CDV Vygotsky's Theory

okay we’re about to start I’m going to make sure that you can hear me as loud as possible this is kind of odd for me since I don’t normally work with cameras and or teach directly to a camera so bear with me my name is Candice I currently teach seventh grade civics and world geography I have in the past Todd reading remediation at the secondary level as well as Spanish and Spanish one and two for that matter and also Portuguese so my task is to besides getting to let you know who i am and feeling a little awkward on camera is to delve into vygotsky’s social interaction theory now the things that I kind of picked up I’m going to refer to back and forth there there’s quite a few different concepts and ideas that go into this the first starters zeig offski love Zukowski was a Russian born in 1896 and he lived until 1934 most of his work became popular in the West about 1962 i believe was published there are two key terms that you’re going to need to know to kind of understand some of the things that he teaches about one is mko known as the more knowledgeable other the other one is zpd which means the zone of proximal development all right so for the most part going back and forth between these two things let’s start out with a theory of a picture that you can look at to kind of get a grasp as to what this all is all about for starters the social development theory by Vygotsky kind of works around this parameter here okay the outer circle is what I can’t do that’s what one individual cannot do by themselves the inner circle is what i can do with help okay so teamwork group work group etc social interaction and the middle is what I can do by myself okay now obviously this is all working toward one center focal point the zpd which we had just discussed are you gonna posted this thing is in this area right here what I can do with help the zone of proximal development CPD okay so now that that’s out of the way a good other thing to know is that his theories were the foundations of constructivism okay so his theories were the foundations of constructivism I was going to list out this definition but it’s a little lengthy so instead i’m going to read off the internet what it says about constructivism for example constructivism is a theory of learning and an approach to education that lays emphasis on the ways that people create meaning through the world through a series of ended individual constructs constructs are the different types of filters we choose to place over our realities to change our reality from chaos to order von glasser Phil describes constructivism as a theory a theory of knowledge with roots and philosophy psychology and cybernetics simply stated it is the learning process which allow the student to experience an environment firsthand thereby giving the student reliable trustworthy knowledge the student is required to act upon the environment to both acquire and test the new knowledge now that’s zargoth skis theory was a foundation for this bigger theory constructivism we’re not focusing on that right now but going back to Vygotsky that obviously was a big part of him laying a foundation or a work that could be considered as as a beneficial as constructivism and I do believe that it is by the way um so getting back on task here there were three major themes in this theory of social interaction and development through Vygotsky Vygotsky excuse me tough new one is social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development so obviously it’s important to interact and it’s important as we are growing as there we are developing cognitively to have that social interaction in contrast to John pjs understanding of child development in which development necessarily proceeds learning Vygotsky felt social learning proceeds development now that might seem like something I hit on before but social learning actually

coming before development is interesting because if you think of a child which I not blessed with the privilege of children yet but i do have 170 that i teach every day you can see how the social aspect of everything comes way before anything they could ever learn just when you’re in a classroom full of students it’s always important to get them bought into who you are first before they’ll even care about a word you say so we’ll get back to that later but Vygotsky felt social learning precedes development he states every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice first on the social level and later on the individual level first between people which is inner psychological and then inside the child which is known as intra psychological and the second theory or a second major theme was the more knowledge the more knowledgeable other back to the mko more knowledgeable other refers to anyone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner with respect to a particular task so this could be an adult it could be a coach it could be a teacher it could be a peer that knows about a subject for example video games or something than someone else it could be any the more knowledgeable other mko could be any one of these individuals the mko is normally thought of as being a teacher as I mentioned a coach or older adult but the mko could also be peers younger person even computers and we think of computers in a sense as being an mko a more knowledgeable other that’s a very dismal thing to think about in my opinion but um not exactly my chosen path but I do see how they are the way of a future and we do rely on them heavily even now for example the third final theory or major theme discusses the zone of proximal development which I’ll go back to zpd zone of proximal development the CPD is the distance between a student’s ability to perform a task under adult guidance and or with peer collaboration and the student’s ability solving problems independently okay so what I kind of got from that is it’s the bridge it’s the bridge between learning completely by yourself and being off on this construct like the picture says what I can’t do in the outer circle so this is the bridge from getting to hear to hear that CPD all right um according to Vargas key learning occurred in this zone so his whole theory is about that zone about bridging that gap between what I can’t do and what I can do and he believes that is entirely social interaction and social development and I entirely agree for many reasons but to get back on the track here vygotsky focused on the connections between people and the socio-cultural context in which they act and interact and share experiences according to Vygotsky humans used tools that develop from a culture such as speech in writing to mediate their social environments he gave the example as initially children develop tools to serve soleus social functions are ways to communicate needs vygotsky believed that the internalization of these tools led to higher thinking skills ok so in accordance with that many schools have traditionally held a transmission astore instructional in which a teacher or lecture is the all-powerful all-knowing person to exude information into a classroom full of students now I personally having come from the business world I was in business for seven years before I started teaching I’m a relatively new teacher it’s only been a couple years so all you you know veteran teachers take it easy on me learning a lot the basically what he had said is the the instructional which the teacher lecture transmits information to students in contrast vygotsky’s theory promotes learning contexts in which students play an active role in learning I don’t think any teacher would ever disagree with the fact that a student in most cases they can learn more from each other than they can with somebody just strictly dictating to them as I am to you it’d be a lot easier if we had hands-on ways of learning this so yeah a definitely group work and we’ll give some examples of that in a minute the roles of the teacher and student are therefore shifted as a teacher should collaborate

with his or her students in order to help facilitate meaning construction and students so in this case learning therefore becomes a reciprocal experience for the students and teachers and you know as I said before being a new teacher every single day I learned something for my kids there’s easier ways to go about uploading thanks to youtube for example or various things in class or ways of looking at things that I’d never looked at before so I think the role is the teachers a facilitator is much more conducive at least in my way of teaching even though it happens to be most of the time whole group instruction the different centers and breaking off and learning groups are very important and they’re a big central part of what he believes in his theory there’s some teaching methods that he talks about in other peers of his talk about that help or work so social interaction teaching methods are instructional methods used by teachers in the classroom to facilitate group work it is student centered teaching approaches that allow students to interact with each other in a structured on-task manner in this strategy students take on the role as a facilitator content by helping their peers construct meaning the students are allowed to question reflect reconsider get help and support and participate in group discussions the three most common strategies include group projects group discussions and cooperative learning now a lot of times in my first period class at least I get everyone together in a group and I talk I come from an area are teaching an area that’s very socioeconomically challenged these kids are front porch sitters come from generations of front porch sitters they want to talk a little they want to get to know you a little they want to know how your day went a little bit before they even care what you have to tell them so sometimes that takes a little slower it’s a slower process but it goes right back to that social interaction and its key it’s absolutely key and they’re saying this as well in this part of the theories that they’re writing okay these interactions normally occur face-to-face but are not limited to this type of interaction with the assistance of online tools and technologies so it’s saying obviously this can be facilitated with computers or online tools and technology smart boards projectors Elmo’s things like that using technology in the classroom the stages of instruction using the social interaction models begin with an introduction led buttons the instructor so it’s always saying in the beginning and most of my classes flow this way as well to where I’m in the beginning giving instruction whole group we then break down into different interactive types of groups or it might be projects and might be pairs might be think pair shares in civics and world geography a lot was focused on the debates in the presidential election this year so there’s various ways you can do it and I’m sure I’m preaching to the choir here the theoretical origins of social interaction models were really kind of boring to me but I see that there’s a purpose form so hang in there I’ll share a little one of the quotes that I like this I believe that knowledge of social conditions of the present state of civilization is necessary in order properly to interpret the child’s powers which is cool the child has his own instincts and tendencies but we do not know what these mean until we can translate them into their social equivalents we must be able to carry them back into a social past and see them as the inheritance of previous race activities we must also be able to project them into the future to see what their outcome and end will be and that was from a quote from Dewey so further supporting the effectiveness of social interaction theory true education comes through the stimulation of the child’s powers by demands of the social situation in which he finds himself social interaction depends on social demands to student assessment and bandura was a big proponent of vygotsky’s work as well and he had some ideas on that he studied the individuals and their reactions etc bender was most famous for his research on social cognitive theory which isn’t exactly the same thing but there’s a lot of overlap which states that one may learn from observing a model and one experiment bandura studied people with kirpa phobics fear of snakes I have that the herpa phobic observed an actor deal

with the fear when he removed the snake and placed it over their legs knowing that this was an actor performing the herpa phobic goes through the routine and eventually model the behavior and overcomes his fear in another study band or videoed a young woman punching and yelling phrases such as Socceroo to a weighted blow-up punching bag that looked like Bobo the clown he then showed a video to young children later he put the children in a room with a punching bag they modeled the phrases and punching blows from the woman in the video bandura’s findings resulted in the social learning theory okay so that’s kind of a weird way of explaining it but it just goes to show in this specific situation that obviously social interactions pretty pretty important and monkey see monkey do right all right so there are a few strategies that you can use in social interaction i’m just going to listen to a few of them steps to implementing social interaction in your classrooms if you’re not already doing so 1 introduction of concept by the facilitator so talk to your kids go over various ways that you want to change things in class you know break a tomb differently try something new if what’s not working if there’s something not working obviously tweak it how you need to number two students group in teams okay I have a very very competitive group of adolescents sometimes this is a good thing sometimes this is a bad thing and we’ll talk about the disadvantages and the advantages of social interaction in a minute a third thing would be students negotiate compromise and explain concepts to another while facilitator monitors now this is a really big deal with group discussions in class and this has a lot to do with questioning techniques if you are really good at getting out there and drawing out a very good question a lot of kids can respond and respond and respond in a web out into this beautiful discussion as long as you don’t have that one kid that gets you off track and that always happens but obviously that’s a great way to implement social interaction in a classroom another thing is students assess their work it’s important for them to know how they’re doing so and give them an idea asking themselves you know I think in most cases like when I start the year I ask every single kid what grade do you want to have by the end of the nine weeks what grade you want to have by the end of the year and more often than not you’d think you’d he raised but most of the time i hear b’s and c’s so get students to assess their work see what level they’re working on see what they want to progress to another one the final one was students present findings so social interaction can come in that form as well students can present different things they found different things they’ve come up with and obviously there’s group discussions like we had mentioned before cooperative learning groups are similar to that so I’m going to skip over some of that information just for times sake group projects i’m a big proponent of projects i have a project every nine weeks one major one and one minor one but in here it says group projects or group work invite students to work as a team excuse me work as a team to think and discuss content groups can be formed in different sizes from a pair to a whole class group the instructor should be very knowledgeable of objectives to maintain on task behavior as an instructor you should corporate the process of working in a group as part of your content as well as assessed teamwork behavior so I don’t think that I need to go into any more depth in this group work is good work I think if you have very clear rubrics I think if you have very clear understanding and pair the kids correctly in a way that they can work with each other and not overpower each other that takes a lot of knowing your students which i believe is number one most important thing so that’s there’s some real ways that the group projects can be fantastic ways to encourage my got skis social development and social interaction theory in your classroom so some advantages and disadvantages of this are social interaction models can be advantageous to teachers for many reasons these models are student-centered so they engage a higher level of thinking because the method is student-centered it promotes meaningful learning okay it can be beneficial to students that work well in a cooperative setting and can be used to promote leadership teamwork and problem solving skills just like coaching my coach volleyball so the same thing on the court we the same thing I’d expect um the kind of skills and leadership social

interaction evokes from students this strategy is most beneficial to students that work well in a cooperative environment rather than a competitive one so there’s a big difference there to kind of make sure you’re drawing the line you’re working as a team you’re not working against each other some students are able to learn more efficiently and be more motivated when working together with their peers rather than by themselves so some people it will work wonders for because students work together in groups they learn to use leadership as well as problem solving skills they also learn to work together as a team to produce a desired outcome so obviously this just goes to reinforce the benefits of working together as a team and that social interaction that comes from that now some disadvantages it’s important to kind of know that going in as well so social interaction models have some notable disadvantages the process of social interaction is time-consuming and not everybody is a people person the focus on the process of the model may take make it difficult to reach all content objectives the process of social interaction should be taught explaining rules responsibilities and procedures so it’s really important even in these kind of settings if you’re encouraging them in your classroom to be mindful of structure so it’s not a free-for-all that’s very important group dynamics may also inhibit student learning now this is where I kind of caught my attention some students may not participate while others take on the full project this happens quite a bit you’ll always get one chief and a lot of Indians or a bunch of chiefs and no Indians so it’s important for you to know your students and pair them correctly so they can interact in a positive way let’s see handicapped students may find it difficult to participate and obviously that would be something that the teacher would need to accommodate for the instructor should make sure to consider their students makeup so as not to limit physical and social handicaps instructors must consistently monitor group behavior to maintain on task behaviors so there you have some pros and cons I believe the pros definitely outweigh the cons and the cons that would arise could be simply alleviated by knowing your students and pairing them together in the best environment possible for their learning and for their success technology is a big deal using those today’s classrooms are not limited to the traditional schools we have technology enhanced learning and compressed video classrooms are becoming more popular as these machines make the internet and video conferencing more convenient financially friendly and easier to access but don’t get me started there because I still it’s an absolute necessity to have a teacher in a classroom now I hope all that agree with that my opinion sorry so in general there there’s there’s a few things to kind of go back over this was an easier one for me to understand because I’m a very social person I come from a very social background I come from a large family I understand that when you’re a child your needs come from social needs before they actually come from or like vygotsky had put earlier your needs are met primarily as a social function before they become embedded into you intra psychologically so that’s it’s very important just to review a couple of the aspects we might not have hit on before first between people okay i know we hit that the second aspect of vygotsky’s theory is the idea that potential for cognitive development depends upon the zpd we talked about that an example that he gave excuse me just getting back to track here an example that Vygotsky gave in 1978 was pointing a finger now we think of the act of pointing a finger which is just something simple but what he said is initially this behavior begins as a meaningless grasping motion however as people react to the gesture it becomes a movement that has meaning in particular the pointing gesture represents an interpersonal connection between individuals so you can see how that would form how we can construct meaning just from one symbol or one way of showing social interaction um so all in all that was that was the jest in my opinion of what i got from vygotsky now there were a lot of other theorists that were um contemporaries of him that had

you know I don’t even know how I’m doing on time excuse me one second okay I think I’m Way over but anyway um so this is all important stuff to know but in summary and the question I’d like to pose to the class before I have to cut this down some is social interaction no social interaction development theory argues that social interaction precedes development okay consciousness and cognition are the end product of socialization and social behavior so the question I had have for everyone is do you agree why or why not and like I said I think I’ve gone way over time but I apologize for that and I thank you very much for listening and speed through whatever else you need to have a nice night