Scientific Ethics Video 2015

okay let’s go ahead and dive into things after a sneeze I know it’s in there somewhere what’s that who’s the bright light around here I’ll sneeze in a minute okay so um again thank you for coming tonight this is the second of the workshops that we will have we have three workshops per term and we haven’t decided what the content of the third one will be but we will be going through a meeting about that very shortly um this workshop is as all workshops are an important workshop because it teaches you something about an aspect of research that people don’t get exposed to as often as they should but it’s becoming increasingly important all right how many of you have ever heard of scientific fraud okay tell me what you’ve ever heard about scientific fraud what do you know about that what a scientific fraud mean medicine yeah the most one of the most famous incidences of scientific fraud is the one of Madison’s referring to it was a person in England back in the 1990’s and here’s the signup sheet for tonight who published an outrageous finding and the fighting that he published said that vaccines cause autism how many have ever heard back T vaccines cause autism how many people think vaccines cause autism well that’s good I’m not the reason people think that there’s a lot of people who really think that is because this scientific fraud went out and infected the minds of the world okay it turned out it was not true it was actually fraudulent work that this person did okay publish the work and everybody said oh its scientific research so therefore autism is caused by vaccines and so there’s a whole generation of people that haven’t gone out there and gotten vaccines meanwhile we’re seeing things like whooping cough killing people we’re seeing measles at Disneyland we’re seeing diseases that are very easily prevented with vaccines that are arising because people think that vaccines cause autism it doesn’t do it okay so there’s a really good example of where scientific fraud has had a major impact on human health we can imagine that there’s other areas where scientific fraud might have some very nasty consequences for people living in the world yeah we’ll talk a little bit about that it’s a good question and one of the questions is why do people do fraudulent things have you guys ever lied have you got what’s that a hidden agenda well he created a hidden agenda that’s certainly true this is a good good point of discussion yeah to get Fame so people make up things sometimes to get Fame I saw a hand back here was that yours over here Madison so to get an inflated sense of you said excellence is that what it was satisfying okay okay there that’s it that’s an element yes funding funding yeah yeah you know as scientists we live by the funding that we get and we get funding by writing grants and we get grants by making a name for ourselves being established with a big finding all of those things contribute to that did you become an awesome well revenge I to be honest I don’t think that revenge is typically a cause of scientific dishonesty I think revenge

is oftentimes a cause of dishonesty in general okay I’m going to get back at them so i’m going to start telling lies about my boyfriend right for a good time call right that’s what I how they used to do those right so yeah okay so you might lie about something or you might shall we say be biased at how you examine your data now you guys are getting way ahead of where I was going to be but that’s fine we’ll talk about this is a good place to talk about these things all right so scientific fraud is a really really nasty thing that can have some very big consequences there are people who have died because of that scientific fraud okay there was something like 50 children in California last year who died of whooping cough whooping cough is one hundred percent preventable by a vaccine why did they die their parents believed and it’s still out there a lot of people don’t know that that was fraudulent work yeah polio yeah polio is one hundred percent preventable by a vaccine smallpox one hundred percent preventable by vaccine we eliminated smallpox from the face of the earth by vaccinating everybody today we wouldn’t be able to do that that’s pretty scary it’s pretty stupid right so this is really nasty stuff alright so let’s talk about then I hope I’ve given you some introduction about why study of ethics is important before we get into this too far i want to say a word about what the word ethically ethics means alright we have a notion of what that means but there are many dimensions to ethics so when I say the word ethics to you tell me what comes to your mind in terms of what constitutes ethics yeah morality morality is a central core of ethics right what else the right thing can you say a lab or a little bit on that mmm okay so it’s a distinction between right and wrong that would be safe to say right when you say the right thing I think that’s what you mean Madison okay morality yep yep so there’s a commonality to I think that we all probably have the same general ethical perspective and while there may be subtle differences that we have and what that perspective is I think that we probably all have the same basic sense of what’s right and wrong what makes for morality what makes for ethics what are the some of the constituents yeah parents okay parents contribute to that but I’m thinking about qualities personal qualities that contribute to that yeah privacy that’s interesting so privacy can be violated right and I think that we would agree that in many cases violations of privacy are in fact unethical right so I think that’s it yeah beneficence anomala maleficence yes okay freedom of speech okay beneficence yeah yeah sure Rick looking looking out for the best for people yeah right sorry I didn’t mean to jump over that but I yeah I saw hands start going up okay how about honesty is honesty a component of morality all right what else yeah autonomy autonomy yep how about integrity okay so proof so integrity is that the root of professionalism will actually talk about professionalism later in the year we actually have a workshop that we do on professionalism if I say that we’re professionalism to you what does that

mean what’s professionalism acting like a professional how does the professional act dignity okay there’s a good what all right and what poise okay good what else respect very good very good do you want to interact with professionals or non-professionals if you go to it depends well that’s that’s true I would agree with that if you go to your doctor do you want your dog to be professional or not a professional ok so what qualities does your doctor have that you want that person to have knows what person you could look at and say they’re going to be a professional they are professional interactions I want them to be my doctor knowledgeable competent integrity all these things right ok there’s something that I think is really at the heart of professionalism and that thing at the heart of professionalism is thinking of the person that you’re dealing with before you think of yourself you put the interests of your client your patient your whatever ahead of your own interests okay this can be a very difficult thing if you want to go be a doctor for example you realize that saving people’s lives may be more important than your kids little league game and your kids little league game may be very very important thing right but you’ve got a duty to people when you have those things you have responsibilities and so responsibilities another category did you become top of the class okay so that’s the knowledgeable part right so you want that person to be knowledgeable you want them to be tireless you want them working for you right oh man it’s late I got to go home man I’m dying here right that’s not what you want to hear out of your emergency room physician is it okay so these are important qualities so ethics encompasses many of these things you say as we’ve noted we’re going to see I made a list myself before class and I’ve got them on the on coming up on the screen some of these things that we’ve talked about already pop up up there they’re rooted in the idea of what’s right and wrong what’s fair and unfair how many of you ever feel like you’ve been treated unfairly what did that feel like bad or mad you get mad if you’re treated unfairly don’t you okay helpless that’s it that’s a very good observation helpless when people feel like they’ve been treated unfairly they strike out when you hear of you know fights and see fights that happen and so forth fights oftentimes half happen because the people fighting haven’t have an element of unfairness associated with that okay alcohol is frequently involved in these and the reason alcohol is frequently involved is alcohol sort of enlarges that sense of fairness and unfairness and that’s why people tend to get a little bit more punchy shall we say when they’re drunk okay all right ethics helps define acceptable and unacceptable behaviors okay we think of ethics is a framework that defines the bounds of these principles what does that mean the bounds of these principles what’s acceptable and unacceptable how does ethics do that yeah give me an example okay that’s fine somebody else yeah well I want to be careful with that I want to be careful with that thought I won’t say that there may be some shifts that happen but for example murder is unethical I think we would agree with

that right and I don’t think we would shift that bat what’s that yeah yeah okay right back here then back up here yep social standards and social contract okay can you think of an example okay sure ok ok I messin then I’ll come back over here identify my soul yeah we’re going to talk we’re going to talk about that in just a little bit actually it’s a very good good point ethics is not something that’s rigid we hope that it’s the standards are fairly good but it’s a very good point that people’s perspectives change okay right so 50 years ago we didn’t think about what stem cell research was and now all of a sudden there are people say that’s very wrong and other people say oh that’s the best thing that’s going to save us right and so somewhere somewhere there’s going to be a line that’s going to be drawn right now we’re in those sort of midst of that right good point there is to some extent you’re right give me an example of something that you see as a gray area okay so not everybody agrees on that okay right yeah yeah this side of the room is strangely silent give me some little words what’s that a good template evoke a that’s that’s fine but I want to hear I want some I want some feedback from some other people as well somebody who hasn’t spoken so far what’s an ethical framework guys yeah okay can we okay so let’s be careful here because I think what we’re doing is we’re getting confused by some specific examples but I would wager that all of us would agree on general principles we would agree that honesty is important right I don’t know do you okay is there anybody in here who doesn’t agree that honesty is important I would wager that everybody would agree on that we’re not talking about the planet we’re talking about this this classroom okay all right so i can find people on the planet who believe mass murder is great but that doesn’t make the concept of mass murder being wrong wrong right so i don’t have to think about the planet i have to think about people in general right that’s what we’re thinking about we’re talking about ethics okay honesty right integrity some of the concepts that we talked about already I think we would all agree they’re very important from an ethical perspective what’s that no what you say professionalism absolutely these are all rooted and professionalism these are the very core of these things ok now let’s I’m be laboring this point let’s move forward okay we are in the in the

process in doing research of finding new information we are looking for truth truth is a very important concept right is this true is this true sometimes we find things that are true that astonishes that are true right but that doesn’t make them untrue it just makes them surprising so we’re thinking truth as we’re doing research we are bound to finding the truth whatever it is whatever it is and in this age that we live in this age in which all of you have been raised this has been an age where that concept of truth unfortunately has been very malleable malleable meaning very mr. or reshaped truth has become ideological their ideological perspectives the truth that aren’t rooted in truth does anybody know what I’m talking about when I the ideological principles what are ideological principles why don’t know what I would what’s an ideology first of all yeah hmm it’s not no it’s not ideal no it’s more related to perspective so it’s a way of looking at the world okay and that way of looking at the world is so strong that’s why you’re thinking the ideal is so strong that it skews the way that people perceive things consequently if the quest is ideology and not truth we frequently see this in the political arena if the quest is ideology and not truth then everything that you see will be colored by your ideology not by the findings of what you have not life is the way that you see the world how you see or how you interpret an event that happens or how you think that you let’s let’s say you have the perspective that stem cell research is awful that’s an ideology that’s not a truth that’s not a minute it’s an opinion but it’s it what’s that it is a belief of ideas yes okay so if you have that perspective anything that you find that will reinforce that okay you will be biased for so bias enters into this yes to back here mm-hmm yep and you will be no all very good there are many people who are professional who are not ethical but then that kind of colors our perspective of them as professionals right mm-hmm yep until you see so this is why the ethical consideration and what you raise what’s your name Becky what Becky’s raised a very important point x being less than professional x being less than ethical what we do is we damage our entire profession ok there are a lot of people when they hear about scientific fraud who are not scientists with their opinion those goddamn scientists they’ll say anything to get what they want right ethics is in a very important principle for that reason yes well truth is a is an abstract idea I will I will grant you that ok so we’re not going to try to dissect truth I want to keep truth in a very simple context here so that we can understand that but you’re right truth is a very complex notion that we’re not going to try to dissect ok ok let’s move forward all right ethics we said honesty right honesty is important do you like honesty in relationships you do to a point don’t you this is outfit make me look ugly right this one I’m worried and you might think well you know it really

does but I’m not going to say that to hurt your feelings right but your point but your points a good one that’s true right so it is a professional relationship what would you expect of your doctrine that’s a good question what would you expect of your doctor that you might not expect out of your significant other you’d expect the doctor to tell you if that that tumor really does make your face look wrong right let less brutal equal yeah I think there’s some truth in that I think there’s truth in that okay honesty objectivity there’s an important what’s objectivity I could not have said it better did you hear what he said objectivity takes your ideology out of your observation okay that’s a really important thing now most of you are going to be involved in projects that will have nothing to do with your own ideology so these concepts that we’re talking about here can affect other areas it would be unusual for a project you would be involved in to have your ideology affect things but what you said is exactly right yes ma’am of ideology affecting your perspective well the example I gave earlier of stem cells so let’s imagine that you say we stem cell research is just you know it’s awful because it’s it’s involving fetal tissue and we can’t do research on fetal tissue and therefore anything that I find up that would that would convince me that there’s something wrong about this I’m going to report that would be where my ideology was affecting the truth of what I actually found okay by picking and choosing the data points that support your notion you’ve engaged in scientific dishonesty did you know that when you pick and choose the things that support your notion you’ve engaged in scientific dishonesty that help integrity carefulness what is carefulness how does carefulness affect this okay affects the research how does it how does it affect the research okay it does how you perform it and how you present it and there’s one other element that i can think of anybody else think of what the other element is how okay I hadn’t thought about analysis but analysis a very good point she said presented yep okay how you recorded how you record it okay if you’re really sloppy in the way that you’re making note of what’s happening that you’re not being careful and though you might not be dishonest right if you’re not being careful about what you record then that means the accuracy of which you’re recording is not great therefore the findings that you make will be just it could be just as wrong as if you were making things up so carefulness is important concept right openness why openness what is openness what is open mean in scientific in scientific research medicine okay so being being open about funding sources and so forth yes Becky all beautiful beautiful open is the entirety of the truth did you wish you said the entirety of the truth this comes back to the I’m going to pick and choose the data points that support my conclusion that’s not open right but here’s all the day that you can look at it and see if you come to the same conclusion I do really important thing really important things okay confidentiality whoa we just said we got to be open now we’ve got to be confidential what does that mean a three a curveball Madison so some types

of research involve personal information again not much of what you will be involved in but some of you might if you’re working for example in certain types of engineering you may have occasions where you’re working with information from people information regarding people is a confidential relationship and breaking that confidentiality will first of all get you kicked out of any laboratory that you’re going to work in it could affect your career way down the line because of that and so maintaining the confidentiality just like a physician would maintain confidential the notion of their relationship with you or a lawyer would maintain that confidentiality so too do you need to maintain that confidentiality of information regarding anything having to do with people yes potato okay protecting people i wouldn’t say not businesses but protecting people in general and there may be actually cases where even businesses are brought into that club under that clover okay but people do come first no question responsibility I think we have a pretty good notion of that respect there’s only haven’t said what’s risk what why is respect important words respect come into the equation for ethics you’re working with people so anytime you’re working with people respect as an important consideration yes ah okay respect comes in many levels and you’ve identified several right there you’ve said you need to respect the research you need to respect perhaps the guidelines of the research uni respect yourself you need to respect the integrity of data respect the analysis and I can think of at least one other very big item for respect it has it crosses the boundaries of scientific research what do we need to respect ideas what does that mean it’s not a pop quiz you need to respect the views put the two of you together and we got it you need to respect the views of those that who don’t agree with you you need to respect the views of those who don’t agree with you in the real world and the political world people scream people shout I’m sure you’ve all gotten involved in a Facebook shout at some point right scientists don’t shout scientists can disagree all right but that this element of respect is very important I beg to differ is okay you’re an idiot is not okay okay all right all right legality I just jumped ahead to it it mean did it legality and animal care okay legality how does the gala d enter into it yeah so there may be bounds of things that you can work on that may be governed by a legal environment stem cell research being a really good example Becky yes what if somebody offer you the chance to do a surgery pretty tempting isn’t it well it’s legal there is it if it’s legal there is it ethical here I see people saying no I want to know why not I think we would all pretty much agree it’s not why is it not the knowledge yeah it’s it’s legal there but being legal there doesn’t mean it’s ethical because if you don’t have the knowledge the proper knowledge to do it you’re endangering a person because of that and because knowledge is a very central principle to something that’s ethical we have to respect that yes the problem with that is you can’t be the decider of that you can’t decide I have the skills and the knowledge to do it you have to be that’s what we have

licensing and so that verifies that so we have somebody besides you who says that whenever you’re in the situation where you decide I have enough knowledge to do that then you people always have a bias in their own direction and that’s what we want external evaluation of those so no that would not be that would not be legal or ethical I should it might be legal but it but not be ethical okay yeah yeah yeah the question that I asked though was legal there versus ethical here so because you haven’t been licensed to do that here it would not be ethical for you to do it even if someone they’re allowed you to do that okay now I’ll take the two of yous arguments and put you into a scenario where perhaps you would say it is ethical let’s imagine that you are at a disaster and there are thousands of people who have been who’ve been hit by you know hurricane Victor right and hurricane Victor and there’s not enough medical personnel there to deal with and you might be called upon to do more than you would otherwise be trained to do in an unusual circumstance like that you might consider that ethical okay that could be considered ethical with the proper training and so forth but only under again under an extremely unusual circumstance will that be appropriate okay you’re greater not not agree yeah okay okay yeah back here okay so good questions this is a very good discussion somebody is injured they need first they need fer you said CPR first aid first aid you can pretty much administer CPR is you’re supposed to be trained to do CPR is it more ethical to let them die or is it ethical to take care of them ok so I think we pretty much agree trying to take care of them would be appropriate the problem that you can run into with this and this is important to understand this again while we have external licensing is that what you do is you open yourself up to lawsuit if something goes wrong that’s why they certify people for CPR and again it’s like the licensing that I’m talking about once you’ve been certified for cpr the element of lawsuit is taken away because then the liability goes from you to the group that the trained you to do the CPR so yes I would agree with you you would probably say yes I’m going to do what I can to help this person but recognize that that could ultimately be problematic for you Becky in them back over here yeah yeah I I agree completely I agree completely I’m just making my job is to make you aware of things not to make a decision for you yes sir laws laws vary from state to state so you won’t be careful with saying that’s the law because there’s no one law that’s right ok yes yes well I’m not an ethicist all right I think that we can think of gray areas and it’s useful to think of gray areas and discuss gray areas but i’ll give you my answer and then you can you can take it for what it’s worth my answer would be that again coming back to the principle I think Becky said that making sure that you’re putting somebody before yourself is the most important thing that you can do and so if that’s your guiding principle then I would use that

as my decision in terms of what I needed to do here if I felt that a person’s life was absolutely dependent on me doing something I would do it okay so that i think would override everything every other consideration i would have but you know at that point i’m probably not going to sit and debate the ethics of it be honest I probably would yes Becky CPR can be can you can’t save everybody if we could nobody would ever die animal care how about animal care what’s the ethics of scientific research regarding animal care do we need to worry about that Madison for the same reason we don’t want to hurt people we also want to be as ethical as we can in our treatment of animals and while we may do things using animals that we would not be able to do using people we still want to be appropriate with that as humane with that as we possibly can let me take a little bit about animal as regards sentiment research if you work excuse me if you work at a university or you work at any place that’s funded by federal money you will be required by law to have at your facility a group I can’t think of the right word I want a department as it were that looks out for the well-being of animals they’re called animal care facilities and so they ensure that animals used in research are treated humanely that they’re fed appropriately that they’re taken care of and that there’s not other things that are done to them that would be inhumane or inappropriate it doesn’t mean sometimes that that animals won’t be sacrificed or something like that because that is necessary part of research sometimes but even there we want the treatment to be humane that’s a very important thing to remember okay that there’s always a group that looks out for animal care how about humans humans are animals is there a group that looks out for humans do you think psychologists okay how many think that there’s a group on campus that looks out for the well-being of human beings in research how many think that how many yeah some I’m asking is there a group on campus that looks out for the welfare of human beings in research or not raise your hand if you think that there is okay the answer is absolutely okay absolutely every single federally funded research project whether it’s at a private group or it’s at a university every single one requires what’s called a group called the institutional review board I’m going to talk a little bit about the institutional review board in a little bit it’s called IRB and it’s federally required and here’s something that may surprise you or may surprise you is they don’t just work with people who are getting cut on although that’s one group of people that is protected by IRB the IRB will be involved in any research that involves human beings for which the people doing research plan to publish their results everybody who’s doing research plans to publish the results so when I say involving human beings what does that mean well cutting on people that involves human beings right doing psychological experiments on people that involves human beings yeah okay it’s a very good question because you’re getting into a gray area if you let me tell you let me give you an example of where that you would have to do an IRB approval for something like what you’re talking about let’s imagine you decide that I’m interested in the

people that are found in the Memorial Union at eleven o’clock in the morning and I think that there may be some difference in let’s say women tend to be more in the Memorial Union in the morning and men tend to be more in the Memorial Union and evening I stay at your idea so you decide you’re going to go and you’re going to put a little questionnaire down and you’re going to ask every person to X on the questionnaire I am male I am female that will require IRB approval surveys require IRB approval okay because they involve human beings yes good question in the the surveys that we’re doing a stem leadership we are not planning to publish right so that the plan to publish is part of it however in joining the stem leaders we will have you fill out what’s called approval forms for various things that we will ask you to do where there will be research that’s involved and you’re not required to it’s very important to understand that there’s that nothing that gives your consent they’re called consent forms it’s a requirement of you okay I’m going to talk a look I’m gonna talk a lot more about that in just a little bit okay so let me I’m running later keep keep this going okay intellectual property another type another consideration what’swhat’s your electro property what is that any methods or ideas that come from people basically okay all right now I want you to take just a couple of minutes and break up into groups but let’s save each table each table I want you to identify three types of dishonesty that a researcher might be it might be involved in what this will just take a couple minutes based on what we’ve been talking about everybody quick go you can join this table you he’ll have to sit by yourself you know there are people who want to take research outside the US so that they can bypass laws here little scary guys oh yeah really nifty if you’re wanting to violate the law what you guys come up with why so it’s a shortcut okay why would somebody do what you guys talked about okay so they’re trying to get funding funding is important how about here so ideology interfered and how about here greed greed is probably as it can be it can be which is why being careful and being informed is important I agree okay all right we’re running short on time so I’m going to move quickly through the– through these all right ethics are central to scientific investigation ethics are necessary to protect participants so when we do research that involves human beings are we do research that involves animals we really need to be careful especially careful that we’re protecting the things that we’re studying that means we have training requirements training requirements may teach us the importance of privacy that we’ve talked about being appropriate in our interactions with people or the animals that we are using okay and to federal agencies that fund a lot of biological research are the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health these two agencies are the driving force for federally funded ethical considerations any grant that each of those agencies funds requires every single investigator to go through ethics training every single investigator to go through ethics training okay other trainings they’d be necessary if you’re working with radioactive material for example which might be common in some laboratories you will have to learn the appropriate ways to handle dispose a radioactive material if you’re working with hazardous chemicals you may have similar restrictions for you human subjects are particularly of importance in terms of understanding all right Madison earlier brought up this Tuskegee syphilis experiments how many people have heard the Tuskegee syphilis experiments ok I’m going to say just a few words about them the Tuskegee syphilis experiments were started in the 1930s and they were started before a treatment for syphilis

was was available that treatment being penicillin okay syphilis is a venereal disease genetically transmitted disease and it has horrible implications ok they selected a group of about 600 people about half of which they were african-american males and about half of them had syphilis and about half of them did not have syphilis and they wanted to understand what the long-term consequences that having syphilis were on human beings and so they followed those people over their lifetimes and even though a treatment for syphilis became available in the 1940s that completely eradicated it the investigators in this study did not make it available to the participants because it would invent it would interrupt their study consequently half of the african-american males who were the subjects of this study died of syphilis transmitted it to their spouses and to their offspring it’s one of the most god-awful examples of scientific research gone wrong in the United States it’s a blemish on research it was the Tuskegee experiments that really began people talking about and thinking about the importance of being ethical in dealing with human beings it was not wrong to start the experiment they were interested in understanding how it was what the consequence of having syphilis were but when they did not look out for the welfare of the people participating in the survey they crossed a big line that’s why it’s important to be aware of the things that involve human beings how many have heard of the Milgram study oh okay more than I would have guessed the Milgram study is an interesting one the Milgram study was one that demonstrated people’s attention to authority they involved electrical shocks you have question I’m sorry it is not the Stanford Prison Experiment no no ok so this experiment they had they had a person like myself conducting the experiment and they had two other people one person is over here and they’re trying to train this other person over here so they would read them something and then ask them a question and if they got the question right everything was okay and if they got the question wrong they would get an electrical shock okay and so so that the person administering this would know what the electrical shock was they gave them the initial electrical shock which is a mild shock that we’d get but then they were told that every time the other person over here got the answer wrong they were going to increase the voltage by 25 volts they didn’t do it but they told this person that they were going to do that so the personal here’s an actor the person here doesn’t know that and so they asked the question they get it wrong the person has gotten electrical shock they figure okay I can handle that fine the bridge was out right they asked him another one they get it wrong and the person goes ye yao they started out at something like seventy five volts suppose you by the end they got up to 450 volts and this person over here is in such excruciating pain that this person over here is just going I can’t do it I can’t do it and the professor standing up here says I’m sorry but you must and they all did it no matter how much pain this they thought this person was in over here they all went and they did and they did why they did it because the person in authority was telling them what to do there were times when you have to say no but this tells us that it’s built into our human nature that we respond to Authority even if the consequences are very very large yes they did some recording yes there’s difference there’s different ways that experiments performed yeah yeah okay so now we require research that’s involves human beings to be the approval must come before the experiment is done when you want to do work with human beings you have to propose exactly what you’re going to do if you’re asking a question inter you have to have the question in or completely approve before we even

start you guys will be asked to participate in the study for first a project that Sophie and I are running and you don’t have to participate right if I told you how to participate what would you do you price it to participate you don’t have participate so but you will ask to be signed a consent where you’ll participate you’re going to fill out a survey is what you’re going to do we’re not going to shock you I promise alright but the point is that we had to have all the questions together to get that approval before we ever even started the experiment so that everybody knows exactly what’s going to happen before we do the survey yes Becky yep there are experiments that we will never perform there are experiments we will never perform yeah and that’s a really good example really good example okay all right now when we think about research and human beings we can think there’s different levels of concern right I’m guessing we would say that an experiment that involved a survey is probably not as hazardous as one that might involve let’s say injecting somebody with radioactivity and yes that is done and it’s necessary for medical research sometimes okay a vulnerable group what’s a vulnerable group or a vulnerable person minority what’s what’s what makes them vulnerable they might not have the power to protect themselves out like that are you a vulnerable group from me you are you are why because I if this were a class and I had some control over your grade right I would have a power structure that would allow me to say you’re going to do this so you become a vulnerable group it’s very possible to be a vulnerable group with that hand over here question mentally disabled not able to participate or not able to make the decisions that a person without that disability might have yes informed consent so I’m coming to that it’s a very good point informed consent is what we will be working for yes sir homeless and economically deprived excellent excellent excellent uneducated you if you can’t understand what’s going on you can’t give consent right at least not informed consent right we want informed consent is what we want chip coming babies children minors all important okay let’s see what I came up with I said prisoners oh yeah prisoners are definitely a vulnerable group aren’t they the Wharton is going to kick your butt children okay you got that one pregnant women economically disadvantaged educationally disadvantaged people in subordinate positions that’s you okay and those aren’t the only ones those are those are some examples those are some examples okay studies needing IRB approval surveys interviews interviews if I’m going to interview you and then write down what you say and then we publish that somewhere else I need your approval in order to do that okay physically invasive procedures we could imagine I don’t know doing exploratory surgery on your kidney might be a little bit of an issue so the whole principle here is we want to have informed consent we want the people who participate in scientific research and believe me we need people to participate in scientific research because if we don’t have that people component then how will we go forward how many people take medicine everybody takes medicine and everybody know that medicines are approved because of experiments on people right if we don’t have people willing to participate in scientific research then we will have no medicine we will have no advances as they involve people so informed consent is important participants have to be informed of what is being studied they must voluntarily agree to participate without coercion

it’s going to be really hard to get a prisoner to participate without there being some element of coercion right they’re not in prison because they want to be there participants may decline to participate without consequences or disadvantage Kevin I don’t want to participate and you can’t flunk me out of class because of that and that’s exactly right okay so we want you to do it voluntarily we want you to participate without coercion the approval has to be documented and records must be kept I have to keep records of everything for several years after the study is complete okay can’t do anything until the approval is obtained the person in charge has got to be a senior OSU person to faculty member like myself and all members of the research team have to undergo ethics training and pass an exam because again it involves human subjects okay briefly another area of interest is that of intellectual property intellectual property we’ve mentioned earlier our ideas and inventions and I want to make you aware of two different types of intellectual property okay copyrights and patents and maybe the difference between copyrights and patents that’s right so copyrights have to do with ideas or creative works books are under copyright photographs are under copyright paintings are under copyright plays are under copyright recordings are under copyright videos are under copyright patents involve processes or inventions okay if you invent a new microprocessor you will seek patent protection not copyright protection okay they have different ways that they’re protected all right but inventions involve processes they involve things that didn’t exist before that are not creative or solely created in nature yes Becky at the time of penicillin the a patent wasn’t available I think you’re thinking of polio the person the person who did the polio vaccine chose not to protect it with patent and that’s why the polio vaccine was so widespread and why it was so available but it was the polio inventor yeah that’s right imagine that today folks imagine that today yes the outrage of the person that bought that pill and changed it right theft of intellectual property is the same as the theft of any other type of property and believe me if there’s one place where you can get in trouble as college students it’s actually through theft of intellectual property all right be careful what you copy guys you just have to be careful what you copy just because it’s on the internet doesn’t mean it’s free doesn’t mean it’s legal and every year we have students to get in trouble with pulling things off copying and saving things that are not theirs to do that with okay copyright and patent all right now and the last thing I want you to do and then we’ll finish I want you to identify to ethical concerns you’ve heard I take what we’ll do it right here will raise hands give me two otha give me wonderful concern you’ve heard about in the news or read about recently anybody exploiting people bless your power so torture would definitely fall into this category right you betcha the what yeah the guy buys the drug and raised the price of a pill up to 750 bucks is that it was that Tom an ethical concern why isn’t that what drugs are all about what why do farmers why does the pharmaceutical industry exists and make

money no I’m not trying to pick on here but the reality is is probably what he did was not illegal I would say that it was certainly unreasonable very very unreasonable but he didn’t do anything outside the law he could do anything he wanted to if people decide