ნინო კირვალიძე, ტექსტის ანალიზი, ლექცია 4

the topic of lecture 4 is text types the Christian of text types offers a severe challenge to linguistic typology that systemization and classification of language samples as communicative units and descriptive linguistics typology focused on minimal units such as phonemes morphemes etc in transformational grammar typology concentrated on a set of basic sentence patterns and the rules for building other atoms traditional grammar use categories like declarative interrogative imperative and excretory or process action judgment and identification well differentiated sentences in two different types functional grammar offers process action feature classification the usual topologies of sentences can’t offer a means of classifying texts or currencies in communicative interaction another approach is the construction of cross-cultural topologies for languages of similar constructions however all these type ologies are devoted to virtual systems being the abstract potential of languages if sentence psychologists are simple but still i’ll text apologies are daunting reversed and subjective attempts to apply or convert traditional linguistic method failed to meet the special needs of a typology of texts we might count the proportions of mouse over booze etc or measure the length and complexity of sentences but without really define the time we need to know how and why these traits evolved the fact that advertising texts have an abundance of adjectives and news report have lots of verbs may provide a statement of symptoms for deep you lying tendencies but certainly does not explain the times themselves statistical linguistic analysis of this kind ignores the functions of texting communications and the pursuit of human goals presumably these factors may be correlated with the linguistic proportions a text typology must deal with the actual systems the major difficulty in this new domain is that many actualized instances do not manifest or exact characteristics of an ideal type the demands on expectations associated with the text type can be modified by the requirements of analysis in a discourse contact context the landmark in the study of typology of text was a conference held in 1972 at the University of billfold generally it brought me issues to light lingus began to think that a typology of text should be correlated with the typologies of disco sections and situations unless the appropriate means of a text type to its setting of occurrence is judged the participants cannot even determine the mains and extend of upholding the criteria of textual lity for example the demands for traditional computers are restricting conversation than in written texts moreover in poetic text cohesion can be sporadically reorganized in on no conventional principles if this various types we are presenting in an appropriate settings communication would be disturbed or damaged it might be more productive to study text types from the standpoint of evolution and the usage textual type typology is indispensable from social and pragmatic factors as well as linguistic factors proper book

round offers the following the list of such vectors a differentiation of social settings and participant roles leads to a differentiation of situation types it in terms that the differentiation of situation types engenders lion suppose those textual types which is supposed to have greater relevance the accumulation of knowledge about situations and tags posters expectations about what is acceptable and effective in a given context people build their own strategies to feed those expectations and to control textual occurrences correspondingly the priorities of control resolved in the relative dominance ease of surface features such as worthless proportions and syntactic complexity this surface dominance is gained the status of humanistic battles against which new text can be matched the petals may exert influence back on the control strategies apply to situation management and this view text types cannot be defined independently of pragmatics people use text types as fuzzy classifications to decide what sort of occurrences are probable among the totality of the possible as such the text type can be defined as strictly as considerations of efficient applicability along the approaches to the typology of tags are readily evident in linguistic literature first one could begin with the traditionally accepted text types such as narrative descriptive argumentative literary and other types of text and seek to define distinctive traits for each second one could undertake to define a series of texts independently and then observe whether one obtains a vertical typology the issue may have to be resolved by compromise and the development of a text theory the applicability of text to text typology should be envisioned such that additional types become definable when speaking about the typology of text first of all it’s necessary to define multi-turn type means in linguistics bo crampton Dressler define a text type is a distinctive configuration of relational dominance ease existing between or among elements of the surf instructor the textual worlds toward knowledge petals and the situation of occurrence the relevant dominance ease can apply to elements of any size according to the circumstances without stipulating exactly what the text must look like for a given type of these dominance is powerfully influenced the preferences for selecting arranging and making options during the production and interpretation of the text you can certainly obtain fuzzy classification subtext among which there will be the mutual other some textual traits will be domain-specific that’s peculiar to the situation topic and the knowledge being addressed some traditional established text types could be defined along functional lines that’s according to the contributions of text to human interactions the main types of text in this respect are descriptive narrative and argumentative texts scholars have been able to identify some dominance ease for these types of texts though without obtaining a streak categorization for every conceivable example thus the major functional semantic types of texts look like this the first functional type of text is

represented by descriptive texts that are utilized to recreate or visually present a person thing place event or action so that the reader may mentally picture that which is being described therefore descriptive text aim to create a mental image of the particulars of a story experiment situation and other things let’s consider the beginning of Dreiser’s story the lost Phoebe which my opinion represents a classic example of descriptive text let’s repeat text they lived together in a part of the country which was not so prosperous as it had once be about three miles from one of those towels that instead of increasing in population is steadily decreasing the territory was not very thickly settled perhaps a house every other mile or so with large acres of corn and wheat land and fallow fields that odd Caesars had been sold to Timothy and clover their particular house was part fog and heart fame to look potion being the old original home of Henry’s grandfather the new potion am now rain beaten time for slaves through which they win squeaked in the chinks at times and with several overshadowing elves and the butternut tree made picturesque and reminiscent Lee pathetic but a little damp was erected by Henry when he was 21 and just there that was 48 years before the furniture inside like the house outside was old and reminiscent of an area days and the text unfolds and displayed they also describing further in details the interior of the house the orchard with its old age eat trees and so forth thus depicting a verbal at the same time the mental image of the setting against which the plot of the story develops and the description is not so masterfully then without it it would have been impossible to create a psychological portrait and tragedy of old Henry the main hero of the story as some scholars claim description is more than the massing of details it is bringing something to life by carefully choosing and arranging words and phrases to produce the desired effect descriptive writing may be found in other types text frequently as it is one of the most widely recognized mode desert of writing linguists indicate that the most appropriate and effective technique for presenting description is a frequency of conceptual relations for attribute States instance incense specifications the surface tags should reflect the corresponding density of modifier dependencies according to Berggren the most commonly applied global pattern of descriptive text is the framing which in linguistic literature is defined as a concurrent structure of concept that are related in such a way that without knowledgeable of them one does not have a complete understanding of the target situation or whatever it might be another functional type of text is a narrative text narrative tags are utilized to arrange actions or events in a sequential order and narrative is a story that is created in a constructive formal as a work of speech writing so humid cetera describes as sequences of fictional or non-fictional events the word derives from the Latin verb neurotic which means to read to recount the word strumming may be used as a

synonym of narrative but it can also be used to refer to the sequence of events described in a narrative a narrative told by a character can be incorporated within a larger narrative there are two main types on the waiters or narrative modes first-person and third-person limited or only see generally at first person narrator brings greater focus on the fillings opinions and descriptions of a particular character in a story and on how the character views the world as well as the views of other characters and this time for instance we can observe all these characters of a narrative text in butterflies a two page story by Roger D in Kaiser I’ll read only the beginning of it there was a time in my life when beauty meant something special to me I guess that would have been when I was six or seven years old just several weeks or maybe mass before the orphanage turned me into an old man I would get up every morning at the orphanage make my bed just like the little soldier that I had become and then I would get into one of the two straight lines and march to the breakfast with the other 20 or 30 boys who also lived in might only TV after breakfast on saturday morning i returned to the dormitory and so the house parent chasing the beautiful monarch butterflies who lead by the hundreds and the azalea bush is strewn around the often age i carefully watched as he caught these beautiful creatures on after up out of the atom and then took them from dinner and then stuck straight pins through their head and wings appealing them onto a heavy cardboard sheet how cool it was to kill something of such beauty I had worked many taniam’s out into the bushes on myself by myself just so the bed flies could land on my hand head face and health so I could look at them up close and they telephone rang the house parent lady large cardboard paper down on the back seventh step and went inside to answer the phone so this tour continues like this generator giving account of the events that happened that day in the orphanage and the feelings and the experience that he got the same on the same day if the writers intention is to get inside the world on a character as it was in the above given example then a first-person narration is a good choice although a third person limited narrator is an alternative that does not require from the writer to review all that a first person character now by contrast a third-person omniscient narrator gives a panoramic view of the world of the story looking into many characters and into the broader background on a story a third person omniscient narrator can tell feelings of every character for stories in which the context and the view so many characters are important a third-person narrator is a better choice for instance racist hungry the most baby represents a third-person narrator with the omniscient storyteller recounting the events in a sequential order in the settings that are described so masterfully most linguists studying functional types of texts indicate that in narrative texts there is a frequency of such conceptual relations as curls reason purpose enablement and time proximity the surface structure of the text should reflect the corresponding density density of subordinating dependencies and the use of past present and future tenses

well as the forms of the perfect thus creating continuum of direction the most commonly applied global knowledge patent on innovative text is the skimmer which is a mental construct of reality as culturally ordered and socially sanctioned the search functional type of text is represented by argumentative texts there is utilized to promote the acceptance or evaluation of certain beliefs or ideas as true versus food or positive versus negative generally argumentation argumentation sylvie studies how humans should can do reach conclusions through logical bristling typical argumentative texts have a free confidential internal structure which comprises the following elements a set of assumptions of premises a method of reasoning of deduction and a conclusion of point an argument must have at least one premise and one conclusion in argumentative text classical logic is often used as the method of reasoning so that the conclusion follows logically from the assumption or support in order to substantiate this statement begin refer to the text about the crisis of wealthy over elderly population in Western Europe the text has the following argumentative organization make it claimed counterclaim evidence of counterclaim and alternative ways of tackling the issues I’ll read the text all Western countries face a crisis in coping with the demands made on welfare provision by their growing elderly relations the problem of the sauce fuel city is a real one but perhaps model countries have adopted so rigorously rigorously as brittle give you that the Cure should be based on the family model Scandinavia for example provides residential facilities for elderly people not wishing to remain at home or to live with their families and these facilities are often available for use by local personals on a daily basis elder the people in the United States have developed communities of their own supporting each other and running them by themselves as their answer to increasing dependencies some have argued against these age dance solutions likening them to ghettoes but research suggests a high degree of consumer satisfaction this examples from other countries clearly demonstrate that there are alternative ways of tackling the issue of curing and dependency and that the family modem of pure with the high demands made on women and lack of choice and frequent loneliness for the dependence is not the only solution accordingly argumentative text bounding conceptual relations such as brizel significance volution opposition value etc they will also contain a density of evaluative expressions and qualifiers such as words or phrases expressing these pickles degree of force of certainty concerning the claim such words or phrases include possible impossible probably certainly presumably as far as the evidence goes necessarily etc for instance of the claim I’m definitely a British citizen as a great degree of force than the claim I’m British citizen presumably argumentative tax often Shoko handsome devices for emphasis and insistence such as the currents parallelize paraphrase and so on the most commonly applied global knowledge pattern in this kind of text is the plan for inducing beliefs there are also literary scientific didactic and other types of texts literary texts

contain various constellations of descriptions narration and argumentation we therefore need some other distinguishing criteria as Bookman proposes the most comprehensive definition for linguistic text literary texts might be a text whose world’s stems in a principled relationship of alternative ed to the accepted version of the real world this alternate ility is intended to motivate insights into the organization of the real world not as something objectively given but it’s something evolving from the cognition interaction and negotiation literary text words often contain discrepancies which sharpen our awareness of discrepancies in the socially accepted model of the real world however even literally trends such as realism naturalist or documentary arc we’re carries expanded to make the text world mesh the real world consider the text world is still not view but at most exemplary for an alternative outlook on reality pointed texts would then be that subclass of literary texts in which alternativa t is expanded reorganize strategies such as sound syntax concepts relations plans and so on for making plans and content onto the surface web text in such a way that the resulting in sides should be correspondingly richer scholars categorized politic text into three distinct types the narrative poem our time that tells the story the epic poem or a long narrative poem on heroic subjects and the little point in which a part or speaker expresses some emotional states literary and poetic text could be seen in opposition to text types that in turn to increase and distribute knowledge about the currently accepted real world scientific texts sell this purpose in their attempt to explore extend and clarified society’s knowledge stone of a special domain effects by presenting and examining evidence drawn from observation or documentation deductive text do not reach bjornsen society’s current knowledge stored but aim to distribute established knowledge to Adnan specialized or learning audience of text receivers this intention requires the presentation of more abundant and explicit background knowledge than is customary in scientific texts in didactic tags the textual world must be presented by a process of gradual integration because the text receiver is not assumed to have this suitable knowledge background that scientific text would require therefore the linkages of established facts are of problematic and eventually problem solving nature even within this modest typology we can see that all text types cannot be explicated along the same dimensions fearless there might be dominance ease of concept and relation types for descriptive narrative and argumentative text the concepts and relation types in other textual types are probably the main specific moreover description narration that argument and argumentation will be found in various combinations in other textual types and finally if text types are dependent upon situational settings the basic question is how people use cues to assign texts of various formats to a given textual type thus the issue of text types is one

of global processing controls both in text linguistics and text analysis people are probably able to utilize text without identification their type but efficiency suffers and as a result the mode of interaction of the writer and the river or the speaker of the listener remains vague that’s all for this lecture thank you for the fish you