UMN Water Research Fund Presentation

Good afternoon and welcome! We’re so happy to have you joining us today for this second special event hosted by the Minnesota Water Research Fund. We’re really honored that you took the time today to join us for this exclusive behind-the-scenes peek at water research happening here at the University of Minnesota in the department of Civil, Environmental, and Geo- engineering My name is Shannon Wolkerstorfer, I work in the external relations department here in the college and it’s my good fortune to work with alumni, industry partners, and benefactors who support the department throughout the year And in my role I work closely with the advisory committee of the Minnesota Water Research Fund You’re going to hear more from our committee chair and founder Bernie Bullert in just a moment Before we get started though, let’s just talk about a few housekeeping notes for today’s zoom session. First of all, if you’d prefer to listen to today’s webinar by phone, you can do that and go ahead and use the call-in instructions you can see on your screen right now Toward the end of today’s presentation we will be definitely having a question and answer session with our presenter Xue Feng, and so I would invite you throughout the presentation today if you do have questions go ahead and enter them using the Q&A function that you can find at the bottom of your screen. I’ll be compiling those questions throughout the session and we’ll get those in front of Xue and we can also ask questions of Bernie Bullert, if you’d like to do that Also there’s a live auto-transcript on for this session. If you’d like to hide the transcript, you can do so by clicking on the live transcript button at the bottom and choosing to hide. If for any reason you run into technical difficulties today, please go ahead and use the chat function at the bottom of your screen. My colleague Andrea Hanson is going to be monitoring the chat function and she can help you troubleshoot any technical difficulties. Finally we’ll be recording this session. We want to make sure that we have an opportunity to share this information with people who are not able to join us today. That recording will be available in about a week Now that all that housekeeping is out of the way it’s my pleasure to be able to introduce you to the chair and founder of the Minnesota Water Research Fund Bernie Bullert has devoted the better part of his life to making sure that our water is safe we are so proud to call him a University of Minnesota alumnus. Bernie has both his civil engineering degree and his master’s in business administration from the University Bernie is a well-known leader in the regional and national water and wastewater engineering field Over his robust career, Bernie led St. Paul regional water services, served as director of water treatment and distribution for the city of Minneapolis, and he’s also shared his talents with some private firms including TKDA, Sl Cerco, and CVM Smith Bernie has also been active with professional associations such as and APWA and many more. Bernie has incredible expertise and working with him the past five years I also know that he has incredible passion for ensuring that effective management of our water is informed by sound scientific research. He has a vision to have Minnesota continue to be a leader in this area which is why he founded the Minnesota Water Research Fund with his personal generosity in 2015 and why he has recruited an amazing advisory committee of volunteers to help him lead this effort. It’s my pleasure to now turn things over to Bernie Bullert. Thanks so much Bernie There we go. Thank you all for coming today. Thank you for Shannon for introducing me this should be a very relevant talk today related to some of the climate change issues we’re experiencing. I’d like to also thank professor Xue Feng for sharing her time and expertise as she does the presentation Bernie, could you please turn your video on so we can see your smiling face All right I got it, there you go There are, the reason I started this fund was there are several strong universities around the country that have a really strong water research program and tend to get a lot of the EPA money and water research and Minnesota has a good research program but I thought it would be valuable to build this fund and grow the water research in Minnesota, my homeland, and grow it stronger and help develop more students with water expertise up in the upper midwest

And I have the vision and mission on the screen there right now. Our committee put this together for this fund we want to be a national leader in innovative water research to improve public health and protect Minnesota’s water resources. And our mission there you see is providing sustained water research funding and partnerships with outside stakeholders. We, if we can develop the innovative research, improve water treatment technologies and water quality environment while also building and attracting more research experts as I kind of stated before research advances generated in the laboratory will help with funding a Minnesota Water Research Fund it could help guide critical water infrastructure decisions and investments across the state of minnesota and even maybe further across the northern part of the United States and one of my goals was particularly to help the smaller communities who don’t have funds to do water research for their particular problems. I picked this topic this year, Xue’s research because climate change is a hot topic these days and irrigation and water use in the in the state, in the rural areas, is important to the farmers and the small towns around those farming communities. I grew up on a farm, so I’ve always been interested in the farming community and we were always concerned about our crops and the animals having enough water. Even though even as they grew up and dad doubled the dairy herd our well went dry and we had to build, drill a well deeper in order to keep providing water to the bigger herd of cows. We are already making an impact with our research fund here. We’ve funded five research projects in the last five years, supporting faculty and students, and let me grab a next sheet of paper here Water affects us in so many ways so we need a variety of research in various areas, so some of the research has been drinking water, some has been waste water, others could be ground water, surface water, lakes, rivers, climate change. So there’s so many aspects to water in our society and environment, so research can cut across many different areas and so I’ve been picking projects with my committee that kind of go across those aspects and we’ll have more information for you a little bit later So we have a big vision and we require the partnerships and thought leadership so many people to make this happen, to grow the funds. So if you have ideas, thoughts about where we should go with some of this research, we’ll talk about that a little bit more at the end. This time I’d like to thank and recognize the members of my committee, and they just came up on the screen there. They got Dave Allen, Lisa Cerney, Patricia Christensen, Andrew Ohrt, Naeem Quershi, Michelle Stockness, Karl Streed, and Stew Thorley that’ve been helping me and they’ve been excellent They’re also all involved in the water, wastewater industry one way or another, and certainly give good advice and help me with the committee So to the committee, thank you. All those of you that are on the on the call or on the video today and thank you for your time and expertise And the research fund would not be possible without the research expertise and partnership of the department of Civil, Environmental, and Geo- engineering here at the University I’d like to now turn things over to professor and CEGE department head Joe Labuz. Joe? Thanks a lot Bernie. It’s indeed my pleasure to join you for what is now the second web-based event hosted by the Minnesota Water Research Fund. Bernie and committee members, I thank you on behalf of the University and of course the department for your passion and dedication to ensuring that the University of Minnesota is an international leader in water research In the department of Civil, Environmental, and Geo- engineering, our vision is inspired in innovative engineering for society. This vision is put into practice through the expertise of our faculty and in the excellence of the educational experience we provide to our students; the engineers and scientists who will be in charge of managing and protecting our water resources in the future and these students will tackle the challenges presented by climate change We are proud to have the partnership of the Minnesota Water Research Fund

and its advisory committee, many of whom are our alumni. In these resource-constrained times, research funding is increasingly difficult to secure both at the national and local levels. We are grateful to the Minnesota Water Research Fund for stepping forward with support to help our faculty and our students to keep moving forward with their important research When things return to normal we look forward to welcoming you back to campus for visiting our research laboratories and seeing firsthand the impact of your support It is now my pleasure to introduce our presenter, my colleague Professor Xue Feng. Xue received her bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering and a minor in biology from Stanford University She then went to the other coast where she earned her Ph.D. in civil and environmental engineering from Duke University. Xue completed a prestigious climate and global change post-doctoral fellowship that was received from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association and that fellowship was at the University of California at Berkeley before she joined the University of Minnesota faculty in the fall of 2017. Xue is an expert in eco-hydrology and global environmental change and her research focuses on the movement of water and carbon within ecosystems such as forests and peatlands and how that movement can affect the global water and carbon cycles using a combination of field-based and sophisticated modeling techniques. Xue’s students solve problems on how interactions between plants and water can inform soil water balance ecosystem response to climate extremes as well as water management decisions around irrigation and soil erosion Please help me welcome Professor Xue Feng Thank you Joe and thank you Shannon and Bernie for those wonderful introductions I’m just going to take a minute to navigate toward my other desktop so that i can share my screen and start the presentation. Alright, so hopefully everyone can see the slides. So the title, so i’m just gonna start, the title of my presentation is called “Plants, Water, and Climate change” and I’m going to be speaking today on how making smarter decisions about plant water use can help improve climate predictions And since this is a presentation for the Minnesota Water Research Fund, I thought I would start by kind of pointing out how special of a place Minnesota is. So Minnesota is home to a variety of landscapes like none other in the United States It has boreal forests to the north with conifer trees. It has temperate forests in the middle dominated by species like oak trees and maple trees, and prairies to the south and west With that as a backdrop, Minnesota is also at the front lines of climate change So here on this map you can see that rising temperatures are altering the boundaries of where those forests might exist. So seven counties in Minnesota have already warmed more than two degrees celsius since the late 19th century, which is about twice the global average. That means that the species like oak trees and maple trees that have been common in the western and southwestern parts of the state are likely to migrate north, while the pines in the boreal forests and the northeastern part of the state are more likely to recede further up into Canada and perhaps even disappear from the state entirely. In this article, that was based on a study conducted at the University of Minnesota, you can see how the landscape might change on the left hand side based on today’s climate and how on the right hand side in 50 years how climate change could

turn most of the state into into an environment that supports better prairie instead of forests So our unique landscape and geographical location also means that the University of Minnesota has taken the lead in a lot of studies conducted on the effect of climate change on our forested biomes This is an experiment called Be Warmed that was headed by the University of Minnesota in Cloquet which is perched on the edge of two critical biomes. And researchers here are constantly heating the air and soil of just these different plots to nearly two degrees celsius more than the current average and the goal is to to to use these novel environments to learn about how forests will fare in the hotter decades that lie ahead. And so according to one of the project founders, they’re trying to create, in the ecologically realistic way, the climate of the future through this sort of a time machine approach. So within each plot there are dozens of tree species like, spruce trees, paper birch from the boreal forest, as well as maples and oaks, and researchers are measuring their growth rates, photosynthesis rates, to see how they might respond in a future climate This is an entirely, here it’s a in an entirely different set of experiments supported by the U.S Department of Energy in the Marcell experimental forest near Grand Rapids in Minnesota. So the DOE has set up a multi-million dollar project involving these open air greenhouses that are placed over peatlands. These greenhouses are heated to a different combination of temperature and carbon dioxide concentrations to really see what happens to peatlands and the vast amount of carbon that they store when they go under undergo, when they undergo climate change Peatlands can store huge amounts of carbon because they are made up of decomposed plant material that have accumulated over millennia, over the course of the earth’s history right, so to keep all of this carbon in the ground peatlands need to be kept in persistently cool and wet conditions but as temperatures rise with global climate change we expect to see the water table to decline in these ecosystems and the warmer temperature will also likely increase rates of carbon decomposition So will the spruce and tamarack trees that grow on these peatlands grow more and take up more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in which case they become a net carbon sink? Or will microbial decomposition that increase under these new environments release more carbon from the ground in which case the peatlands become a net carbon source? So in this picture you can see a kind of a welcome photo, welcome you to these enclosures in which you have a net increase in temperature of plus nine degrees from the ambient and also increase in the CO2 concentrations, and so it does feel a little stuffy when you walk in there during the during the middle of the summer Alright, the relationship between plants and the climate can actually work both ways. So, so far I’ve only talked about how climate can affect ecosystems, but this two-way interaction means that not only will climate change affect how plants respond but what plants do can actually matter for the climate. So here is a study covered by MPR news conducted by the University of Minnesota biometeorologist Tim Griffith who has studied the effect of vegetation on the climate. So he says during the summer, over corn, what we would see is evaporation rates that are about 40 to 50 percent higher than say over restored prairie or natural prairie. He says it’s true that in other parts of the landscape, like lakes and streams, can also pump out moisture but because so much of our state is crop lands and those those crops swap so much by taking up water from the ground and passing it through the atmosphere through evapotranspiration, Tim’s research has shown that more than 60 percent of that local moisture come from farm fields. And

so this title of this article says “Feeling sweaty, Minnesota? Blame the corn” and the reason that you blame the corn is that they’re sweating so much through transpiration. These findings are corroborated by other studies by the National Weather Service in Des Moines, Iowa, who recently noted that mature Iowa corn can pump out 49 to 56 billion gallons of water into the atmosphere every day, which can actually add 5 to 10 degrees to the dew point on a hot summer day and then push that heat index values to 110 degrees or higher Here is another study conducted by a University of Minnesota-led group at the Institute on the Environment This study provides the first global picture of greenhouse gas emissions from crop production So these greenhouse gases consist not only of water vapor but also nitrous oxide and methane emissions which come from fertilizers and irrigation applications that stimulate microbial activities on farmlands and ranches And as those farmlands and stimulated due to higher amounts of, higher amounts of water availability and higher amounts of nutrients they release these greenhouse gas emissions. And so you can see that in the United States a lot of these greenhouse gas emissions are largely coming from the midwest and because that is where most of our croplands are, including in Minnesota, so from all of these examples you can see that plants and climate are really a two-way street So of course, changing the climate will affect how our future landscapes might look like but what plants do in response to climate change will also affect how our future climate would look like One thing to know is that a lot of conservation efforts do focus on saving trees and other type of plants for their own sake but we also have to keep in mind that plants do serve an important function in maintaining, maintaining a careful check on climate change And they do that through their influence on the energy, carbon, and water cycles. So for example, if you see in this picture in terms of the energy, in terms of their effect on the energy cycle, you can imagine in a place that do have trees versus the place that doesn’t have trees the surface reflectance will change. And this is a property called albedo, or you can sort of think about how reflective the surface is, right? So the existing existence of plants will affect the balance between how that incoming solar energy can be partitioned or reflected and what portion of that gets kept on the ground versus being kind of reflected back into the atmosphere. In terms of water plants do transpire very prolifically and so they provide a streamlined pathway for water to move from the ground into the atmosphere. So in some locations they facilitate this process called precipitation recycling in which a lot of the water is kept locally through this. So this feedback loop between plants and the ground and they increase the humidity in the air and serve as a source of rain. In terms of the carbon cycle, of course plants do store a vast amount of carbon and so if you wipe out a whole forest, because they succumb to the effect of drought, then you would lose most of that stored carbon that then get decomposed and get released back into the atmosphere. So there are myriads of ways that plants can affect the climate and the way that scientists try to capture some of these ways is to to make climate predictions using huge computer models. What I’m showing you here is a supercomputer called the Summit which is housed in the Oak Ridge National Lab and, up until very very recently, this was the fastest supercomputer in the world it has since been overtaken by another supercomputer in Japan, but it’s been put to use in civilian scientific research purposes. So Summit has been used to

simulate earthquake simulations, extreme weather simulations, conduct research on material science, genomics, and predicting the lifetime of neutrons in a variety of different disciplines and one of those ways that we use these supercomputers is to make accurate and reliable climate predictions And what goes into climate models are mainly equations that represent the fundamental physical principles that drive the climate. And so these equations include the first law of thermodynamics, they include things like the Stefan-Boltzmann law, and Clausius-Clapeyron equations, these are, Navier-Stokes equations, these are equations that we introduce our students to in our in our classes, but these are also the same laws that we use to build jet engines, to make weather predictions, to navigate our satellites. We have lots of confidence in our ability to do that and including in their use toward making future climate predictions But that always, that hasn’t always, been the case right? So these climate models didn’t always look like what they look like now, and so in the very very beginning, we’ve known about the greenhouse effect since about the 1800s, so we’ve known about it for a very long time but it was more fully quantified by a scientist named Arrhenius in 1896 who made the first quantitative prediction of climate, global climate warming due to the hypothetical doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. So the earliest climate models in the 1960s, 1970s, tried to capture this by accounting for the effect of solar energy which warms the atmosphere. Our anthropogenic CO2 emissions which contribute greenhouse gas into the atmosphere and the effective ring But ever since then we’ve come a long way. So in the 1980s and 90s we started to introduce features like the land surface because that affects, again this ref-, that the property of reflectance on the land surface. As well as clouds and, an ice cube, ice icebergs across the landscape and in a flat ocean. And again these are features of our earth that affects how water and, water and energy can be distributed differently across different components And then since then we we’ve come a long way so throughout the second and third and fourth assessment reports, which are reports provided by the intergovernmental panel for climate change, which are used as a basis for governments around the world to make decisions around the impacts of climate change. So we’re up to our fifth and coming up on six assessment reports now, we’ve included more realistic representation of the land surface and added features like the fluid mechanics that govern ocean circulations, additional injection of of carbon through volcanoes, effect of aerosols, other bio-geo-chemical cycles like carbon cycle, nutrient cycles, and a more sophisticated representation of atmospheric chemistry. This is something, and rivers, and so most recently scientists are are better able to resolve the the impacts of interactive vegetation including some of the examples that I listed earlier. And this is something scientists are still working to better resolve now, including efforts from my own group that are supported by the Minnesota Water Research Fund. And so just to give you an idea into, into what we’re working on with respect to this this particular area. So we’re interested in how plant responses affect the water and the carbon cycles. And a typical response of plants to soil water stress looks kind of,

in my mind as a freshly minted ecohydrologist back when i first graduated from my Ph.D., look somewhat cartoony like this. So if you have a healthy plant, a normal leaf you use more water and if you had a less healthy plant because you had undergone a drought event you use less water And this kind of relationship has been found in a lot of foundational studies in which evapotranspiration, which is the the amount of water that plants use, sort of decrease along a soil moisture gradient. As it becomes drier and drier, plants use less and less water and this kind of relationship has since been incorporated into a lot of climate models. One form of this relationship was called a beta function that was first introduced in a paper published in 1978 on the simulation of field water use and crop yield and continues to be widely used in modeling today However there are a couple of problems associated with this particular simple representation of plant water use, this beta function, that you can see across many different kinds of climate models One is that it’s not accurate enough during intense droughts. Here is a study that compares the observed above biomass of trees in an Amazonian forest, and then these lines represent what the models are predicting and you can see that most of these models are not doing a very good job of representing this decline in biomass due to drought And then it also contributes to large uncertainties in the global carbon cycle. And these again are simulations from different kinds of climate models that are run in the supercomputers that I’ve shown you earlier that are generating large uncertainty bounds around what the total global primary productivity So how much, how productive this, how productive vegetation are across the world and they’re giving us wildly different answers And so this points to the need to sort of introduce more sophisticated representation of plant water use and what we’ve done through efforts of from my own group and headed by particularly my student Brandon Sloan, is to incorporate additional features within these models that can better represent the push and pull of plants with respect to water. So these are the so-called plant hydraulic models that can improve plant water use responses to soil and atmospheric water stress This model is driven by a series of water potential differences along the soil to plant to atmospheric continuum and the water fluxes are proportional to the transport capacity or the conductance of water across these checkpoints in the plants, as well as the water potential difference. This is the same principle that is used to describe pipes flow in pipes and what this allows us to do is to decompose the effect of atmospheric water demand from soil water supply and quantify how plants will respond to different atmospheric droughts So in cases where you have tight temperature versus soil drought in cases where you have low soil water availability, mostly these conditions will co-occur but not always, and this is especially the case when you have crops that are irrigated. So this kind of simple but more realistic representation of plant hydraulic regulation allows us to realize that the the earlier forms of plant responses in which evapotranspiration is reduced under soil drought only occurs when the transport capacity of the plant is high. This is something represented in the series of plots here in which you’re, in which we’ve separated the different responses from of soil water supply in red and atmospheric water demand in black across a gradient of soil plant conductance, again how conductive those plants are, and you can see that the overall response of evapotranspiration with respect to decline in soil converges to this earlier form only when you have

unlimited transport, when this conductance term is extremely high. So using these observations we can further develop new models in cases when the soil plant transport capacity is low We found that when that happens plant response depends strongly on atmospheric water demand, which is showing in this plot here, that not only do you get one line, you get multiple lines that can be fitted against the atmospheric water demand value. And that means that if we incorporate this additional observation into our existing models we can vastly improve the the predictions of plant water use at a forested site, which is shown here in the amount of bias that has been reduced when we employ a, the so-called new dynamic beta model in comparison to the more sophisticated plant hydraulic model, versus what has been used previously. And so this top plot is showing that the plant hydraulics model can reduce a lot of bias in these blue regions but this this dynamic beta model that we’ve introduced can perform as well as the plant hydraulic model but without adding as many parameters. Right, so this means that it’s not reducing bias because it’s doing just as well as the plant hydraulic models and so this is a clear improvement over what has been the default previously in most terrestrial biosphere models And we’re confident that this is going to help us improve predictions of plant water use So in summary I kind of briefly talked about how plants can influence the climate through their water use and through a series of analysis that was led by my student we found that the plant water transport capacity is the single most important factor for explaining whether plants are sensitive to soil versus atmospheric drought And what this soil plant transport capacity boils down to is is the ability for us to decompose different types of landscapes and plants according to to to their transport capacity. So those that have low conductance include tall trees or forests during the dry season, those that have high conductance are examples like irrigated crops, riparian or groundwater dependent vegetation And so we’re currently working to better resolve where these conductances will vary across the state and across the country so that we can use them to then categorize plant water use strategies based on this property of soil water transport capacity. So that we can develop these new dynamic beta models to improve predictions about their water use and carbon uptake. So I think I’ve ran a little bit over time but I wanted to end with a big thanks to the Minnesota Water Research Fund for supporting this research And everyone else for listening to my presentation and I’ll stop here. Thank you Thank you so much Xue. We really appreciate your presentation and your obvious excitement and enthusiasm for your research And please thank your student Brandon Sloan, who I know has been very busy with his work in your research group. So as you all know this is time for questions and answers with Xue. Also if you have questions for Bernie you can go ahead and add those into the Q&A function at the bottom I see that we’ve got a couple of questions so why don’t I go ahead and we’ll get started with those And others, other folks with questions go ahead and add them in. Okay Xue, we’ve got a question around is it that plants who are drought stressed, or excuse me, is it that plants in drought stress soil use a lower percentage of the water that is available than plants in normal soil? Yes, I would say generally that’s true. So when plants become drought stressed they try to reduce the amount of water they use because they want to be able to better conserve that water

Plants use water partially to drive photosynthesis but actually water is not the main point of their their living. They, what they really want to do, is to take in CO2 so that they can make plant food. And then the process of taking in CO2, they also have to lose some water because water molecule is a smaller molecule compared to the CO2 molecule. And so when water becomes limiting then their stomates, which are these openings on the surface of their leaves, start to close so they can reduce the amount of water that they lose. But when they do that it also means that they cannot take in more CO2, and so if that condition persists for a really long time then the carbon stores within plants, which they use to to as food, will start to be become depleted. And so as the drought keeps going on and on then eventually the plants will starve Thank you. We’ve got another question from Shaheen who asks, do you expect to see forest fires in Minnesota similar to California in the near future? So I would say that our climate compared to California is currently very, very different and so I guess I wouldn’t, I wouldn’t I wouldn’t want to say that in the near future we’re going to see the same magnitude and extent of the wildfires in Minnesota similar to those that you would see in California The wildfires in California is both kind of a response to a drying climate but also a response to some of the housing decisions that the state have made over many many many decades, right. So you have an encroachment of houses into previously uninhabited forest and because of the existence of those houses in those regions the forest fires that would have occurred naturally and in those regions have been suppressed for many many decades and as a result of that you get large buildup of of flammable material that can then, that can then will be two very undesirable outcomes during extremely dry years. But I would say that as the climate continues to warm then we’re going to start to approach the type of dry conditions, especially during the summer time, like like some of the conditions that would have been seen in California. But I would, I would try to factor in these other social, economic, and ecological differences too between here in Minnesota and in California Thank you. Bernie, there’s a question in the Q&A for you It says Bernie, I may have missed this earlier, but how many research projects has the Minnesota Water Research Fund helped to fund so far? Oh you’re on mute Bernie We have funded five. So you’re, five so far, five years in a row. We funded one, I think one year I did two, but we funded projects every summer for the last five years Great, thank you. Alright Xue, we’ve got another question for you. It says, we just purchased a property in the Duluth area that has a few acres of forest that I would characterize as typical for the region, some pine birch and other smaller trees. How should we manage that forest to ensure it is healthy and does not inadvertently contribute to climate change I would say that the way that a forest can contribute to climate change is if it kind of undergoes a die-off and a lot of the species die. And so that’s the most, that’s the most profound impact on climate change And there are a lot of different ways that a forest can become unhealthy right, and one of the ways is is due to the impact of drought and those are, I would say not just local, but hinges on statewide national and also international

cooperations and policies that we implement at those levels to to try to stem by by putting in caps on the emissions, by other economic policies to try to help us transition from a from a a carbon-based economy to a more energy efficient and renewable energy based economy. And so that’s, I guess, that’s a more a broader level consideration. There are also impacts due to introduction of pest species, so invasive pests that can potentially affect the health of the forest. And those are pretty well managed from the recommendation of the forest service in our state and so if you visit the Department of Natural Resources, I believe they have a few recommendations about steps that you can take to help stem the spread of of different types of invasive species in the forests Great, thank you. I don’t see any more questions in the Q&A right at the moment, but I do have a question for you Xue. Would you just talk about what inspired you to go into this area of study and research and teaching? I became interested in this area because I thought it was a a very important problem and I wanted to do something about it and understand it better. And I also thought that it was a very interesting application of a lot of the principles that we learned as engineers of water transport Of the kinds of, the plant hydraulic regulation, of the type of pressure gradient driven flow of water, and things that we learned as mechanical engineers or civil engineers that usually get applied in pipes or in dams, to more natural ecosystems. And so we have these set of physical principles that work just as well in the natural environment as they do in a built environment, and I wanted to use those those engineering tool sets to help understand the natural world a little bit better Thank you. We’re so glad to have you here at the University and I don’t see any more questions in the Q&A, so I think what we’ll do is, we’ll thank you Xue and I’m going to turn things over for our wrap-up to Bernie Okay, I think I got it turned on. I want to thank Xue for taking the time to share this exciting research with us and for her commitment to advancing research. Climate change is a complicated challenge facing our world and we are proud to have you digging into this issue and leading the way here at the University of Minnesota My thanks to all of you who are attending today and to our advisory committee for their time and leadership for the research fund. We hope that this will inspire you to stay connected with us in the Minnesota Water Research Fund Thought partners are always welcome Tell us what’s on your mind, we certainly would like to hear from you. What research questions you have, things that we should consider funding in the future. I think water research is critical, so if you have ideas certainly share them with with us. Just, there’s some options here tell us what research you think is needed. There’s some ways you can get back to us, my email or put them in the chat window, or contact Shannon there. They’re all on the screen If you have ideas reach out to me directly because I’m kind of, tracking everything that’s going on If you want to stay informed about our work and be invited to future presentations or events you’re invited to join our email list. Just contact Shannon and she will put you on there, on the email list of what we’re doing. Advancing water research and tackling important challenges like climate change takes financial resources. We would welcome your philanthropic support for our fund I’m excited to announce that we will be participating in Minnesota’s Give to the Max Day coming up Thursday, November 19. It’s a statewide celebration of the impact that philanthropy can

have and we invite you to join us. Our goal is to raise at least $5,000 from our community and we invite you to make a gift. To encourage everyone to give, I’m offering a matching gift the first five thousand gifts made to the fund will be matched by me two for one The online giving link is shown on the screen and if you have any questions, don’t hesitate to let me or Shannon know. Thank you in advance for investing in our goal to ensure the University of Minnesota is a national leader in innovative water research that improves public health and protects and preserves Minnesota’s water resources. Have a wonder, wonderful afternoon everyone and we’ll see you next time we put on another talk. Thank you