2020 Chapter 5 PowerPoint Highlights 2 of 3

all right chapter five part two so we are moving on to our second tissue class which is connective tissue so the functions of our connective tissue so they help to connect different organs so for example tendons connecting muscle to bone ligaments connecting bone to bone they provide support for the body so our bones do as well as the cartilage that sits in between the bones at some of your joints in order to cushion the bone connection um help to protect the body so our cranium protecting our brain ribs protect ribs and sternum protecting our chest they create the white blood cells in our red bone marrow in order to fight off any kind of pathogen the bones when muscles pull on them allow our body to move they are a storage site for fat calcium and phosphorus uh they are slower part of heat production so brown fat in infants when it is metabolized or broken down that broken down process isn’t completely efficient and so some of that energy that’s released is lost as heat which is good because babies need it and then lastly transport so blood being a connective tissue and also being the one that transport our nutrients and waste around the body so with this category it actually has most of your different types of tissues in there in this one these cells are going to occupy less space than the matrix or what’s in between the cells depending on your connective tissue type you could have almost no blood vessels or a ton of blood vessels so it just depends on your type of tissue and just as one way of identifying your different connective tissue types is many of them have circular structures in them so for example as you’re working on the tissue exam material as and we’ll see this as we’re going through the bone has a circular structure blood of course our blood cells cartilage these openings that we call lacunae they are circular in shape as well as our adipose or our cells in our fat tissue those because a storing of fat the cell kind of looks very rounded because it’s basically a big fat balloon okay so in our connective tissue we do have different types of cells and yes you need to know these so our fibroblasts are our builder cells so they’re making up the matrix in between the cells they’re helping to provide structure and support so even in our cartilage and our bone tissue the blast cells are still the builder cells next three types are all white blood cells part of our immune system so that be the leukocytes our macrophages and our plasma cells our leukocytes are going to directly attack a pathogen so there are killers for our immune system the macrophages they’ll also kill but they kill in a specific manner where they literally eat the pathogen the plasma cells they’re a actually a type of leukocyte but then they become the plasma cell so a little bit more mature and specialized oops okay so plasma cells they make antibodies which will bind to pathogens specifically and therefore be able to kill that pathogen off okay next two types we have mast cells and these are just helper cells along our blood vessels adipocytes which are storing our triglycerides so our lipid storage molecule so in our connective tissue especially in that matrix we have different types of fiber so we have three different types of fibers we have collagenous fibers this is made out of a collagen protein so very tough flexible stretch resistant so this gives good structural support reticular fibers are more like a scaffold so they’re branched they help form the shape of our spleen which we’ll talk more in detail in chapter 21 which is the immune system but its job is to store red blood cells white blood cells and can adjust our blood volume by using different plasma transfers um the lymph nodes so if you’ve ever been sick and you go to the doctor and the doctor is stabbing you in the neck it’s because they’re feeling for those lymph nodes they’re seeing if they’ve become swollen seeing if there’s some kind of activity the last one are elastic fiber so like elastic like a rubber band gives a stretch stretch and support for a for those types of tissues that

have the elastic fibers in them okay the only one i’m gonna go over here um just because i get to step on my soapbox um so between the fibers we do have different fillers in there so we have glycoaminoglycans called gags one particular one that’s fairly well known is chondroitin sulfate so you’ll see it sold as a nutritional supplement at a pharmacy or what have you or hyaluronic acid unfortunately even with the dietary supplement all you’re doing is giving your body the correct amino acids in order to make this because once you take that supplement into your body your stomach is going to break it down when it breaks it down it’s broken down into its amino acid so it doesn’t stay in that shape so we have we have other conjugate molecules that are also in our matrix space so part protein part glucose or carbohydrate excuse me um type of molecules that just give kind of a structural support inside that matrix so it’s space between cells okay so different types of connective tissue so some of our connective tissue is loose so there’s a bunch of space in between the cells so those types would be the areolar and reticular some are more densely packed together because they’re more structural support and they need to be packed together and need to be tough so depending on how the fibers are arranged in that tissue they’re either dense regular or dense irregular so we’ll get two examples that later okay so areolar tissue one of our loose types so an areolar tissue it has all six types of our connective tissue cells so it has fibroblasts it has all of your white blood cells so this is in a space where they’re close to epithelial tissue those white blood cells are right there so just in case something gets through the epithelial tissue they’re right there to attack the pathogen they have fibers that are running in random directions so that’s why they’re kind of loosely organized but also gives the ability of that tissue to move around more so this is found in almost every part of the body so around blood vessels and nerves so that’s extending around every part of your body and um almost every epithelial type of tissue rests on a type of areolar tissue so again our epithelial tissue they don’t have blood vessels so they rely on nutrients that diffuse from the connective tissue below it so areolar tissue a lot of blood vessels so we have plenty of nutrients in that connective tissue space that can diffuse so here’s an example so our dark spots are our cells we have different types of fiber so these big long ones are our collagen fibers through there we also have the elastic fibers running through there we don’t have reticular in this one but there’d be more kind of branch shape looking like this okay so a lot of blood vessels in this type of tissue so here’s a reticular one so kind of more branch shape and that’s just give structural support so for example here example of the spleen and then into our dense tissue types for connective so regular because there’s an obvious pattern so if i was drawing this out on this side i’d still be able to make the same wavy pattern because the fibers are in a organized fashion so densely packed they’re parallel to each other so we know exactly where the cells would be in between there you can’t really see too well on the microscope little dots but those are where the cells are and the rest of it is filled in with the fiber so that’s why it fits within the connective tissue category so this example is found in and i’m going to be specific on this your calcaneal tendon or your achilles tendon so extending from the calcaneal or heel bone going into your calf muscles partially because that’s on your well part of that’s on the bone exam and part of that it’s on the muscle exam okay so next one is dense irregular so all these little wavy patches that kind of look like cute little swirls those are fibers that are in some kind of random arrangement so i couldn’t guess whether what the pattern’s going to be if i was trying to draw this out on this outside portion just because they’re in random swirls so we see our little dots those are our cells connective tissue again a bunch of stuff that’s in between it okay next connective tissue type is adipose so this is our fat storage

tissue a lot of space between cells because it’s filled with triglycerides so we store up that energy so the number of cells we have is pretty stable it’s just the how much fat is stored is what changes our fat is recycled so the triglycerides are broken apart and put back together and that way we make sure that the molecules aren’t getting damaged this kind of normal activity sometimes the oxidants that are formed sometimes they can damage stuff so in our adipose tissue we have two different types oh yeah we have white and brown white fat is the only fat that’s found in adults brown fat is what found in fetuses infants and children so white fat main focus is for storage of the triglycerides brown fat there’s a bunch of other enzymes this is why it gets its color it also helps to produce heat for their tiny little bodies okay so microscope picture so when we slice this tissue we’ve opened up the cells and so all the fat that was inside here is now gone so in our cartoon we actually can see it where they drew in the fat but it’s no longer those triglycerides are not there okay so going back to our round structure situation so the openings and the cells are what gives it that kind of round shape because it’s just like a fat balloon that’s what it’s doing it’s storing stuff provides insulation for the body as well as cushioning so you know if you have fat on your butt you fall in your butt at least you have a little bit of cushion okay next set is different types of cartilages with our cartilages they’re kind of stiff but they do have some flexibility because they’re in areas where there is some movement um some cartilages are between bones some are giving shape to certain areas so like our ear the tip part of our nose as well as our larynx which is the top part of our um throat where you have your vocal cords in that area okay so going back to our six different cell types for connective tissue we have our blast cells except for in cartilage it has its own specific name and that is a chondroblast so still a blast cell still a builder cell except for cartilage it has a special name so when those chondroblasts eventually build the matrix around themselves they end up getting trapped in a little cave called a lacunae when they’re trapped then they become chondrocytes so like is just another way of saying cell so these cartilage cells are what’s called your mature cells and they’re just kind of stuck there where they are they’re not stuck there and just don’t do anything they do help monitor what’s going on in your cartilage and helps with signaling in that so with our cartilage it does have a surrounding membrane or sheath of dense irregular connective tissue called the perichondrium and it just as adds a protective layer around it it also has reserved chondroblasts who can continue building cartilage so we’ll see the similar situation in our bone tissue so cartilage has no blood vessels again it’s between two bones if you don’t want those bones smashing up against each other and blocking off your blood supply a lot of your glycoaminoglycans so a bunch of collagen fibers giving it that flexibility but also good structural support and depending on the fibers in the cartilage determine the type of cartilage it is so we have hyaline cartilage fibrocartilage as well as elastic cartilage okay first one hyaline cartilage so very thin collagen fibers very easy to see through so it kind of gives it a clear glassy like appearance here going back to our round structures we have our chondrocytes our bigger round cartoon looking eye section are the lacunae so this is the little cave that they get trapped in and then up here we have our perichondrium where we have more chondroblasts being ready and able to build more cartilage so this helps with our at our joints even though this example is shown for our trachea oh well actually it’s main bronchi trachea is up here also in our long bones as they grow we’ll talk about that in the bone chapter also found in what’s called articular

cartilage so these are found at articulations which are the joints between bones okay next type is elastic cartilage so still kind of having this round shape a little bit more thicker fibers um these are elastic fibers so it gives it more of a stretch still covered with perichondrium still having those chondroblasts on reserve so for example your external ear nice and floppy the epiglottis which is the top part of your larynx or where your voice box is at the top of your throat so that little flappy piece of cartilage that also helps when you swallow helps to block off your air pipe so the food slides over the epiglottis kind of like literally like a slide and slide it into your esophagus okay last type of cartilage is fibrocartilage so a lot tougher this one’s not as flexible but you don’t want it to be because you want to give good structural support so example being in between your vertebra nice thick cartilage as your vertebrae is holding the weight of your body that gives nice good cushion so resist compression so not as stretchy and movable as your other ones helps to absorb shock so again all this extra weight being stacked on your on your vertebra that helps to prevent them from banging up against each other so other locations the pubic symphysis which is the joint between your two hip bones so that’s on your mus not muscles um bone exam um your menisci which is on i think that’s just a regular test but the joint actually chapter nine uh the joint that helps with your knee and then of course our inter intervertebral disc okay next type of connective tissue bone which technically has its own chapter which is why we only get to so much on the detail but we will do more extra stuff for that whole chapter so this connective tissue instead of having fibrous proteins that are hanging out and everything is nice and flexible this type of connective tissue is calcified so we’ll talk more in that chapter on how the minerals are added to bone to give it that more solid structure so each bone of our skeleton is a organ and inside our bone or osseous tissue we have spongy bone on the inside it’s covered by compact bone on the outside so different look in how they appear so spongy bone looks like sponge so it has a bunch of holes in there compact bone is where you have way more minerals and very little space that’s left over in that structure okay major feature of our bones so just some vocabulary so in our compact bone we’ll see a structure called the osteon helping to build these structures we have our osteoblasts so again our blasts are builder cells except for now in bone it just has a special name so osteoblast is that one so when these blast builder cells build up a essentially trap themselves into a lacunae just like in cartilage when they are trapped in that cave then they become osteocytes which are the mature ones so these again they are still monitoring the tissues able to communicate tell your bones well it’s now really your osteoblast how to adjust making your bone so that as you’re doing bone remodeling that you’re accurately putting your structural supports where they need to be so for example like when a woman becomes pregnant and she has a shift in weight her body’s going to adjust her bones are going to adjust and having to build support in order to handle that okay so one feature that isn’t in your other connective tissue is that bone has these what’s called osteoclasts so their job is to dissolve bone so as you are remodeling your skeleton to handle different stresses you have your clasts cells that are going to remove bone your builder cells are going to build bone so they work with each other not only for building bone but also storing and removing minerals from your bones remembering that your bone works as a storage place for calcium and phosphorus so we’ll talk about that more in chapter seven other features of the bone we have our canaliculi so for our osteocytes they have these

extensions off the cell and they go through these little canals in order to communicate to other osteocytes and just like our cartilage we have a sheath covering on the outside there’s also a few other layers but we’ll talk about that later um this periosteum is on the perimeter of that osseous tissue and that also adds an extra layer of protection so this is around the whole bone or the whole organ for the skeletal system okay so looking at compact bones so going back to our round structure here so in the center of these osteons we have a Haversian or central canal so this is where blood vessels and nerves can run through lengthwise in the bone the layers of cells are built by your osteoblast and then eventually they become your osteocytes so those layers are called concentric lamellae and they just form around your central canal okay this is the last one yeah it is okay last connective tissue so last one is blood so again our circular structures except for their cells so we have our red blood cells that are stained red and then the white blood cells when you stain them with their the stain that you use called Wright’s stain it causes it causing them to be purple in color so here’s an example this is a bad one because i didn’t have the buffer because it wasn’t there but whatever the stain is kind of purply looking and so that’s how your white blood cells end up looking purple in your in your sample looking here okay and these little tiny little dots those are cell fragments those are called your platelets so in your blood job transport cells which are these as well as anything that’s dissolved in your plasma so nutrients waste hang out with the hormones gases that can transport around the body you have that the ground substance for this connective tissue is plasma you need to know that for the tissues exam uh the formed elements so the solid structures are your erythrocytes also called your red blood cells so they’ll transport oxygen and they can transport carbon dioxide even though that’s not their main job we have leukocytes which is the category of white blood cells so we have five different leukocyte categories you don’t need to know the five in ap1 you will need to know them for ap2 so we have our neutrophils lymphocytes monocytes eosinophils and basophils so the easy way of remembering that using the first letter never let monkeys eat bananas so it’s going to come in handy ap2 the last one are platelets which again are cell fragments but they are heavily involved with blood clotting and we’re going to stop here for part two