Conferencia: "Lo social en las redes sociales. Gunther Kress, Universidad de Londres

I practice social semiotics yes crypto también only bro so the breathing image pero hace dos a la lengua española tiene esta cos alpha DT sassy Onan Lera de los nuevos medios de comunicación y tiene otro interests intent is a punto de vista sobre una momento una folk a semiotic o sosial a la comunicación contemporanea es decir a semiotic upon death moochin copy in esther semiotic associ and there’s a field busca las palabras avocadoes allah-allah fasiq el que es en su momento the choice – yo creo que vamos a la la palabra is your turn doctor dr. Kittles well thank you very much for that term and generous introduction and I can confirm that it’s all true it’s a great pleasure to be here and my pleasure is slightly tinged by the fact that I can’t speak to you in Spanish Spain is one of the favorite countries that I like to be in and Spanish is a language I’d love to be able to speak but too late that I come back from Australia to make that effort but anyway and some of the things which I will be saying may be different to the ways people normally talk about communication so I will ask you to be patient and maybe sort of say it’ll slowly become clearer I hope so anyway and I was saying to some of the people who were kind of escorting me and hosting me earlier I’m a peasant I like things to be named precisely and especially now when times are changing and we all know that the present moment or the present decades is a period of intense change there was a temptation to name things by names which were familiar in a former time but which don’t really quite fit for the kinds of things were naming now so for instance in my title when I suggested it I wondered why we

talked about social media because you could ask which are not social yeah I mean which media are not special so what is it that makes us put the word social in front of social media obviously we want a signal something has changed and so a big question is not to name something quickly and think it’s done but rather to say why are we naming this thing social media what has changed what do we need to understand about these media and of course it isn’t the case that lots of people haven’t thought about that but those are the kinds of things that interest me and bother me and instead of say using the term literacy in the way that it is fashionable at the moment I want to say let’s name this kind of stuff more precisely literacy for me means writing the cultural technology of writing but when I look at images I sort of think and we’re really talking about visual literacy where are the sentences in images where are the words in images were the commas where the fall stops where are the exclamation marks the rally knee I’m talking about a different resource for representation and to name it very quickly and as visual literacy or more broadly even in relation to the media to name something is media literacy and I feel I’ve begun to lose control of what I really want to say I’ve got a name but the name is empty so that’s something that bothers me so maybe I out kind of do things which are a bit kind of pedantic but as an academic I think my job is to be very careful and try to explain things in such a way that they actually begin to mean something that they should be meaning now I’ll see whether this works what I need a point is to make it work it isn’t at the moment working okay so I want to make a distinction for instance between the social and the cultural quite often those two terms are used in the same way and I think it’s very important to make a distinction the social I think is the field of action the social is the field of action in which power is always present so when I think about social media I talk about kinds of actions in mediating meanings in which power is present in some form other culture for me on the other hand names a domain of resources things that are available to me to do things with now so I’m going to make a kind of a distinction between the social and the cultural the social media are a field of action in which power is present and in that field of action I use cultural tools cultural resources cultural technologies to do the kinds of things I want to do I want to talk about interaction and interactionists work when we interact we’re doing semiotic work but when we work we do things deliberately and so everything I do as work is deliberately done so therefore when I do something or take work it’s entirely legitimate for anybody to say why did you do this yeah to ask why did you do this because it’s reasonable to assume I did this for a purpose and in the kind of theory that I’m trying to use and everything I do is done for a purpose and somebody can therefore say what was the purpose in this person doing this kind of thing there the resources which the culture gives me our material resources such as image writing speech gesture sound in various ways and they’re also conceptual resources for instance resources such as the notion of discourse nations like the genre for instance them how do we form texts these are conceptual resources conceptual resources are brought together with the material resources to make texts as messages in the way that we at a particular moment in relation to particular circumstances in particular environment listen I can do with writing that I can’t do with image what is it I can do with image that I can’t do with writing or what can I do with a gesture that I can do neither with image or with

writing what are the limitations of gesture what are the limitations of writing and one of the things which is important now is once we have several modes resources for representation we can say we’re always using some of these together and therefore each one of them is actually making a part of the meaning of the whole each of these modes and my sister’s making some meaning my facial expression is making some meaning what I’m saying is making meaning my tone of voice it’s making meaning all of these things are making meaning together but what that means is that any one of these ever only makes part of the meaning of my message and in relation to what we call language that’s quite a profound thing to say because it is saying unlike or in the West we have thought for a long time it is saying language is not a full means of representation but languages also is always partial a partial means of representation and in the West we have relied on the fact that them everything I could think what to express represent could be done through either speech or writing and what multi-modality says the presence of many modes for making meaning it says no actually there are some things you cannot do with speech or with writing and therefore we supplement these things with image or with sound or with other kinds of things a whole new field of research is opening up and of course given the intensity of the presence of contemporary media the digital media which make it possible to have all these means together on a on a particular in a particular appliance or on the screen that question what can this medium do what can this mode you this resource of representation what can it do and why am I using it here becomes important as a big area of research for academics especially academics interested in the screens and the function and uses of screens in society so for me and I’m not a psychologist I believe that we have a brain and I think the brain as a function is one of our more important muscles but for me rather than saying that cognitive is prior I say the socialist prior it is in social environments that we use our brains and we use our brains of course so that the brain is the kind of receptacle storehouse and means of transforming things but it’s transformed things which come from the social the social is prior and so therefore in the kind of communicational theory that I adopt and I want to have a rhetorical stance I want to say going back to old forms of thinking about this but not using the old terms the teacher in a classroom for instance is a red she or he attempts to understand what his or her audience is about there seven years old there boys and girls together they come from a different range of ethnic or cultural groups and social groups how can I make something and enjoyable for them how can I make it such that they can actually understand it engage with it remember it so that they can be interested in it that’s the retros task what resources do I have to appeal to this group of seven year olds boys and girls different social backgrounds different cultural backgrounds that’s what the red says but the red hole says that whether she or he is talking about seven year olds or seventeen year olds the rhetorical stance is essential in a society which is no longer stable in a stable Society I could rely on convention to know that in this particular situation this is what I should do in an unstable society and Anglophone societies are unstable and I’m making this the case about say the place where I live and work England England is profoundly unstable and the state is actively engaged in smashing up the stability of the social because we’re all free we’re all individuals we don’t need the kind of fetters of land stability so in an unstable situation each time I encounter somebody and communicate with that person Anita says what is the situation of communication who is the person who is the group with whom I’m communicating I need to make these rhetorical assessments each time you leave and what other means whereby I can make my message my meaning clear to this particular group so the rhetorical stance and I think especially when you are interested in for instance communicating online or when your

educators who use the internet as a means of communicating we have absolutely no sense really who is on the other end of the message that you’re receiving the notion of rhetoric and how can I make this communicable to other assume to be my audience becomes absolutely crucial now instead of talking about literacy in every context literal the verbal literacy of course and visual literacy and computer literacy and media literacy and I want to say introduce a new term which term I have been told is perfectly straightforward in Spanish the term mode cersei the mode of image the mode of gesture the mode of speech the mode of writing the mode of music all of these are modes which enable me to make meanings differently music can make meanings which speech cannot make and gesture can make meanings which writing cannot make but when I combine them then I can get a rich account of the meaning I want to make and at a particular limit the media for me are quite separate from these means of making my meanings material yeah I make my meaning material by writing something and I supplemented with an image the media home however other means are used for disseminating these texts which have made textures messages are disseminated by the media various kinds of media so for me these are quite separate and and so therefore conjunctions like media literacy is for me a kind of a an impossible term because medium names and that which are used to disseminate my meetings and mode names that whereby I make my meanings in image in speech in music in moving image in writing and so forth yeah so the media I minimize dispel facilities badly here too typo I actually know that there’s a l missing the media make me ask what are the facilities of this particular technology for disseminating meaning this message it’s Facebook what I want to use or is it YouTube or is it MySpace or something I’ll still want to write a blog so I ask the question which is about the medium and ask quite a separate question which is about the modes whereby I make my meanings material and of course in all of this always I am aware that I’m talking to groups who are socially formed they have social relations with each other I have a social relation with that group and the genre is therefore for me really really important because the genre is actually the in texting of a relation with my audience and so then I can ask them if I’m using Facebook or Twitter what kind of genre can I produce can I produce the drawing of interview and can a producer genre of report can I produce the genre of narrative with tweets and my answer is well actually no you can’t yeah so the medium prohibits the existence of certain kinds of social relations and the textual forms the semiotic forms which would kind of make these textual relations concrete in semiotic form so the medium isn’t mutual in that respect it says well actually if you want to tweet the narrative isn’t the best majority do you imagine a tweet is something quite different and if you have facebook that’s again something else the media actually suggests certain kinds of social relations but you can turn that around and say I would like certain kinds of social relations which are differently constituted to the tweet and so therefore you say I will avoid this particular medium for this particular thing I’ll go to different mediums so these things for me are enormous ly I’m significant some of these modes these means of making meanings material of course happened in time speech happens in time gesture happens in time music happens in time ballet happens in time and some are not in time some are in space a still image is a spatial in sensation of meaning and it matters whether something is temporally instantiated because in the temporal Association you as an audience and I as a maker of meaning can make first part in the temple entity and I can make last part in the entity significant and of course in a spatial representation there isn’t the first in the last but there are different kinds of relations yeah for instance marginal and central top and bottom so the image

because it is to the still image because it’s spatially instantiated doesn’t offer me the possibility of making something first but it says you can make something central so it offers me the possibility of making something salient making it significant in some way but in different means and so if I’m using screens for communicating with an audience I barely know these are important questions which is the best mode this the spatial or the temporal and why and so this is the kind of question asked the potentials and the limitations of modes in what I’m telling you now we’re going to tell you over the next little while I will draw on different kinds of research I’ve done and in one or two instances on research which colleagues of mine have done and actually when I was invited to come here I said to Roberto I said I know nothing about social media and I really meant it I might have said something like I’m the second most ignorant person in the world about social media because I assumed there might be somebody somewhere who’s even more ignorant he read back and said but I quite like the sorts of things you’re right I suspect he needed somebody to fill this spot and say that’s why I’m here my colleagues are very interested in in screen media of course because in every classroom in London now there are interactive whiteboards and teaching is being changed in the most profound way by the presence of interactive whiteboard which gives you a totally different resource to draw on and a relation with them students anyway most of my examples are not from what is the focus of this symposium this seminar that is social media but I think what I have to say about communication might be possible for you to translate into the kinds of interests which you have so now we’re going to be with the class of seven year-olds who come from a primary school in Clapham Junction in London and the teacher has taken them to the British Museum and on the day after the visit to the British Museum the teacher has said to them I want you to write me a story of the visit of the British Museum and then I want you to draw me a picture of the visit my point in showing you this is to say does it better with our ask children or anybody for that matter to draw a picture or to write a story okay so here then is one story and it’s quite represented you affirm by this seven-year-old he says all rights when I got to the museum it looked bigger than I thought when I went in I took off my coat and went into the men’s room our men’s toilet and after I ran upstairs I went into the lift there now going to see the mummies and all those stuff then we went to our cloakroom so we can get our coat and then we went to Waterloo station on the tube and the train to Clapham Junction and walked back to school and went home very happy and I told my mum sister my brother the end okay it’s written but you can see it leans very heavily on speech it is actually organized by temporality by the chronology of the day it leans on temporalities as its organizing principle now let’s look at the picture that this young man drew and this is a picture you drew and now you could say okay do we pay attention to what seven year olds do and the answer might be well it’s childish they will ignore that or we can say maybe a child a seven-year-old child can actually tell us something which is important and and I think what is important for me here is then when you ask somebody to represent something the recollection of something in a temporally instantiated medium it is likely that the representation will be temporally organized your speech is temporally organized and writing at this stage in the child’s life is still organized temporally um but when you say to the child represented visually then a different set of principles appears which is what in the visual recollection were the things which are most salient for you and how do they relate to each other and what was most salient and you can see that in this little story that he wrote he thought the museum was much bigger than he had imagined it looked bigger than our thought and he can see that the facade of the British Museum is something which he kind of represents is

impressive and he talked about the mummies and all those stuff and they’re there but the representation it’s representation is not about what is first than what is second or in what sequence did it occur but rather a very different kind of organization yeah that transpose that to a 17 year old who has to do something about physics is it better to have a verbal instantiation which makes one kind of requirement or a visual representation which makes a different kind of requirement this is the question that lies behind me the other question which lies behind me and this is the point about the social media if the social media prevent for instance certain kinds of genres from being produced and therefore point to very different kinds of social relations and it may be that we should ask them if we use the visual all the time will it have bitchu ate us to see the world in different terms not in terms of sequences of actions and events but in terms of salient entities and their relations space so behind all this are these questions what are the social media actually privileged in terms of the representational modes to their privileged image do they’re privileged right writings of what kind and what is the consequence we have already attempted to say in terms of genres social relations is a real kind of firm impact they’re a kind of amp of a force that prevents or makes possible certain kinds of things in terms of modal representation similarly and so now you come to think okay well we’ve got we’re dealing with the university students or we’re dealing with school students is there kind of any application in this of course when you now deal with university students who have gone through school and they’ve just moved into university you’re dealing with people who actually have already become habituated to both to these media and do these modes of representation because there’s actually now a generational divide which is round about the age of maybe I’m thirty thirty five or maybe a little bit younger below that age and the new media are not new they’re the media and these new modes of representation are not new they are less normal yes so there’s a generational divide and and and we as educators are dealing with groups of people for whom what was normal for me is no longer normal what was naturalized to me it’s no longer metallized for them okay a different example which comes from research project I did with colleague who’s professor of science education about said science education for thirteen fourteen year olds and this little example comes from a lesson the fourth lesson in the series of lessons on plant cells so the children have seen plants also they’ve had seen models of plant cells what’s it’s been talked about them they read about plant cells and in the fourth lesson the teacher says can anybody say so tell me something about cells and somebody puts up a hand and she says yes Susie and Susie says a cell has a nucleus miss a cell has a nucleus to nominal entities connected by a verb and a verb of position and that is the knowledge this is how the knot plants about plant cells is configured by this girl in response to the question the prompt by the teacher can you tell me something about a plant cell and then she says Susie come to the board and draw it this is before the era of the interactive whiteboard on which we can turn a draw and Susie gets the front the question which she now has to answer is not how many entities are there that I know and how they’re related but rather where is the nucleus located how big is the nucleus is it a dot is it a circle is it a large dot is it near the cell wall or is it near the center of the cell entirely different questions same knowledge seemingly but the moment you move to a different mode of representation different questions appear so she draws something like this which is absolute relatively accurate the nucleus is near the cell wall it’s about that kind of size in relation to the cell overall the point I’m wanting to make is that by representing in writing you’re forced into certain kinds of epidermal logical commitments you have to say this has that when you ask the person to represent that knowledge in drawing you’re forced into a different episode more logical commitment because you can’t avoid putting the nucleus somewhere and wherever you put it you’ve committed is to yourself they’re

saying that’s where it is yeah a different commitment so visual representation forces us in the different etiology and a different kind of commitment to verbal representation whether speech would be different begin to writing and these are things which are profound at every level not only the level of 13 to 14 year olds learning science in school but also University and also much later in life how do our represented what about my knowledge wish to represent in what kind of way what kinds of commitments do I want to avoid and you can never avoid our commitments there’s always the commitment but you can choose which you want to avoid and which will I choose okay the point I’m wanting to make is that with the new media there’s an intensification of that kind of question because the relative ease of using image as against writing or speech moving images against term still image having a soundtrack and overlaying all of this these are relatively easy means of making a representation and so these questions become intense of course as I said before when we use representations when we make no miss it is when we speak when we now do these things we always put notes together and I talk about that in terms of orchestrating modes it’s much as a composer who composes a piece of music says I’d like this bit to be played by a flute and that like this bit to be played by you know trombone and this bit to be played and and you orchestrate your piece in different ways for a specific kind of effect and I think that kind of thing is now going to be commonplace in all kinds of representations that we make and if we think about the future of language broadly speaking or writing much more specifically we have to think about writing now in that kind of orchestration because writing might disappear in many orchestrations it may not be the thing that is important or it may become quite marginal it may be sort of on the margins of something it may not be the central kind of issue but because have many means of making my meaning the question is not a one of competently doing so which it could be in writing are you a competent writer yes I can read right sentences can you make a complicated I can make a complex sentence can you puncture yeah I can okay probably the question now is not that of competence the question is can you design your message in the best way possible for this particular audience given the kinds of things you want to communicate to this audience and the means you have available design moves into the foreground now I work in an educational institution concerned with the education of young people at the moment competences sir but our government strives for while at the same time saying young people must be innovative and creative and adaptable to change but they must kind of rigidly obey the rules which we learned 50 years ago and I say well actually nonsense young people need to be able to make the meanings they want to make in the best way possible they have to become designers of their meanings which they will put into the world using the media which they think are best for their purposes so design moves into the center and the social effects of these ensembles of course it’s a question the effect of one kind of an ensemble might be very pleasurable to one group and it might be completely off-putting negative therefore the different groups out these become very very sensitive questions now this is not from a research project but from an everyday experience I get to work on a bus I go to work on a double-decker bus being in London and every morning and when I get to as a bus rather gets to a certain kind of intersection and it’s very busy or even even at seven o’clock in the morning it stops there and here I see a sign of how to get into the car park of a supermarket yeah fair enough straight forward it uses and three modes it uses writing it uses image and it uses color and you could say why does it use three minutes I could I would respond and say could you write all this down and give them that there is a busy intersection there are cars all around your three lines of cars next to you would it be possible for the driver of the car to read what you would need to write in order to give these instructions the answer would be no no you couldn’t so in other words you kind of put these modes together because image does something that writing doesn’t do easily here or at all and color the some yachts for instance that the red line which you

may just see highlights the route you should take you put these things together because that’s the best way of making the meaning you want to make and if you didn’t put them together it just wouldn’t work now on the other side of the same Road is this time another supermarket waitress it uses writing it uses color and it uses a diagram an image yeah same same modes as before for roughly the same reasons and but in a somewhat different style now it may be that some of you have spent time in London and know something about waitress and Morrison’s but for those of you who haven’t had much experience of these two supermarkets I might ask a slightly different question namely if you had a choice to go to that supermarket or to go – sorry – this supermarket where would you go most people say waitress even though they don’t so there is something about they think about middle-class nurse I don’t want to offend you by that term but there’s something about middle-class nurse and that this selection of modes but in this particular style font color scheme yeah is it says this is me yeah this is me this other thing is very crude it’s kind of heavy and I’m sure that if I went into that supermarket I would find mothers who kind of smacked a little children whenever behaving whereas in weight raised their mothers would say James we don’t do that sort of thing yes so these are not system – your graphical indicators these are not just maps of them how to get from one place to another these are also social maps and every representation is always all always at the same time a social representation it says it locates me in a particular or as a particular kind of identity I feel comfortable with this I don’t feel comfortable with that now of course when you make representations for the internet you have to bear that in mind you’re making representations which are not directly straightforwardly representations of say a bottle but they’re also representations a bottle which appeal to somebody or not appeal to somebody in terms of their subjectivity in terms of their identity so these things cannot be avoided okay so orchestration it is always dependent on design design is always dependent on the rhetorical assessment and the result is of course a particular style and style of said here as a kind of a slogan is always the effect of choice and because the choice is always constrained by all sorts of things I’ve called it the politics term of choice yeah so if you’re making a political statement even when you make the most banal representation and that’s the case whether you making it like I am now here in this kind of way or whether you’re making it on the internet and there has to be borne in mind constantly in the two images I’ve shown you you could say they are so these modes are specialized image shows writing tells and color kind of provides coherence and also highlights and I’m using these images or rather designers who did that use these images and in terms of the affordances and which they offer so in taking a rhetorical stance and in designing you’re also designing the potential world in which the person who will engage with this design will feel comfortable or not feel comfortable now this is the this is if you’re not just kind of designing something and that applies to all media applies to blogs to the plies to a face book it applies to whatever they are so in designing you want to construct the coherent world not somebody with somebody says why is this color here or ysus in this particular place but something is coherent and you’re comfortable and what are the social characteristics of what are the salient features of what is to be communicated what are the resources which I have to hand and design says a good design says everything that should be there is there and it’s in the place where it should be and I think if you design a website or a blog and or whatever it is this is the kind of an underlying assumption about what you should be doing now that should

be guiding it and there isn’t in that kind of firm sense of communication anything which is banal there isn’t such a thing as banality everything is significant because everything among other things is also a social kind of indicator or firm who I am and I’ll skip past these things because I don’t want to make my talk overly long but I just wanted to show this has a relation but at every level between representations and other things so this is a three and a half year old learning to write in an alphabetic script system three and a half learning to write in the character based script system this is how they learn to write in soft squared and in squared bits of paper but the point is you learn to make the character so it balances in a square and then it’s a habit which you continue the square and things balancing in the squares a habit you take away and so it’s no surprise that time lines in the Western are linear but that the representation of time in in this case Japan but also in China is not linear but modular and central because that’s an underlying disposition it’s not surprising there’s another instance of it it’s not surprising that you get your Japanese meal in something which is modularized and which already prefigures what you’re gonna have yeah these little bits of modules say this much must be sauce and this much vegetable in this much fish and it goes there and then and that’s where the rice guys things are kind of ordered but this is an ordered Society and in England I think at the moment yes of course you get a Japanese takeaway and you get this but this actually suggests an ordered Society well you know what a meal is going to be like it’s reliable from day to day it’s dependable so design happens in time and in place and of course social time is history so it always happens at a particular point in history and that’s important because if I’m designing for somebody of my age I know that that person has a very different history different set of experiences and of course it’s that the social place is the culture and you have to be aware of that how go past that except to say that I did with a colleague a research project on teaching materials over the last 80 years from tooth now from 1930 to 2010 to see how these things changed and what kinds of social changes were entailed when kinds of changes in terms of the school subject were entailed this is from 1936 writing is dominant image is there but writing says everything you want to know image is there me maybe to make something more memorable or kind of understandable by 1988 where this page comes from image has taken over the function of communicating the central meaning of the curriculum and writing doesn’t tell you anything about design and circuits now a fundamental shift and so here the designer of teaching materials you have to be aware that them this is something which has happened and that in certain school subjects there’s been a shift from writing as the means of representing which is significant to image as a means of representing you representing that which is significant so there are principles of composition and they have social implications the principles of composition are what made shall I used for this age group or for this cultural group or for this particular purpose there’s a shift and I want to say from linearity to modularity and the elements of compositional are pointed in a moment and have changed and of course the social purposes of communication are also changing in hence I think there is this change from what we call maybe a hierarchical ordered society to a networked society from verticality to horizontality we’re relatively speaking of course these are ideological statements we’re relatively speaking people relate on a flat plane equal worse before I saw myself locked into the hierarchical structure where I knew who was above me and there was below me and I could adjust my communication accordingly so if the dominant social organization knows Network we need to ask what kinds of social organization obtains in network and how they did be represented in the representation which I am supplying for somebody so an information book in 1927 it’s called the boy electrician and it was meant to just as electricity became popular stopped them a young boys from seven to ten killing themselves when they made an electric bill or their own

radio by the 1990s information books had become modular this isn’t saying this book here is saying start at the top left-hand corner and move all the way down to the right hand bottom corner because you must follow the order in which the author laid out things for you to obtain here the ordering is entirely different it says we want to design something for 11 year olds we think amphibians are interesting how can we design a page in which somebody can kind of get interested in and in amphibians the emphasis has changed from the authority of the author to the interest of the reader and its designer and children now when they come to this book now this is 99 is already 20 years old make up their mind I want to go to that particular thing at the top that salamander kind of thing because it seems most interesting all the big skeleton or something the authority of the author has waned if you’re designing teaching materials now with the authority of the author actually by the audience for you for whom all of you will be designing things or teaching things longer exists so the question is now what is the interest of the audience and can how can I represent in my semiotic thing the interest of the audience and I use this example for a simple reason because there is a temptation to say everything has changed with the use of new media well no because when these books were designed as a lady in the late 80s and early 90s very very few people had computers nobody had a laptop because there weren’t laptops now this is a social change which is about power the authority of the author as against the interest of the reader and so a website which was designed or started in in England in the year 2003 about poetry yes that pose for people who are interested in poetry it’s called the poetry archive and this says something about it says about us who are we and it uses conventional writing this is satisfyingly comfortingly traditional for somebody like me yeah but it also has a site or rather Paytas screens for young people who are interested in poetry sort of 10 year olds 8 year olds 7 year olds which looks a bit different yeah this is the site for the 7 to 10 year olds and it doesn’t have the ordering of this it doesn’t have the centrality of writing it has this other kind of order which says look we know kids that some kids are interested in poetry we can’t quite know what’s in be interested in will just provide stuff we’ll make it to here and buy a color scheme maybe and let them choose where they want to enter this Sam site yeah this no longer speaks of the authority of an author it speaks of an attempt by design team to capture an interest of an imagined audience it’s a fundamental change and color is important because if 7 8 9 10 year-olds are interested in poetry we think that they are sensitive Souls yeah so we wouldn’t use primary colors we wouldn’t use colors which are intensely saturated we use these pastel colors because we want to appeal to the sensitivity of these budding poets them you see my point everything that is here is designed it maybe not actually doing what ought to have been done but certainly the intention was there to appeal the particular kind of audience all the BBC website it doesn’t say kind of enter here but it says what might attract you what is your interest and the child is the designer of her or his own route and through the website now what I think is happening a lot with the contemporary media is something more I mean here the design team is says had sir has said all of these things would be interesting to say an audience from between 7 and 12 years old and we’ll kind of put them down and we’ll make them seem attractive well add a soundtrack to it and these things move a bit these things at the top they move it’ll be very attractive in some ways it’s still traditional because the design team kind of makes it of course the reader comes with engages with it in particular ways but I think what is happening and that’s still like that in a way I think in a lot of contemporary media something else is happening and let me show you what I mean by communication in contemporary social

media as a social navigation device it’s it’s like having these kind of things on the windscreen of your car they call these these navigation things that you kind of stick on and you kind of look very closely as you run up the back of the car in front of you and these are social navigation devices let me show you why because and what is this here really so somebody here a series of tweets and what is this person doing this person is doing two kinds of things he’s constructing a community and people who are interested in health or in the English National Health Scheme is constructing this community by little snippets of stuff this isn’t a narrative there isn’t a narrative isn’t a report these are snippets of stuff it’s like gossip back and when you hear you’re walking past a group of people me here’s something a little snippet of something but what it’s also doing its referring you on to other kinds of things yeah it makes this a kind of a hub from where you can go to other kinds of things and the communication here is less about massive amounts of content being communicated which I have authored and pass on to you but rather I’m in the center of a particular kind of web of things and I’m interested in this kind of thing I’m forming a community of people who are interested in this but I’m passing you on to other kinds of things which might also be interesting to you and that’s the fundamental change in because what composition is beginning to be about is no longer forming something even the same seemingly unconventional or non-traditional as this we’re still somebody assembled stuff for a particular group in a particular way but composition is beginning to be much more like this namely where I say you could follow this and you could be also kind of engaged in this or located in this kind of network it’s an entirely different form of composition and it isn’t even like the form of composition which is much derided by teachers and teachers of university or in school where people complain that you know there’s just cutting and pasting going on somebody goes on the internet and kind of cuts off so it cuts out stuff and pasted something else is happening here which makes I think traditional forms traditional principles of communication no longer obtained in this kind of side here or similarly here on the on the right-hand column different kinds of tweeters who are significant journalists in this newspaper The Guardian and what they do is basically sort of they’re saying something but passing yawns it’s a movie on to somewhere else like my computer wasn’t allowing me to do proper house screenshots them so it’s it’s the website of a restaurant but you can see then there’s a little bit of a map and a little bit of fur but the inside of the restaurant looks like and there’s the time they’re waking Brooklands stuff like I mean here’s a comment from somebody this is assemblage of a contemporary kind this is no longer saying literacy in the old form allowed me on the basis of letters and words and stuff to make kind of that this is kind of assembling stuff and in a completely different not random by no means and so when we want to understand this my first question is what are the principles of selection and what are the principles of composition why it’s the map down there and why something else in a different kind of place just as we asked with the drawing of the museum in there and the mummies some of the seven year old but and don’t needed and I want to I wanted to show that you have new media you have social media and you have traditional users because here’s a different daily newspaper The Daily Telegraph in England and the journalist who’s in this little texture tube and she writes she writes a long text on this blog and in the little text she says under the blogger she’s making a blog in which he kind of declares she’s not a blogger I said you can use it a kind of a new medium a new platform but you can kind of populate it still in a relatively traditional manner so this is why I think the notion of the rhetoric is important because you need to know who your audience is so something about design and I’ll say you know the quest a simple question would be if you put the images of the food on the other side and have the text the written text on the on the Left what would be the difference in meaning I mean those kinds of questions extremely banal questions and I think the meaning would be completely

different Facebook I’ll just go past I want to finish with a very very quick notion about learning because the conference is concerned among other things with what it calls digital learning I don’t know where the digital learning is a new form of learning which is kind of reconfigured the genetics of my brain or a new generation sprain or whether it actually means learning in digitally in digital environments in digitally mediated environments and a notion of communication from the early 20th century was something happens my head I sort of do something it goes to your head you do something you come comes back to my head I want to say let’s have a realistic model of communication a realistic model something that happens every day constantly a normal model not this other one which hardly happens so I’m have been doing for five years quite a bit of work in operating theatres and here you have a photo of an actual operation the person nearest you is somebody who in English is called a scrub nurse that this she can participate she has sensed sterile hands she can plan the scrub nurse chief surgeon assistant surgeon and these assists and just on the right over there you see a little bit of the operating theatre technician for professions with different traditions different ways of thinking different responsibilities all focused on one task how does communication happen here yes there is speech but quite often the most usually the speech is not about the operation but about the holiday which the surgeon has just had or the fact that he can’t get paid for his private patients or whatever but the communication is happening happening by the scrub nurse moving slightly towards such and the head surgeon because she’s about to pass an instrument the head surgeon might put his hand and on the handoff the assistant surgeon the scrub nurse might look at the assistant am our surgeon and he thinks why is she looking at me a whole lot of stuff is going on it’s not as well me communicating with you but stuff is going on and I make a decision this must be for me this is meant for me and I kind of out of this mess of stuff kind of cut something out regardless the prompt for me to act yeah the notion of communication entirely on its head because what it says is some communication happens it’s my response to something which I’ve made into a prompt for me and also communication happens when there is interpretation and I won’t say much about that communication happens when there is interpretation think about that in the classroom communication does not happen when you put materials on blackboard or on the communication happens when there’s interpretation let let me give you a few instances of this as a problem another research project with colleagues in Sweden on museum visitors among other things we asked the visitors always in pairs at the end to draw a little map which would represent their their sense or what the the museum was know the exhibition was about in Sweden it was called them prehistoric Sweden in London at the Museum of London was called London before London and and the exhibition was in Stockholm was in five rooms this person has kind of made a few more rooms and she’s populated and the rooms and with writing somebody else in Stockholm same exhibitions different interests makes this the map now you might say in a school you might say to the child that’s not a map can you can you do better you can’t say that to museum visitors and you can’t fail a museum visitor you can’t give them nor marks out of Tim in London London before London and the eleven-year-old dragged along unwillingly to see this exhibition and makes this as his map of the exhibition because in the exhibition there’s a little diorama that says on the present side of Heathrow Airport this is a very important Neolithic awaz very important neolithic settlement and they put a model of an aeroplane there and that attracted his intention but two young German women eighteen year olds who came to England to learn something about England and one of them did a completely different map she did this as a map so which of these maps is correct these are all interpretations of something which each of these people at this moment have taken as a prompt from a huge complex exhibitions it should tell us something about theories of learning I which focus too much on the teacher and the curriculum and focus not at all on the interpretive selective and transformative actions of a learner everywhere even in conditions of power and particularly in conditions which you if you’re providing stuff on the web can hardly control I’ll leave you there

see muchas gracias a la pregunta napur today Magnificat well a presentation of un punto al principio from terror myopia is imploding alumina epic del Nino KBC tile British Museum every Tanika in si si no es la pregunta le pedí de que era una representation textual de su visita yo una representation visual de su visita si si el nino Guerra even primero ubi rachona descripcion de Tejada de la sala del Amamiya context o yo way go ubi era dejado storyboard del D a complete oh hey Brianna chose to recognize Enya can you can the translators please repeat the last point no no before in them um I would have done so you’re gone and for a start that naughty child had not obeyed what I told the child need to draw a picture and so he would have been stood in the corner it wasn’t I who did it it was the teacher who asks the questions I would have looked the storyboard and I would have looked at them what and the child had represented visually and what the child had represented verbally that would have been a very interesting for me a very interesting issue because he would have had a choice of making that selection so I think whenever somebody makes a representation that will be for me the first question what has the person selected to use for what kind of purpose and the 7 year I would take the 7 year olds selection and representation as seriously as anybody else’s ask you something that will do in Spanish to translate to you know is facile kun alumna goddess Dupree Maria Semple realmente say una read accion she knows anterior meant a new and vivid oho cantar tape oral mentaiko mola Hempel okay no support Oh oooh stays es lo logic Oh noona relax IANA see Noah Bria en un primer momento Kisha a bear Jia don’t poke Ito muscle aluminum para que Viera hecho otro tipo de reduction well and then my nation of the prompt is important because it and the teacher gave one kind of prompt and the child responded and in his terms and to that prompt if the teacher had given his in prompt the child would have still interpreted for the problem and so I think for me the important thing is to kind of look at the transformative and interpretive activity and of the child in relation to the property rather than so I’m wanting to get away I mean one of the things I’m really really interested in is some in this new world differently

mediated differently represented in a schooling system which clings to structures of 50 or 100 years ago and we find it very difficult to understand and to rate nice what people actually do by way of transforming and learning and so I want to find means of recognizing learning what has somebody done so that’s my first question what has somebody done and then the question is what has somebody done in relation to the prompt or the environment in which they did it and so that turns it around from and yeah it says this is what the child was given as a prompt this is what she has done or he has done and kind of look at that difference what has been transformed what has been moved from speech into image what has been moved from writing into something else thank you manorath help resolve in this has the theory job carry over still intended yokutoku no the loss pin deepali problema de luces de las tequila antha yo creo que el que se me cayó guests at Rehana still todo Kassian for mando who to approach arrest ambien and tomahto see no idea God wanted la capacidad technological you stay in declare documentary multimedia Conda versus mode Conda versus a nd verso support s que la capacidad de utilidad loss approach on dos Suez Pacifica s Pacifica heresy C al final no estamos como Ella dijo Tillis and oh no volume medios para viajar for mar de communica y si el profesor odd Oh esta capacity’ doe para asegurar a coddled egg wash a academ odd su funciona specific ah y el contenido de comunicación que Marcia data esa forma de communica Seagram problema de de el gran problema que podemos tener ahora en las escuelas que la la fast in AC under Normandy OHS I choked Rio suetilley samos con la misma falta de crateria utility’ molvi ahora y selita mucho y una comunicación multimodal pero no necessary Amenti utilit ando el tipo de lenguaje Meza de quoi de cada contenido I absolutely agree one of the reasons I showed The Daily Telegraph wrong it’s because you had an instance off net and somebody maybe not as old as I am but nearer my generation using a new medium you know completely all trash and way the school is hampered but and when I say the school I mean a school system politically controlled now in England one has to say it’s become becoming it’s beginning to become difficult to speak of a school system because the system is being smashed up schools are being privatized the state is kind of firm shuttling off firm responsibility for schooling so there won’t be a system but there’ll be a kind of a fragmentation of kinds of schools but let’s assume and at the moment still politicians them tell the school what it should do politicians in their anxiety reached back 50 years to when they were in a school and say that that was pretty good it’s got me work to where I am and the school will need to do that of course the school meets young people who live you know completely different society and one of the most important differences is that the society I grew up in was a society in which the state was intact the state and the Society of relation was intact the relation between state society and economy was intact and all of it is broken the state has given responsibility to the market the neoliberal capitalist market in my in where I come from I think we were in similar sort of situation nearly and the state said let us produce citizens and these are people and who should be more or less in some ways possessive of the same values the same skills the same some understandings a kind of a sense of where they might end up in in the labor market the markets is none of those things it doesn’t say now let’s produce citizens it says let’s produce consumers the fundamental characteristic of a consumer is the characteristic of being able to choose choice is what defines a consumer now so young people and have lived all their lives and with the nation of choice not with the nation of authority and will

tell you it’s good but I choose for myself and so somebody the Minister of Education says to do the children say well actually no I know what I want in commensurate caps the second point is that we as academics them and it may be that the next speaker should be exempted from that and the previous speaker should be but I myself think I have not done enough to provide teachers with a full understanding the full competence is translated into how these things could be done in the classroom but I think probably beginning to do something which will change a teacher’s outlook for instance in relation to the notion of learning learning his interpretation and therefore not that secure sense of them I say it he absorbs it or she absorbs it I said and this child from this cultural background from this ethnic background will interpret it in quite different ways so I think it’s a it’s a problem we all face at the moment I have a job I haven’t done enough politicians stand against it anxieties of parents stand against it and the neoliberal market in any cases we want consumers that’s my way of an optimistic is social media hola que hacer una una rafflesia ver que quiere parece al ponente todo lea a couch on de hablar sobre lo Cascio sobre sociales guna ideas may save economic Levada por ejemplo el tema de la necesidad de que esta invention que los medios sociales MPSA desde la primera haddad a me pregunta Bonnie lassie nada como que yo no 2n poco como de separación entre los medios C haciendo el mismo me do social siendo vivo medio de comunicación el mismo canal internet la mayoría de l’homme eNOS a final Cabo de la persona que se supone que body heat up it’s a de la are sitting internet otra vez the bucardo no cou condo una serie de contenido D Tinto allocate amo tuganda EK so lanka co no sería convenient a no sería convenient a empezar desde la vas a para que la havana no viren solely internet como una Peto lu decoy day off him he said everyone de in in English history and I know that only by hearsay I wasn’t dedicated in England and there was a king called Harold King Harold apparently lived in the 10th century and he didn’t like one day was the seashore he didn’t like the tide coming in knowing the tide comes in so there he kind of picked up a shell and he kind of wanted to kind of turn the tide back by splashing the water back into the ocean and I think we cannot turn back and that particular time and maybe we shouldn’t but I think what we should do is attempt to understand it and really going to the point of you’re saying what is it the children next week one of the questions I have for myself like when I say what I’m not social media I also say to myself when are we not learning and when these children use some and whatever the media mr. they use are they learning of course they’re learning they do they’re engaging in semiotic work they’re learning and are they’re doing it an unprincipled special of course they’re not they you either using principles but it’s my job to attempt to understand the prince which the children use and in what is a pleasurable activity and then it’s my job as an academic and this is why I say I haven’t done enough it’s my job as an academic to say all right I can see principles the semiotic work is being done here and I want certain kinds of things how would my and intentions and wishes connect with their principles rather than saying I will put an interactive whiteboard up on the wall and use it in a very old-fashioned way although the resources are different so beginning to pay attention to the principles which young people and bring to bear on their indirection the use of the media in whatever way we can taking those seriously not as frivolous not as banal that is kind of silly and in that kind of attempting to come closer again to the creativity the transformative

energy that children have but not immediately therefore this bit of curriculum you know I’ll kind of use this sort of medium because they use it it’s a very it’s a slow job on our part now to begin to understand and actually I think to begin to take children seriously again I mean taking children serious is an age-old kind of thing we we see the child is kind of born in their innocence and bringing stuff with him I think that’s the task and if I mean what is education I mean I’m in England and maybe inspecting spend in Spain too the emphasis is now not on teaching but unlearning and also is a symbol of a social change in agency the learner is central so we should understand the learner and the teacher becomes a facilitator in designing environments for learning which make it easy pleasurable significant for the learnedly engage with these environments that’s a different task to the one we have at the moment which is I’ll construct the curriculum and you can put up estamos aqui coma million three amigos LOV akkad sobre mi hijo en era un concur so él tenía dos años y media un composer plastilina entonces él SE presenter concur so y plus y so full okay % o n el concurso entonces el tribunal del concur so lame-o por que era una cosa muy raro le dijo esto que es y el salió explica lo cara y los en estos una nueva y esto es una Cueva dentro esta la mama lova que estas saliendo muy preocupada porque su Agito lo veto a Salido de paseo y tar de mucho indeed are yer expletive a toda con las manos local may result o tremenda meant a precioso porque es un me do yota Lozado muchas teemo’s modos know la hora de de communica espero a ver me estado soup on sestos o menos el interpreted Odessa Foreman viendo less capacidad A’s que tenia mi hijo en si sentido yeah muchos meses que había visto segi potency and o le sockappellas creativa yah brass s ke mijo ya tiene de hecho su chawal bastante despierto con Nazca pero carry a comment are lei estas perience yeah and I think you’re entitled to be proud and he hasn’t run away from home thank you thank you very much for the exam muchas gracias a todos de la sala tambien las gracias en Espana con nosotros vivimos estado esta conferencia tan interesante céntimos tener que cortar pero hasta el siguiente ponente spur ando