Lecture 2 : Introduction to HRD (Contd.)

So welcome back, now we are moving to the second session of module 1, and here basically we are going to discuss that what are the various challenges which HRD professional are facing Now in the first module probably we try explain you that why HRD is important, what is HRD? Now since this HRD activities are taking by HRD professional we have to say that how this HRD professionals are going to carry out the activate related to human source development So we are moving to these directions, now what are the challenges which are HRD professionals are facing today? Say the work force is not very heterogeneous, sorry homogeneous, it is going to be very, very homogeneous okay So you will find the demographic of the workforce searches, it is much more cosmopolitan what you call hydrogen in nature Why I am telling you that if you go to any work place today, in any part of the India will find that people from all works of life working together, there maybe people from different regions, different cultures, different age groups, and the needs expectations and development requirements are these workforce is different And this creates some major challenge for meeting the requirements, development requirements especially of workforce which is very very diverse in nature Another part and activities that is because of the globalization it is created lot of require demand thought Third we will discuss them all these points separately So the third point is that how we are going eliminate the skill gap Because one of the major advantage of offering the HRD program or any kind of HRD intervention by the professionals is to ensure that there is no mismatch in the knowledge and skill gap a new are industry ready or you are ready for the job that you are going to perform And then the fourth point is HRD is not concerned or it is not a one time of fear, but it is am continuous learning process which has to be carried out on a regular basis, because you need to update your knowledge and skill base on a regular basis And finally from individual learning were moving to organizational learning So we will take up all these points one by one together and that is what we are going to discuss here Now if you look at the first point, changing workforce demographics This data actually shows a trend at the global level Now if you look at this data it suggest that how Asians are going to increase in a total workforce from 4 to 6%, but it might go further 14%, because if you look at the Asian population and the people who are working especially say in India and China their percent is much more higher than any other country if you go to any advance or developed countries Now so the role of Asians are going to increase, early surprise to know that in many IT companies not only in India but abroad, you will find 30 to 40% people working, and they belong from either India or China or other Asian countries Similarly, you will find that the role of whites actually is going down This may not be a good trend and that is why you will find that recently some of the developed countries are trying to prevent people from these countries to take up jobs in their countries and so that this trend can be the worst Now if you look at the women participation in the workforce which is also going to increase So half of the entire workforce is going to be the women in the workforce Similarly, if you look at older workforce those who are ever 55 plus are going to increasing And they are going to save from atleast 25% of the workforce which is the huge workforce Now in some Asian countries you will find certain disturbing trends not in India In India we have a major junk of workforce which belong to say 20 to 35 or 40 But in certain Asian countries we will find this trend is different say for Japan Japan has a huge older population, because of the longevity of the life another factors So these are certain trends which are changing the demography of the composition of the workforce

not only India, but different countries Now if you look at specifically the India case of India, the certain trades that is expected Now we are having jobless growth What does it mean? It means what we call demographic bonus are demographic dividend that is much talked about If you look at the data it also suggest that 1000 million people are going to be a working age population by 20 -30 that is in the 10-12 years So is it possible to provide employment to so many people? Or these people higher the requisite knowledge and skill base at the macro level to take up jobs whether the government or other sectors would be able to create employment for so many people So these are some of the issues related to the Indian population, it means that India need to generate in the 280 million jobs of the 30 years Especially for the working population that is 15 to 64 may be all of kind of sector organized or organize informal, formal including all kind of sectors If you look at unorganized sector which is growing highly and just going to set up to 93% population like 2017 These date bases are very very important, because that has to understand that what kind of development activity that need to be taken not particular at the micro level the individual level But at the society level, the national level and what kind of HRD intermissions can be planned, so that we do not have a case of un-employability At the same time, we are able to provide job as per their knowledge in a skill base So if you look at the growth of the companies, companies are growing at the rate of 2% which is lowest in the five years means the growth of the organization have gone down So this would create another situation where you will find that it is moving to what you call jobless growth So this is the data that is provided by that how India is looming towards what to call a demographic disaster Now look at the next point competing in the global economy After the liberalization process things had changed and it is almost what you call 25 year globalization process started in India The most important thing that is happening is in the field of technology, advances in technology Whether we are able to match the requirement in the case of technology or not Now if you look at technological advancements are the life cycle of a product which is changing very fast So how to changes that is happening in the field of technology, so that you can compete globally and that is where HRD as the role to ensure that you have the requesting knowledge in skill base to develop those technologies to meet the requirements And that is where you need more skilled energy you can take people to take up the challenges in a global economy Similarly, another important point that probably we are missing in the global economy what we call the globalism is cultural sensitivity That is where we want to discuss the role of say national culture or other things, because that is going to affect the way people work The kind of mind set the people had, how they view the work, how they view the life For example you will find that even people working more than say 60 hours 70 hours per week are not that productive compare to people who are working say 35 hours Recently I look at the data that in Western countries people are working for 37 hours per week are more producing that people India who are working for 48 hours , 50 hours So they are certain issues relate to the culture which is going to affect your attitude and behaviour they way we work So you also need to be sensitive are the cultural context of the work and because it is going to affect your attitude and behaviour See most of the organizes are moving from individual to team working now So and there research created another challenge for the chart professional to train them to work as a team and that is a huge challenge for the people, because in India probably

we are not use they have to do this kind of things Similarly you also need to develop certain new a skills like problem solving, communication, good relationship, interpersonal skills These are some of the skills which would be required for you to compete in a global environment Not just technical skills Including cross cultural skills probably suppose you are going for assignments elsewhere so you need to develop these kinds of a skills you have to be culturally sensitive, you need to work in the work, you need to develop these communications interpersonal skills, so that you can compete effectively So one of the major problem that India is going to face is related to eliminated the stated because if you are not able to eliminate the skill gap the question of employability remains violent If you look at the skill gap issues the data says that 15 million youngster entering the workforce each year atleast 75% or not job ready in India It means the rate of employability for the new graduates are those you are going to entering to the workforce is at the rate of 25% What to do with other 75% people The Government of India has taken certain steps to limited skill gap like NSDC finish school concept and the other things that are coming up where they are trying to train you, so that you develop the required knowledge in the skill base to take up jobs Similarly you will also find that has been shift in the employment that it is not only going to with qualification based But it has to be skill based It means you should have got a degree for a B.tech or M.tech or M.A, M.sc, it will lot fetch your job, but your need is basically you need certain required set of a skills which is going to make a employment So the idea is not to give only the theoretical bases of the knowledge only, but you also imparting certain skills which make you employable And that is where the role of institutional especially educationalist institutions become very important So they have proceed that you develop those skill which make you ready for jobs in the industry or any kind of organize And that is where we talk about better industry college interface So that industry tells about it requirement colleges know what is the kind of knowledge in skill base that would required by the industry and they are able to design their curriculum and other kind of things, so that you become ready for the job The entire history of human resource development you know that they are trying to do this exercise by going for this NSDC finishes schools are offering lot of programs even these online program which are being offered for not only in my course but courses are basically an example of increasing a knowledge in skill bases or let it to particular field So that you can work effectively So you got basically important is that if you want really eliminate the skill gap you need to develop certain skills Basic skills, soft technical skills and soft and behaviours skills And it is very important for you to develop is skills otherwise you may not remain viable in the longer Now I am just going to present to very important fact related to skill gap report which is WST and there shown if you look at the skill gap report you can really say how India is where it so far is eliminating the skill gap and what is happening to this Now the data’s on the three is showing the rate of employability for different kind of professions It starts with arts, B.com, B.sc, M.sc, ITI, poly techniques, engineers or MBAs If you look at this you will find that in some cases they start much improvement in fact in some cases we will find employability has gone down from 2014 to 2016 It means that we have not been able to work much so far as eliminating the skill gap is concerned If you look at this graft on employability if you look says arts graduate which gone up but if you look at engineers it is going down are the years from 2014 to 2015, 2015-16 In some cases it has not gone much down, but you will find that there is no change in the level of employability Now moving to either data, if you look at gender wise employability If you look at this data what does it suggest especially about males and females On the left side we better led to the male and if you look at data on the right side it is relate to the female, if you look at this data from 2014-2016, you will find that

yes The rate of employability whether it is male or female they is too significant definite which is more or less same The only thing is that in case of female they slight increase you will find their employability level Now the question is that what kinds of skills are required by the employees in order to remain viable So if you look at this graft the next one you can see these are some of the skills that is required by the employees and this is the data based on a survey which was conducted in 2017 for most of the industries, to see if you look at some of their skills like domain expertise the most important thing Next most important thing we will find is whether you are really able to learn, you learning agility then you have integrity or value that is more important than your mathematical ability your cultural since adoptability of communication skills your adoptability It is not only domain expertise which is only important at the rate of 20% But they other physical set which is required by you to breeze the gap in your knowledge in skill base If you do not have those skill like a result orientation, then what will happen probably we will not remain employable Are you mean get an employment, so if you look at this data you can see the some of the skills that you required is more related to what you call soft skill or behavioural skill like interpersonal communications or cultural adoptability are result orientation your ability to learn no things that is more important in to those context otherwise it may not be possible for you to say, eliminates or skill gap and you may not remain employable all the time Now so the most important thing is that if you really want to increase your knowledge in skill base It is not a onetime offer but if you have to see that you go for continues learning regular updating of learning activities So it is a continuous stresses, why because lot of changes are happening in the environment Especially in the originations you know structures process says technology everything changing So if a breathing changing if you do not learn about these changes and if you do not adopt about these changes that is happening in the organize probably you may not remain viable So it is very very important for you to learn about the changes that are happening in different fields whether it is related to organization technology products processes So these are the changes that is happening, what kind of changes happening in the structure say organise doing for a structuring So may be your roles and responsibility for changing See most of the organization in order to remain viable or going for lot of restructuring, redesigning, relearning all kind of exercises So what will happen in that case your roles and responsibility change? Say for an example in the organization they clap three levels of people in the organization They said that they are going to be of the departments In the general managers, assistant general managers and general managers They have been clap together in one resignation that is called head of the departments With this kind of restricting they are going to be changed in the roles and responsibilities they told, so you will need to learn that what are the activities which is going to help to perform effectively And whether you have the require knowledge in a skill base to work effectively in a new role Similarly, if you look at the technology If you look at technology, technology which is defined as the nature of production system with this changing Now with the changing nature of technology what will happen? Moving from safe traditional manual technology, we are moving to computer base technology, computer intergraded technology or computer intergraded manufacturing What you called flexible manufacturing systems automation or robotics what you called the new things that is coming up into the picture like artificial intelligence some of is in learning With the most of the jobs are going to be automated or would be done by the robots or the machine So you need to if you do not update yourself you may not remain viable or become oxalate, because machine learning is an artificial intelligence comes into the picture what will happen to itself So you need to learn new things in order to remain employable in the market and the changes in the technology basically forces you to either adopted or go for it or learn new things so that you can work with new technology than products

If you look at the product life cycle it is also changing So you need to ensure that you are going offer products which are going to be innovative, which will have a market, which is going to be more creative have better futures than your compotators, but how it is possible unless you have the capacity to be innovative and creative ourselves And that is where say kind of intervention that can be planned like offering a program creativity and innovations for IIT managers so that they come out with a new products, new processes both So that you remain viable in the long time IG organize both I say individual because if you look at product and process we are changing very fast look at the product life cycle For example in mobile communication the product life cycle is four months now, 6-4 months it means expand of 4-6 month another feature is added to the product So if you are not going to be competitive enough, if you are not having the knowledge and skill base to product probably we will not remain reliable in the market So you need to face the challenges at HRD profession to ensure that your employs are your human resources develop those competencies to ensure that the product and process are compete You are adopting certain processes but they may not longer way required by you, so you have to go for restructuring of this processes What I am talking about this business processes, so you are need to go for rearrange of business process to delete those processes which are no longer viable, which are no longer effective and opt for a different kind of process So that you are able to increase efficiency into quality improve your productivity otherwise your business processes may not help to remain competitive, so if you are going for this kind of changes who is going to do it is the people who are going to be responsible for this People do not change and if they do not adopt to the changes probably nothing is going to happen, because any kind of changes is coming in the field of the organize technology products are processes who is responsible It is the responsible way of the people The people if they do not have the knowledge and skill base then probably they will not be able to compete So what is the role of HRD professionals to ensure that their employs are able to adopt the changes that is happening and for that whatever is required whatever intervention is required in terms of training them, them ensure their growth and development, so that they have those skills are competency which will help these employs to ensure that they are able to compete in terms of technology products and processes So that they remain committed and that is where they need for continues learning consent to the picture That is why HRD professionals have to ensure that they need to design interval in on a regular basis to upgrade the knowledge in skill base of the people Now the next point is organize learning Now we are moving from individual learning to organize learning What does it mean? It means that organize should be able to learn adopt and change to remain competitive, but how it is possible unless individuals are competent enough, so we are moving from individual learning to organize learning When we are moving from individual learning to organize learning it means the certain processes which you call at the organize level which has being carried out by the people From individual learning to organize learning we need to ensure that how individual learning is going to contribute to the growth and development of the organization, because with individual learning probably organizes are going to learn adopt to this changes And also change their products, processes, technology regularly, so that they remain competitive Otherwise organization are not going to remain competitive and they will if you look at some of the principle that have been suggested by Peter Senge in his learning organization, he suggested certain principles These are 5 principles which have been suggested by Peter Senge to become a learning organization We also need to make a differentiate between organization learning and learning organization So organize learning is a process through which you become a learning organization So learning organization is an intermediate outcome

Not a final outcome Because today are a learning organization that you are doing well where able to adopt and change yourself to remain competitive not necessary that tomorrow again you are going to remain competitive So you need to continuously adopt and change yourself on a regular basis IG organization And that is where your remain competitive So the idea is that through certain process says you are for able to learn as an organization Not as the individual to see that you are going to change and adapt quickly to the competitors you remain where Here I am going to give one example, two different example say for example, you take HMT watch and say Titan both have though different times of point they have been doing well But HMT has not been able to learn and change themselves with the requirements while titan has going for diversification they adopted they have been able to learn and change themselves on a continuous basis So who is going to be more competitive, definitely titan not HMT Are you looking at automobile sector; you know that there is lot of competition automobile sectors Some of the oldest company which have there in the India like if we yet Hindustan motors no longer exist today Because they are been able to adopt and change themselves to remain competitive So the idea is that IG organization if you do not learn adopt and change you may not remain competitive, but how this organize learning takes place It takes place to individuals Because as an individual if you don’t learn and contribute to changes in the product, process and technology organization are not going to be viable So if through this process you are going to become a learning organization some of the principle that is discussed here like systems thinking it means let to have two thing from the holistic perspective not just one thing So you have to think about the organization is the entire system as a whole system at you need to look at the entire system not just one part of the organization and see that how it can integrate the activities of the entire organization into one should be able to see the big picture first Second is personal mastery that is related to competence the knowledge with skill base that , the third one is the mental models, mental models basically talks about the attitude and the mindset of the people If you have the kind of mind set or attitude that there is no point going for a change it is not going to help you probably will not be able to grow in development If you do not take a risk say for example, then what will happen So you need to change your mind set in order to compete, the next one is shared visions shared visions means what it means that everyone in the organization be individuals big big groups are the department to share the shared visions through their activities, so that all of them integrate their activities, coordinate their activities and able to contribute to the goals or objectives are the organize And finally this is possible with team learning where everybody work together coordinate their activities are integrated activity So that they are able to contribute the growth of the organization Thank you very much