied that much yet in Egypt as in made these countries the Union for company unify the state all the students said you know basically not the continent so labor activism has always been constrained but there as I mentioned during the decade before there was a growing permit strike at mojado a couple of other strikes and where the students went out to support workers but in order to strike students that go against the company and also against their union their state sponsor June and we asked well did the union’s come down to the Tigers very purpose beginners are left Duda of many workers did so it is a critical factor and the way in which organized labor has been suppressed or try to be controlled by the state does limit the potential I think it became an important factor and you’re right as far as we know that that was lots of rumors or talk but the source to Natalie know what the protesters were always struggling with and they’re specialists are members is now they knew that you know you have to kind of shut down country in order to bring down a dictator but they also know that all their jobs in North will be depended on that Cup again so reading today I went to the pyramids law handle but I was going to one of the few first outfit and still businesses very soft not yet recovered flaming strong