A Special Lecture : Germany and the making of a new Europe

yes Chloe explains you gentlemen welcome to room a University London and for this evening’s lecture my name’s Sonny Gascoigne president if it’s full of cream Eric and I have the pleasure of giving a brief but warm introduction and welcome to you all to this event organized by the Center anglo-german cultural relations were privileged to have a distinguished speaker Lord green to address us this evening is the first chair of the Advisory Committee of the center of anglo-german talk to all ages but the center itself has a long and distinguished history founded and since directed by professor routing a girl who’s professor of German and comparative literature here in School of Languages linguistics and film so this is a center with a very distinguished past if you way with many very productive and distinguished activities to its name we’re taking on if you like the new lease with new energy with the advisory board chaired by my lord Greek so we are celebrating both distinguished past and looking forward to important activities in the future with that I’ll turn over to Professor girl to introduce Lord Queen door green lady green principal distinguished guests ladies and gentlemen tonight’s event marks the final highlight in a series of occasions with which we have celebrated 10 years of the center in the German cultural relations actually Mary University London it began with or be called waves of difference literary voices from Germany today and include its collaborative events with the British Museum in connection with Neil McGregor’s hugely successful exhibition of Germany memories of a nation tonight though it is a particular pleasure and indeed honor to welcome Lord green the very first chairman of our centres advisory board to give a public lecture in this forum about what matters to him and to us so deeply the interrelation between German and European identity then and now following in a highly distinguished career as an international banker Lawrence Earth from 2011 to 2013 as Minister for trade and investment of the British government he’s now the much sought-after advisor in a wide range of capacities from international trade organizations financial and professional services child poverty and global development programs moreover more Green does not only chair the advisory board of our Center but also the Natural History Museum of London not to forget that he’s an ordained priest of the church ring but with all green we welcome tonight Mason Forrest the stunningly erudite author of studies which reflect so s innermost concerns his books serving God serving Milan and good valuable reflections my morality and an uncertain world testified to our speakers desire to examine burning issues of economic development in relation to moral concerns but his two most recent books reluctant Meister how Germany’s past is shaping its European future 2014 and the European identity historical and cultural realities we can’t deny 2015 both appeared with publishing London in the fleeing provide us with intellectual challenges which tonight’s lecture is likely to drop off as of late the study of anglo-german relations in a cultural political economic have been well served by inspirational publications beginning with our late colleague John Graham stones analysis don’t mention the war the British and the Germans since 1890 2006 followed by Peter Watson’s the German genius 2010 Philipp Ottomans keeping up with the Germans the history of under German encounters 2012 neon the

greatest catalog of the aforementioned exhibition 2014 and in the same year pants good nice study the paradox of German power Lawrence book on Germany with the wonderful allusion to purchase spindles Columbia and Meister albeit in hesitant mode at mood reluctant Meister is to be seen in this context of an intensified interest in this country in matters German and their European implications interestingly a mirror to a certain extent almost exactly the absurd publications from Germany between the light of the late 1890s until the first world war just to mention a few significant titles here from Sydney Whitman’s Imperial Germany fact in character not 1891 je France Germany and England 1914 ant 2 JC Robertson’s the Germans an astonishingly measured and highly informative study considering the political circumstances of the time published in 1916 what distinguishes Lord greens approach to examining the German and European experience is is sheer clarity of arguments with this subject matter intoxicating intensity of intellectual engagement and clearly formulated points of view that have already generated very significant discussions on these investigations subvert generalizations and Prejudice but invite precise differentiation to give but one example from his particularly rich investigations into the German psyche in reluctant Meister when more Green speaks of his early interest in German culture music and philosophy feature prominently but he will not simply refer to German music as such but through the seventh variation by Johannes Brahms on a theme by its effect details like this one tell the reader something about the plane and sea of reflection that also awaits us in tonight’s lecture and timely it is to review and know German relations against the backdrop of likely changes if not transformations within the European Union last Friday’s banquet in Hamburg traditionally the most Anglophile of German cities attended by some 300 of the cities for businessmen and women and addressed by the Federal German federal Chancellor and the British Prime Minister this banquets could well have been more symbolic in that it suggested be an intrinsic link between closest possible anglo-german collaboration and the reform agenda for the European Union I dare say this is now exactly the right moment to invite Laureen to deliver his lecture on Germany and the making and Rudy has been rather too generous in his introduction I set myself a complicated challenge which is the talk about if I start actually with Europe rather than with Germany because I want to outline to you content in a significant challenge we all face now that you has been in the news a lot lately not only in the British media of course but throughout the European Union and indeed around the world and the news has not been or to get a favorable shall we say the eurozone has been in crisis moment for several years now and although the Greek saga is out of the headlines for the moment I don’t think that anyone could assume problem has necessarily been definitively resolved yet and in particular this coming summer large amounts of debt have to be rolled over so it could easily be that the Greek economic issue comes back into the headlines eurozone economic performance

is such as to cause some heartache unemployment remains high across face of the eurozone the unemployment of youth in particular remains very high in some member countries still around 50% in Spain in Greece over 40% in Italy 25% in France and so the specter of youth unemployment with all of the waste of the axe that goes with that is still one of the major issues facing the European Union there is an economic imbalance in the European Union such that the trade patterns of Germany on the one hand and the rest of the Union on the other are diametrically opposite creating stresses and tensions within the eurozone which underlie some of those unemployment statistics and the slow growth performance it’s not only the economics of the eurozone that has got the European Union into the news of course there is also the migration question the huge numbers of migration of refugees into Europe in this last year 2015 a full expectation for those numbers could easily be as large again in 2016 and no clear end in sight or read approach to addressing some of the underlying issues either in terms of settlements and integration within European countries and of course this is a particular challenge in Germany to which I will return or indeed the source issue causing the flood of refugees also but it’s quite plain that that political issue of refugees and migration has now dominated their headlines not only in this country but also around the European Union and is perhaps its most intractable problem yes and if all of that wasn’t enough then you have the brexit question the huge of people that were drawn by Britain from the European Union would represent I would argue certainly for Britain but also for the European Union is yet another issue and the combination of all of the above needs one to say that the European Union is to say the least very happy condition and to ask the question where does the European project go to from here and what is the role of its leading member well that’s really what I want to talk about this evening because firstly the European challenge in the global context of the 21st century is a geopolitical one that we need to look squarely in the face this century has seen and will continue to see the rise of Asia as an economic powerhouse of the world stage China in particular but Asia more generally the u.s. remains a global military superpower India would eventually want to take its place on the world stage – and other countries what does all this mean for the Europeans directly or indirectly Europe will be impacted clearly and profoundly challenged by this how the Europeans respond will depend on what they have in common what if anything amidst all of the kaleidoscopic variety that makes up Europe do we your appearance think that we share what is it to be a European in the modern age does indeed have any significance at all geopolitically commercially or culturally what future in need does it have these are big questions which aren’t just academic questions questions of cultural interest they are questions of very political substance as history matters in all of this few people have ever actually thought of themselves primarily as Europeans in the four centuries leading up to the epochal year three has mentioned 1914 when the Europe was the dynamic center of the world but when the Europeans fanned out around the globe to trade and conquer and exploit they defined themselves not by the continent that they came from but by their religion or their language and their so it was Germans who set out to conquer Eastern Europe it’s the British who set out around the world to conquer and trade it’s the French the Dutch the Portuguese the Spanish each of them thinking of themselves as their own Nationals and often carrying a particular religious flag with them after 1945 of course in the wake of a moral and physical disaster so complete there was a new determination to achieve a robust and enduring peace within

Europe and to put an end to a history that had gone for centuries where Europe may well have caused mayhem around the world but may have that it caused in its own continent was as extraordinary as anything else that it did this new determination to achieve a robust and enduring peace within Europe was the vision of a small European elite but they were responding to a widespread sense of exhaustion and disgust but it’s nowadays quite hard to recall in the last 70 years the European project has currently achieved its most pressing objective lyonie is Europe at peace with itself and others but indeed you might say that war amongst the member states has become almost unthinkable and yet and yet the sense of European identity remains weak it’s still the case that majorities in every country of the European Union think of themselves primarily not as Europeans but in national terms and in the case of Britain fewer than half of the population see their identity in European terms at all you know this because the official Brussels survey of attitudes amongst the European citizen drink the Euro barometer which is published every year and asked all kinds of questions tells you about primary identity secondary identity and the shift in that overtime and yes the centromere is a European identity has increased over the years but it has not got to the point where the European identity is the primary one in any European country yet does this matter in a 21st century of globalization well I think I would argue that it does not least because this is a world for great powers it may be a globalised world in a way that no previous century has been but if they essentially which in other senses is not so very different from the 19th century the 21st century is not of course going to be Europe’s age Europe is just a corner of the Eurasian landmass and it’s in long-term relative decline both politically and economically having led the world during the first Industrial Revolution of the early to mid 19th century it then saw the center of gravity shift away from it across the Atlantic especially during and after the first world war and continued on of course through the second world war and since the epoch of year of 1989 the right of Asia has driven a new and historic shift in the center of the world’s economic gravity this time to the east and at the center of that remarkable phenomena is of course the re-emergence that is the right word to use non-emergent for the emergence of China as a great power now already the largest exporter in the world and asserting its right to a place of the Sun before the 19th century the world’s economic output was never far from subsistence level so a country’s share of global output was roughly in proportion to its share of the world’s population then as now China had the largest population in the world and as late as about 1820 China had the largest in the world by the way India at the second largest that changed of course with the onset of the Industrial Revolution for the first time in history some economies were able to produce above subsistence level perhaps this proved to be wrong and first Europeans and then the Americans and then later the Japanese increased their enormous li and gained enormously of world market share at the peak of their relative our performance that group the Europeans and North Americans in the Japanese never had more than 15% of the world’s population but created about three quarters of world GDP the gap is now beginning to close again by sometime in the mid 2020s on present trends China may well be the world’s largest economy again that by the way is just a milestone over the next thirty fourteen years China will become not just the largest economy but by far the largest economy in the world its transition is

probably only halfway through its transition from a rural and inefficient traditional economy into a highly efficient modern prosperous economy it’s probably half way through one of the ways you can see that is in urbanization statistics China is about 55 percent of urbanized now that compares with 80 percent on average in Europe and America and in all the developed economies there is no known exception to the rule but as countries modernize they urbanized and a good index of how far they are on the journey is their degree of urbanization is about halfway through this great convergence is the most important fact about the first half of the 21st century and maybe the second half – and China’s removed is in some ways interestingly I think reminiscent of Germany’s in the late 19th century its conscious time has come and is determined to have its place in the Sun that phrase by the way placing the size of president Bismarck used at about the same time in German development it’s also burning with some not so ancient grievances against some of the occupants of the world stage just as Germany was then the grievances against France were deep and long-standing in the German mind in the 19th century for China now it’s Japan in particular and the Western powers too and as an aside those Brits who think that the Chinese don’t necessarily remember the opium war wrong we may choose to think that it’s past history they don’t the question is therefore about the implications of all of this for Europe for its identity and for its place in the world is it after all basically nothing more than a series of small and medium sized countries with varying strengths of weaknesses all seeking to swim in the currents of the global economic mainstream or is there more to it than that because Europe have a common identity which differentiates it from other identities say from the Asians you might argue that that’s very obvious say also the Americans you might argue that’s less obvious and yet I think that there’s an argument to be made does it have something distinctive to offer does it have a student distinctive basis to compete in the 21st century on the world stage doesn’t even speak with a clear single voice the task ahead is daunting for it if Europe is to achieve the dynamism and flexibility needed to complete against the Asians and the Americans had to create jobs for those young people whose the original vision of the founders of what is now the EU has given way as far as so many of the Europeans citizens are concerned to a confused sense of the complexity and unresponsiveness they all they feel the corridors of power and Brussels of very distance they won’t be assured of a predictable continuity which is not in fact available and at the same time they don’t have any sense of a clear vision of what Europe can become there isn’t short little loyalty to little pride in the institution’s which represent Europe and almost nothing that could be described as further to European patriotism it’s worth playing for a moment on why that is be contrasts sharply with both the American and Chinese fears of themselves American homes for those of you visited the country often will know what I mean when I say American homes will often have a flagpole on the front lawn the Stars and Stripes fluttering flat when you do not see that in this country foraging anywhere in Europe the Chinese are clearly patriotic and indeed sometimes its tips over into some a phobia if you read the library and influential Chinese blogosphere both America and China have their national holidays which are unifiers Thanksgiving is the great national holiday of the Americans the Chinese New Year celebrations of a great national holiday for China and of course other parts of Asia there is no European equivalent to this equate the same way why the contrast well partly because of the way that European history has discredited the nationalistic patriotism we after all of

a bad history that what patriotism can turn out to me but more deeply because it directly reflects a fundamental uncertainty about Europeans of identity admiration for the extraordinary achievements of the modern Asia has brought europe’s own uncertainties about its place in the world and about its values into sharp relief europeans are unsettled by the fear of asians will challenge and dimensionally overtake them in almost every sphere of activity no activity seemed springing from the competitive threat for this huge reservoir of human talent if the Chinese and others began making cheap plastic toys and textiles well they’re moving up the value chain from those things into electronics into fashion and design into aerospace there really does seem to be from which the competitive threat from Asia is isolated and into which the Europeans can retreat the Americans face the same challenge of course but the Europeans ruefully if they’re honest recognizing how a much greater inventiveness Drive and flexibility there is in American society and the economy and that and how that has enabled Americans to renew themselves in the most unpredictable ways no European country or company has been able to match the spectacular success of Silicon Valley which few had even heard of when the Berlin Wall came down how things have changed gone is the Chinese complacency which characterized the centuries leading up to the 19th for hundreds of years notoriously the Chinese cut themselves off from looking at what was going on in the Western world after a barrage anger and his famous expedition was around 1420 the Ming Dynasty closed down their navy and their expeditions and by 1793 when Lord McCarthy goes to Beijing on behalf of King George the third son wisely spurned by the general emperor when seeking to open the commercial relations that has all gone the Chinese now have what the Europeans in their expansionist centuries had boundless and accessible curiosity Chinese have developed a huge appetite at Western education there are almost 700 thousand students studying overseas every year for the last few years the number is still rising and they’re becoming desperate tourists to China is now by far the largest spend up on outward tourism even though only 5% of Chinese have a passport so there’s a long way to go yet and in Paris when I was there a few months back I noticed on the Metro the the new line the drivers line the central metro line for those of you who know it there was a voiceover at each station basically reminding you to take your bags with you and have a nice day that voice is done in four languages French of course first English second German third and Chinese Jaimee’s are become a global phenomena with Chinese names that Chinese antique schematic huge prices galleries of auction houses around the world and as far as the Mandarin Chinese is concerned already the world’s most widely spoken mother tongue it is now the second most widely used Internet language and in the top five languages that are studied globally but it’s not just economics markets competitiveness with a forcing the Europeans to is it’s also geopolitics Europe is as I mentioned a corner of the Eurasian landmass it has no natural borders to the east though it does of course to the north west and south for the East it has a huge neighbor with whom it has had a fractious relationship over the centuries and the relation of where the relationship at present is plainly over

in a particularly difficult aspect so the south and east it has neighbors who are in a difficult position and are in tragedy and turmoil Iran and Saudi Arabia are squaring up to each other the whole Middle Eastern North African region is a source of tension that directly impacts the European Union as we all know and the numbers are quite interesting there are somewhere between 300 and 300 and 400 million people living in that part of the world depending on exactly how you define it if you take the net or not oil exports of those countries there is immense poverty in many parts in the region and in literacy rates and unemployment rates are very high this does not feel like a good environment for sustainable development stable societies so there is a challenge right around our borders that we know of the rich I would argue also another challenge which is further ahead and less easily visible to us but that’s the challenge that is posed by the Chinese commitments to people this is their slogan for developing what they used to be used to call the Silk Road now I take on modern characteristics and it’s their way of opening up their you raising continent to be a s’more of a single integrated society if you think the Chinese long term you’re right they are in that issue so how in all of that does Europe reject its voice on the world stage the French and the British have for historical reasons got a seat with a permanent veto in the United Nations Security Council again metal exists the question though is what policies what identity what are the interests that we have and how best to project them so yes there are not only commercial issues and competitiveness issues that are open there are also geopolitical challenges that we ignore at our peril in 1946 Churchill proposed a United States of Europe to address the immediate problems of the time read that speech if you’ve never had it’s a remarkable one easily google it it’s short consider that it was spoken in 1946 and he’s calling for a United States of Europe to be led by immigration which to be led by France and Germany together it’s a remarkably force Ifill and ambitious proposal he did not protect the British of apartness but the notion of combining sovereignty wasn’t new then either in 1940 after all Churchill had offered France in its era of need a union with Britain an intriguing leaders still early erosion of a United States this time on a regional basis the United States of Greater Austria this idea was floated in a fascinating book by a lawyer in a group around France Netherlands the Archduke heir-apparent of the austro-hungarian throne and he proposed to reconstruct the austro-hungarian Empire into 16 nation-states with a federal structure under a constitutional monarchy and it addresses quite systematically all of the obvious issues would arise for example what language does the business news that operate in answer for them German at the federal level local languages checks it even got some things right that the later Versailles Treaty got wrong for instance they recognized that chips and slow Maps didn’t really belong together and so they foresaw something that eventually happened about 100 years later the separation of the checks and the snow banks into separate entities could this have succeeded well we will never know of course but in offer there’s a poignant glimpse of an alternative future which might have avoided the catastrophe actually the assassination of France and what we have instead is a European Union which is on a unique journey it has progressed from an economic starting point to a Cold Steel community to a common market to the European Economic Community to what is now the European Union through a series of treaties which would

continually increase the degree of integration and what is the ultimate end of this European project this question exposes of course the divergences of the fraction identity within Europe because of one end of the spectrum you have the British who for the most part would have the Union be a single market and the trading bloc but very little more than that but the other end of those who see growing political and economic integration on the basis of an increasingly carbonised socio-economic model that’s both inevitable and desirable to be clear even the former position involves a strong Union this is not something that you’re a skeptics necessarily recognize because full-blooded implementation of a single market requires a lot more integrative leadership of management for the Union as a whole than many of those Euroskeptics we want and in the differences between the two ends of the spectrum our office the very wide is your little trading bloc or is it indeed the project of increasing political cohesion which might even converge in the end towards something that is more like a United States of Europe those divergences tell us that there is nothing guaranteed about the integrity of the European Union nothing guaranteed about several about the integrity of some of its existing members come to that with all of the members of the eurozone Staind of course was some member states disintegrate notoriously Spain as centrifugal tendencies as does Belgium Italy’s national identity is quite fragile too although in that case I think that the stresses are so rooted in regional history and the maximum identity is so strongly embedded in the language that I don’t see Italy falling apart the biggest risk of breakup in the European Union is however in one of its three leading member states Britain’s identity is much more fragile and has been for much longer than its establishment has been we need to recognize at least until forced to do so about scoffs quite recently once again history matters it’s doubtful whether even today the British are fully confronted the implications of the Irish and the country is not totally traced the real causes of the existential present now faces those lie in a fragile identity welded together in the 18th and 19th centuries and identity was purported to be monolithic centred on itself and focused on Empire of that identity faces being torn apart again he votes to leave the EU could well be about to break up the UK for better or for worse it’s striking how familiar the complexity of these issues and of the European identity is to the German psyche so I come now to the second part of this I’ve talked about Europe I love now to zero in on Europe’s leading member state the historical resonances go back a long way to the subtle balances within the Holy Roman Empire Germany is a land where of a long history people have seen themselves as involved in layered identities the all-important Heine for the local place you come from even if you did it in fact live there you still see the region of Bavaria at the same time the German culture which was defined by the language in the absence for so long with any unified polity the Third Reich sought to suppress Wallace in its levelling State so later did the German Democratic Republic but the new Germany clearly shows that the ancient strong regionalism of the German psyche is still a vibrant source of identity which carries the real political significance in the darkest days of the Second World War one of the most interesting and points of the small resistance groups in the Federation is what became known as the Kaiser circle named by the Gestapo in fact after the country estate to one of its leaders James maanteeeca Micra was one of the very few Germans at that time who regarded the fall of France in 1940 as an unmitigated disaster and evil and not the cause for exhilaration the thinking of that circle about the new order after the demise of the Third Reich would seem outmoded to us in many ways in particular it was conditioned by a widespread sense the parliamentary system of our republic had failed therefore they are ambiguous about the

value of democracy the way striking was their commitment to and advocacy HOF and United European governments within which regional entities with cohesive cultural and historical identities could exists together in trust and in peace most of the cries our circle were executed in 1944 but the issues they wrestled with have an obvious and continuing relevance in the modern Europe the kind our circle is much more than just accurate historical curiosity much more if you will with just a footnote in the today’s German regionalism is highly statement therefore because of those deep historical roots because of that history I think that Germany is well prepared for today’s world in which the European identity needs to be able to unfold and embrace various specific layers of identity local national regional European without demanding or cancelling any of them the threats to the British Spanish Belgium and other identities have varying origins and they may or may not prove fatal to the integrity of those member states but they certainly mean that radical regional decentralization is inevitable and it is not for surprising to note the radical region decentralization is the order of the day in British politics now the EU offers a context in which regional identities can find their own level either within an existing member states as German region isms has successfully so successfully done in the federal republic or independently in their own member states as the irish experience so convincingly demonstrate so what’s then about the role of germany originally in the early years of the European project Germany was content West Germany’s event was of course to play politically the second string to be need to use the phrase the economic the political pygmy excuse me whilst being the economic engineering he was also of course a member of NATO from the very first and a frontline NATO state the original Secretary General of NATO in 1949 described the fundamental purpose of NATO as being to keep the Americans in to keep the Russians out how to keep the Germans down all about has gone the whole scenario changed radically from 1989 of words after 1999 there occurred two reunifications its second unification the bringing together of that the growing together of that which belongs together to form a famous phrase from but it’s not the only modification that took place around that time in the succeeding years Europe itself enlarged itself to its ease back into the collective fold of Europe into collective European history those states which have been behind the Iron Curtain there were two reunification in the years from 1989 through to the early 2000s and within that context of course Germany becomes the central States its largest by population it’s the largest as an economy and it’s geographically the center again what does that mean for Germany’s role for words I used the title in that book I wrote about Germany too we truly referred The Reluctant meister meister as opposed to leader because leader doesn’t translate whether german even now because my sister comes is up resonances that i think are helpful in describing the way in which Germany does in fact think about its leadership role the most of the Kapellmeister who orchestrates the beautiful colonists music the my sister of a crane of course resonated with Germany’s oh there’s a very strong commitment to an engineering recording and nowadays in the football world the World Cup in Germany is now my sister and so I thought that my sister had the right kind of resolution you mentioned that her Meister that yet another resonance for the way in which Germany thinks about its inevitable

leadership position reluctant because it is still a reluctant leadership is Germany comfortable with its leadership though I don’t think so is it comfortable within aggression in the context of a wider Europe yes more deeply than any of the other leading member states more so than France more so than the UK so the UK it has obvious challenges and we know because we are facing a referendum the British people are going to take a view on how much more integration we do or don’t what the French have a challenge which is different the French one uses to do the motion of an integrated Europe the trouble is that they’ve always seen themselves as the leadership of this critical project if you go to Paris to their home planet trans agency you will see a statue of Churchill excuse me there is a statue of Churchill therefore the French government relatively late on after the Millenium put a statue shall we go there as well and so this is relatively new the statue of Charlotte ago and he’s striding down with Charles a leasing in 1944 at the time of liberation and on the sides of the statue are quotes in his speeches and on one side there’s one from his speech that he made on that occasion that he give you a name which I guess is fair enough and on the other side is an interesting quote it’s a front of speech which you may not being able to track exactly where this pitch quote is there on the statue and in English it says there was a 2000 year old compact between the greatness of France and the liberty of the world tells you all you need to know about front view of that place generally but of course is coming under threat with every year that goes by the actual realities of the European project so it’s a challenge for two leading member states the UK and France it’s probably also a challenge for the opponent by the way some are very comfortable with this there are countries that have done very well out of the European Union oh I don’t just mean financially I mean they have really enhanced their self-confidence they have modernized themselves they have become nations who have a willingness to take the world Austria is another one it’s very comfortable in it’s quite roll with a separate identity which is gradually developed since the war not long after the war union surveys in Austria showed that most of the German speakers living in the rug Austria thought of themselves as either austrian germans or german Austrians nowadays nobody thinks of themselves in the German Austria Austria has become a separate identity Spain and Portugal yes they’re going from some economic levels at the moment but these are countries that have come down of a fascist experience within the last 40 years of the transformation of those it’s a modern open democratic societies is one of the proudest achievements of the elite group project it does of course course stresses and strains as well as some of the achievements Greece would be rather less inclined to sing the praises of the European Union Poland I’ve already referred to Hungary there are countries in the eastern side of the European Union for whom the current state of the European Union is a source of stress but the point is that this project is one that is still in progress this is work in progress this is to use a phrase that’s how many coal use the building of the house of Europe and the foundations may well have been made and some of the rooms have been built or to change the metaphor to keep with architecture it’s perhaps like those great European cathedrals that were the product of middle age than evil ambition where in so many cases you knew that if you were laying the foundation stone you wouldn’t live to see the completed building and you probably wouldn’t know what it would end up finally looking like that’s the European Union of today some of those cathedrals some of them bankrupted the cities that embarked on so the end isn’t guaranteed and now for

the first time in the European Union you have a threat which is arguably existential this difficult period created brought into focus by the migration crisis is perhaps the most serious challenge the European Union has faced since the early 1950s the German response is interesting the initial welcome led very personally as everybody can see by the pastor’s daughter doing what she felt was right for bids underpinned by a demographic calculus that said we have a demographic problem and this might not be a bad thing as a response to the demographic challenge nevertheless I think it’s wrong to reduce that to just an economic calculus that plainly doesn’t do justice to these spirits in which the decision she took launched an enormous amount of public support to begin with I’m still now by comparison with anything that you would see in almost any other European country anything we have seen enormous any other country including this one can you imagine what the response in this country would have been if we had taken even half even pro-rata of the number of migrants the Germany has taken in the 15 who knows how this will work out when has a distinct sense Anita angular map of the city this will change Germany irrevocably we revolt on something we don’t know what the endgame will be public support has waned somewhat there are fissures within the EU that have been widened as a result of this and notably between Jews from the West and to some extent even between the north and the south so this is a new identity question for Europe and a reminder that the project is still work in progress and that the outcome isn’t guaranteed what then is a reasonable basis for saying there is a European identity going forward with all of that on our agenda blendy can’t be language Europe is actually languages a no well English is becoming many ways the commercial lingua franca of Europe and to some extent the government’s lingua franca of Europe that’s not the same thing as saying there’s a single language in the way that America had so much of for its lifetime more complicated now with the rise of Spanish and the Chinese have had with the establishment gradually the value of Chinese at Universal Chinese language does that mean we can’t find unity is language too much of a barrier tell that to the Indians who have 3,500 languages and have a clear sense of an Indian identity no it can’t be language that’s the basis it can’t be religion either in this day and age it is party geopolitics the fact is that Europeans who sit in this particular corner of the Eurasian landmass do have common interests both with regard to their neighborhood and with regard to things like energy climate changing those sorts of matters and as I’ve suggested a while back over the longer term in dealing with that Chinese sense with the city arranged an entity to be built for better or for worse it’s also though the shared learnings from history and culture and the values that have been generated as a result of that in the last analysis a European identity is not just about governments matters it’s certainly more than Europe’s current preoccupation with its loss of geopolitical influence and the abilities of the British for Europe it’s also the history of how we got to being a prosperous peaceful union of people’s history which is of course both sublime and tragic full of good and evil it’s also a continent which is a treasure trove of beauty for all of the destruction that it is also inflicted upon itself from its Ice Age art to its Neolithic pottery through classical Greece and Rome through the Renaissance to the romance six down to the present day fruits of European spiritual philosophical aesthetic exploration are taken as a whole I think the richest most diverse most vibrant most Sochi anywhere on the planet and as a result Europe surely does have core values which can bring it together and which have been hard won through history common values which are not only the heritage of European comings and goings of a tradition of thought which has been shaped by such towering figures

there’s Galileo or as the residents take up Locke huge campaign of Darwin and many others how do these different perspectives are there are many and painful sins that European history is committed over the generations has emerged something profoundly important not just for Europe but actually for the whole world commitments to rationalism democracy individual rights and responsibilities the rule of law social compassion and understanding of history is open dynamic and progressive even the sense on the part of son that any European loyalty cannot be the last step or the highest stage of identity but in some emergent sense we’re also citizens of the world even that is implied by those European values and this too is part of Europe proposition to the world all of this is worth I would suggest our loyalty and hard work to sustain and build it of the task I final thought falls to whom primarily to everyone of course to all European citizens to all European residents but it does form in special measure to the reluctant leader of Europe the irony is that they’re helping Germany and Hitler’s Germany both saw joey is having especially destiny if there’s a destined see if there’s a destiny now it’s a very different kind and they ain’t welcome and remarkable strength from the german society as it seeks to address some of what are clearly the most difficult issues of Europe is now facing and which we cannot await and we the British by fighting on the side cannot avoid whether or not we’re going to stay ladies and gentlemen I’m sure I speak on behalf of everyone when I think your green most warmly for this truly far-reaching wide-ranging lecture where you have succeeded in bringing us I’d say a very different view of anglo-german relations in a global context ranging from the Chinese question to German regionalism and I think this form of context realization is what is so desperately needed I think we can all be very grateful to you for demonstrating to us the significance of further context realizing the German question in this particular way you may have written the book on the relevant my stuff but I think as a speaker yourself I think we have really very very important very significant statements here and so there is no time now for this cut and I’m afraid but I’m quite sure that so many of your sentences and thoughts will be will remain with us will resonate with us well reevaluate so I think it is up to ourselves to discuss what we’ve heard from you till tonight and with that I invite you all to the reception upstairs it will not be quite like the banquet in hard work a few days ago but I hope you enjoyed our but please join me and thank you