Control Malfunctions & Flight Instrument Anomalies

over the past 11 years there have been several water table losses attributed to control malfunctions automation anomalies or instrument malfunctions this video segment from the advanced maneuvering program will review how we regain and/or maintain control and each of these scenarios as we look at control malfunctions topping the list we have rudder hardover x’ as many of you in this room probably are clearly aware there’s been a series of events some of them leading to accidents with the 737 airplane that may be being caused by a PCU malfunction forcing the rudder hardover however this can happen on any airplane you don’t have to limit this to a 737 issue this can happen on any airplane we fly in American Airlines the question becomes what would happen if a rudder due to a PC you power control unit malfunction were to force the rudder full over if the rudder gets forced over what’s going to happen next well that depends on where you are relative to crossover angle of attack what we find is that there is a point in angle of attack on these airplanes there is an angle of attack at which the rudder becomes a more powerful roll control than the ailerons and spoilers are that angle of attack is not that high that angle of attack and our fleet aircraft is a medium angle of attack in other words in the 7-5 7-6 fleet is in a minute as an example if you are at flaps 5 plus 40 on speed you’d be there you’re a cross over angle of attack at that angle of attack or any higher angle of attack the rudder is a more powerful roll control than your ailerons and spoilers what I’m saying is when your pass crossover angle of attack when the rudder is fully displaced by you or by a malfunction fully displaced roll controls in the opposite direction will not stop the roll the airplane will continue to roll to dihedral effect all right I’m going to start off then by talking about what would happen if you just stayed at 1g suppose you’re at claps 5 plus 40 on speed that’s cross over angle of attack okay and your rudder went full left due to a power control unit malfunction if the rudder went full left what would happen next is the plane would yaw and then because of dihedral roll you would come up with the yoke trying to stop it if you would get the full yoke displacement and it wouldn’t stop now in this example I’m going to assume we stay in 1g flight the whole time because if you stay in 1g flight the whole time angle of attack stays the same regardless of attitude so we come full up with the yoke the airplane would continue to roll it would transit through about sixty to eighty degrees of heading change as it continued to roll and if we stay in 1g flight it’s ground track would look like this straight in even though you have full opposite role controls applied the rudder would do that to the point dihedral effect would do it okay I’m going to show you a couple of videos that the NTSB has recreated of two accidents out there now there is no audio on these videos so I will have to talk unfortunately okay the first one is a 737 approaching the Colorado Springs Airport now do not try to watch all of these instruments okay because there’s no need this airplane is almost fully configured all he has left to do is go flaps 30 he’s got his gear down it is visual they have the airport in sight the airport’s right out here and they see the Colorado Springs runway they have it in sight all I have left to do now is make a shallow bank turn to line up with final a right turn everything’s going pretty much normally except for the airspeed needle bounce which is about plus or minus eight knots needle bounce on the airspeed otherwise things are going pretty much normally here now when the event starts we’re going to assume that the rudder goes fully to the right due to a PCU malfunction and then you’re going to watch what happens okay he’s in a minute

he’ll start a shower bank right turn the line up when he calls for flaps 30 you’ll see the nose pitch down that’s normal all right golf flaps are he pitches down then left do they bring the nose back up that’s when the events going to start okay there he goes flaps 30 nose pitches down the pilot brings the nose back up and then it’s going to start to roll right and she’s going to stop it with yoke initially she’ll succeed there it goes starting to roll she’s going to stop that with full yoke and she’s going to get it to roll back out but then she’s going to try to pull the nose up and watch this is a 737 airplane he’s approaching the Pittsburgh Airport he is at flaps 1 in 190 knots which is normal speed and configuration for that plane he will stay at flaps 1 and 190 throughout this event okay I’m going to freeze it for just a second because I want to show you something that’s here that wasn’t on the last one on this one the NTSB put this yoke onto the video we didn’t have one on the last video okay this yoke does not roll by that I mean even though the pilot may be rolling the yoke this one won’t roll what this yoke is here is to show you whether he’s pulling back on the yoke approaching forward on the yoke when he pulls back on the yoke you will see a shadow developed behind this yoke the further he pulls back the longer the shadow when you pull back on the yoke what angle goes up angle of attack what empowers the rudder to overpower the roll angle of attack I want you to watch the direct relationship between yoke position and body angles when this event develops watch how body angle role rates increase when alpha goes up and decrease when alpha goes down we’re going to assume we’re rolling now we’re going to assume that when this event starts a PCU pushes the rudder nearly fully to the left a controller asand the callout traffic he’s at 190 and flaps one which is normal speed and configuration again when this starts I want your cross tape to go from the yoke to the plane to the yoke to the plane watch the correlation assuming that the rudder went to the left he’s about to call out the jet stream traffic in sight and then the events going to start because I got it in sight now watch get go watch me cross-check from here to there watch what happens yoke plane you hope plane let’s talk about the last thing for just a minute because I think it shows us two things first assuming we have a full left rudder to the piece you malfunction you see when you when you increase the alpha how it increases the roll rate back it made it roll faster than it would have otherwise is what I’m saying and additionally and also importantly notice that what happens when you get to 90 degrees of Bank and Beyond with back yoke pressure how fast does that bury the nose how fast did that happen we have got to unload when we get to 90 okay now what we have here is a series of three videos these videos were created by Boeing flight test engineering and they were very kind to allow me to use these in my presentation and what Boeing is trying to deal with here is is crossover alpha and now they choose to call it speed because because they don’t have an angle attack indicator and that but you know and it’s very hard to do this with speed this is purely an alpha issue okay you can only use speed on this issue if you assume the airplane is 1g constant level flight at all times if you do that then you can relate speed to alpha but I don’t know about you but Pittsburgh and Colorado Springs look a little dynamic to me say okay what we’re going to do first is the test pilots is a Boeing 737 airplane what’s going on here what he’s doing is he’s slowing through 220 knots don’t worry I’ll talk you through all of that the important part of this is as a graphic up here and the test pilot is a rudder pedal here a rudder pedal here normally the rudder pedals are opposite each other the test pilot is intentionally holding your right rudder fully displaced and he’s going to keep it that way throughout the whole exercise he is slowing down in 1g level flight at 6000 feet and you see that little white yoke you just barely see him he’s having to hold that yoke to the left to keep the plane from rolling

right to the rudder as he continues to slow down as you slow down in 1g level flight what angles one up angle-of-attack so as he continues to slow down an alpha keeps going up he’ll need more and more left yoke to keep the plane from rolling over yoke back is represented by yoke down on this graphic in order to continue to slow down alpha goes up eventually he will run out of yoke that is crossover point you see when he runs out of yolk that’s crossover angle of attack I’m going to let this start running okay he’s slowing down he’s trying to slow down to 190 knots because that’s the proper speed for his current flap configuration as he continues to slow down at 1g level flight he needs more and more left yoke to keep this plane from rolling to right to the full right rudder he’s continues to slow now coming through 2:05 trying to get to 190 he will never get there crossover alpha exists B look before normal speeds for configuration as he continues to slow now coming through 202 knots you see he’s pulling back a little bit on the yoke trying to keep this altitude he’s also using more and more left yoke to keep it from rolling over he’s almost out of yoke this is intentional demonstration of crossover angle of attack he’s now coming through 198 and he’s out of yoke there is no more yoke it’s fully to the left he’s now a crossover alpha he will now depart controlled flight to dihedral effect as long as he keeps pulling back on that yoke he is history the test pilot will do this as long as he can stand it then he then what he’s watched this Tovar than what he’s going to do is he’s going to push forward on the yoke watch there he goes BAM yoke forward lower the angle of attack Riaan power the roll disempowered the rudder and you can roll out by lowering alpha okay in the dive he gains 90 knots with the extra 90 knots he can go back to 1g level flight at a lower angle of attack even though the rudder is still in and it takes a whole bunch of left yoke he’s back under control because the alphas lower at the higher speed okay everybody follow that through now what he’s going to do this time is he’s actually flying at 190 and flaps one stable configured okay he’s going to do what we call a neutral start by that I mean everything’s symmetric he’s rudder rudder opposite each other everything’s neutral and symmetric the yoke is level the stress vectors level symmetric okay everything’s stable now what he’s going to do intentionally a slam full left rudder then he’s going to take a three second human factors delay and he’s going to go full right yoke against it and try to stop the roll but then he’s going to do what airline pilots tend to do he’s going to try and maintain 6,000 feet to do that he’s going to pull back on the stick watch what happens bang full left rudder yaw roll violently three seconds later right yoke against it pull back on the yoke in order to maintain altitude and say goodbye the rudder is the most powerful rolling force in your airplane don’t worry about the test pilot he’s got this all planned out this can okay now what he’s going to do this time is very similar except for one issue okay he’s going to do the same neutral start at the same altitude at the same speed but again he’s going to slam full left rudder three seconds later he’s going to go full right yoke but this time he’s going to say to heck with altitude instead of pulling back on the stick he’s going to push forward in lower alpha and immediately regain roll access control all the left to give up some altitude here we go bang left rudder yaw roll three seconds later right yoke don’t pull back push forward and immediately regain roll access control by disempowering the rudder by lowering angle of attack and the little dive you gain 70 knots when he’s going 70 knots faster you can flow it’ll fly at a lower angle of attack even though he still has full left rudder and it takes a whole bunch of right yoke he’s back under control okay that was a nice sequence of events it was canned but it was worth doing I think we’re rolling flight tests is showing in a sequential manner the consequences of these various acts and effects if you were to have a full over rudder having said that I would submit to you that it has no application in

reality why well as highly experienced aviators I want you to think about this with me I’m going to suggest to you that as we’re out there flying along in our airplane somewhere some place could be anywhere let’s say flying somewhere entering the traffic pattern off of approach or whatever our airplane starts to roll I’m going to submit to you that I for myself and I think if you think about it – that this instant probably don’t have any idea why it started to roll I mean it could be rolling because as I configure my flaps and slats when asymmetric it could be rolling because I hit the vortex of the guy ahead of me it could be rolling because of an engine failure you see at this instant I doubt I’m smart enough in most situations and certainly in the weather to understand clearly at this instant why it’s rolling all I know is it started to roll it’s an uncommanded roll my job is to stop it right so I come up with some yoke and say come on stop rolling but it doesn’t so I come up with some more yoke and say come on stop rolling and it doesn’t well what control would I go to now this isn’t stopping a roll yes rudder sure so I come in now with coordinated rudder right rudder in this case trying to roll right I come in with coordinated rudder now you’ve got three possibilities here the PC you can fail in three different modes the power control unit depend on where the slide valve is and so in let’s take the best case scenario you come in with rudder in the rudder regains rudder the rudder pedal regains rudder control with the other PC you or PC use and the rudder comes back great rolled out and the problem now let’s get back to that same point and take one of the two remaining scenarios that is you come in this time you come in with right rudder and you will feel a definite resistance and a rudder pedal it doesn’t want to go in well your rudder is going to stay left in this scenario now but at least you have some idea why right cuz of that water restriction now let’s take the worst case scenario it started to roll you came up you come up you came in with rudder and the rudder pedal goes in but it actually pushes the rudder further left even though you put in the right rudder pill that’s the slide valve when all the way across and so now you’re pushing the right rudder which will push the left rudder even further than it already has gone if it’s not all the way to a full deflection okay and so now I suggest to you and I think you would agree at this point I want the slightest idea what’s going on here I pushed in right rudder I’ve got up this and this airplane is still rolling over okay and so now I get right here quick American Airlines procedure is this nose higher nose low and are you at 90 degrees a bank or more what do you do with this stick when that happens by procedure you push on it don’t you right you unload you’ll neutral by procedure so I apply the procedure that we’re being taught and I don’t know why but I got my yoke over here I push forward guess what the plane starts rolling out at this point I suggest you I probably still don’t know why but it starts rolling out great now if I get too aggressive about trying to get the nose up I go huh huh I get it see probably for the first time I’m getting it this airplanes in a slip and I can’t do that so but now I’m picking up speed and I raise the nose more gingerly more carefully I get it back up because of the extra speed I’m able to fly now at 1g at a lower alpha and even though I’ve got my yoke way over I’m under control and I realize that I’m in this big skid or slip and I probably have a rudder malfunction well what do we just do here we just flew the plane first we regained and maintain control by applying proper piloting skills and procedure then having regained and maintained control we identify the problem we treat it well I’ve got a left rudder and there’s procedures in your book you know disconnect the yaw dampers and these other things trying to get your rudder back so let’s take the worst case scenario you can’t get the rudder back you go through the whole procedure for your particular airplane and rudder is still to the left and your yoke is still to the right and you’re flying along like this in this big slip let me throw it out to you with all that we know today you guys and gals what can we do with the rudder not coming back no we’re going to assume the rudder is going to stay to the left what can we do what tool can we use to return to symmetric

flight exactly right on truss vector effect we will advance the left engine and [ __ ] the right engine in this case with the throttles and using thrust vector effect we will overcome a full left rudder return a symmetric flight yoke level now let me say something don’t get clever early ok I have no time to tell you all the ways you get in trouble doing that fly the plane first regain and maintain control identify the problem treat it okay let’s look at slide abnormalities you know it’s supposed during the process of D configuration after takeoff for reconfiguration on approach you go asymmetric on your slats and all the slats are out let’s say on the right wing and they’re all in on the left is an example if they’re all out on the right wing you now have a high lift wing don’t you so the planes going to roll in it and as it starts to roll to that high lift wing you’re going to come up with yoke and if yoke isn’t doing a real good job at stopping this roll or what will the rudder sure we come in with a rudder we can stop the roll we come in with some more rudder we can roll out we come in with some orbiter we can get our yoke level and then we say what happened oh we got slight asymmetry great let’s get out the checklist treat it but we flew the plane first let’s look at flap abnormality so several of these out here but you know I’m going to tell one about us I’m going to tell a story about American Airlines here reason I’m going to tell a story about American Airlines is because it’s going to lead into some things we’re going to talk about this afternoon this issue of automation dependency you know where was it you know 15 years ago or so where we started talking more or more about automation and we more and more started focusing on buttons to push to fix an arrant flight path there’s typewriters to type in or switches to move or levers to reposition rather than flying the plane say because if it started it wasn’t our fault the whole industry embraced it and we just went down the road with everybody and and and but it definitely crept in let me give you an example the example relates to in this case inboard flap asymmetry 10 years ago when I was a 767 jackhammer we had no 757 in American Airlines at that time and then nine years ago we got our first seven five seven an airplane was coming in before we got the airplane we got a CAE simulator for the 757 well you know it’s check Airmen corporately we view that that simulator is a toy I mean you know we finally jumped in there we want find out how it flies and then we want to push every single fault button in the simulator see what happens and how you deal with it you know so corporately I assume our chairman group is doing that very thing with this new 757 simulator when they come to a button that says inboard flap asymmetry so they push it thing and when they push it what happens in the simulator is the right inboard flap goes down and the left one doesn’t and they find out something very interesting on a 757 this is an eye-watering roll it is the worst rolling fall for a symmetry I know of any and our fleet aircraft and when you come up with the yoke it doesn’t even slow down say well watch what I just did there okay we call Boeing aircraft company and we say hey Boeing do you know that when you have an inboard flap asymmetry on a 75 this guy really goes for a trip and Boeing says well yes that would be true but that can’t happen we have blockers and gooferz and ding Fang dudes right in here and they’re not going to let those flaps quit and we went really so then we had a meeting I’m talking corporately you know that’s how individuals here corporately we have a meeting and we say well what are we going to do this is the worst rolling fault we’ve seen for a symmetry this won’t slow it down there’s no button you can push that we know of you know or thing you can type in that will stop this you’d actually have to fly the plane and and and and Boeing says it can’t happen so you know we did we decided to remove it from the simulator that’s right that was our corporate decision since there was no button you could push and nothing you could type in and no lever you could move that would stop this thing we said let’s don’t spend time teaching our pause fly planes where automation managers just move it out it’s how we were thinking that’s how we get started to think say and so what happens next well as you know three

years ago three and a half years ago now out there in the real world Boeing 757 other companies two of them one on the ground one in flight the thing that can’t happen happened inboard flap trip symmetry and the guy in flight what happens is the right flap goes down and what I told you before he can’t even slow it down with the yoke okay now this captain does do something intuitively correct I agree with what he did he takes a flat panel and moves it back from whence it came okay that’s good stuff and fortunately the flap that was going down comes back up so as he holds the yoke like this the plane kind of dishes out like that all right now what do we do at American Airlines well we see of course our safety net picks up on the fact that the thing that can’t happen is happening and we get real excited we go gosh we’ve got to tell our seven five seven six pilots about this they’ve got to know so we put a whole bunch of peak bulletins together very hurriedly to launch them out to all you guys in gal saying hey the thing that can’t happens happening but do you remember what we said in that pink bulletin to do if it happens to you very member may not have been on the fleet then what we said in the pink bulletin to do if this happens we said move the flap lever back from whence it came a mechanical fix do you see a problem here let me see a problem I mean the planes rolling you come up with this and you move the flap handle back I mean yeah what happens if the flap doesn’t come back up well then just die like a man I mean I mean what are you whining about you know I thank all you guys and gals know where I’m going with this and I think you understand the point what what should we have done eight years ago eight nine years ago when we realize what a terrible rolling fault this was what should we really have done and I think you all agree what we should really done is if you find out that this yoke won’t stop this plane from rolling what will rudder even with this fault if you come in with rudder you can stop the roll if you come in with some more rudder you can roll it out and if you come in with some more rudder all the way to the floor in this case with the rudder you will just get your yoke off the stop that’s how bad it is but you’ve got it you got it you’re under control and then you identify the problem and you treat it but you fly the plane first but eight years ago we had already started to drift away from that philosophy okay let’s go into the pitch issue let’s go away from the roll axis and look at the pitch axis okay we’ve got talking about stabilizer stuff for a minute unscheduled or jammed you might be interested in knowing that unscheduled stabilizer accounts for four halt losses and 282 deaths in this time frame that we’re concerned with what is unscheduled stabilizer trim well remember back in the seven to a Saurus the jurassic jet unschedule your song is still there that memory is unschedule stabilizer trim was obvious to the most casual observer wasn’t it right I mean that yeah that big old wheel down there right spinning around clanging and banging right in a manly way you’re supposed to put your hand on it bring it to a stop but ya rabb the copilot’s knee and jam her knee and the other side everybody knew what was going on didn’t a say but you see what killed those 282 people is a very insidious event because today in a highly modern automated airliner unscheduled stab trim is essentially unseen and unheard what is happening let me give you my definition of unscheduled stabilizer trim in a highly automated airliner this is a little convoluted but listen the stabilizer is currently running in a direction that is opposite to the way the pilot flying would intuitively believe it to be going usually to an autopilot command but sometimes to a fault let’s look at one of those accidents this is an airbus a300 600 are approaching the Goya airport the exact same airplane in

American Airlines flies behaves essentially like any of the airplanes built this way okay he’s coming in to land at Nagoya it’s visual he has the field in sight the copilot’s flying he has the auto throttles on and the autopilot off he’s trying to hand fly and he’s coming on in and he’s got the ILS tuned up so he can get the glide slope which is great and he has the field in sight is he starts to work onto the glide slope he has a little trouble with his glide path control okay and as he has more and more trouble getting stabilized on the path he does something that we see automation dependent pilots doing more and more he goes you know I don’t find much I’m not very good at this anymore he goes autopilot would you help me with this but then he goes no no no I can do it I can do it he goes back to hand flying and now he’s hand flying the airplane coming in what he doesn’t know though is in fact there is an autopilot engaged by his action so as he continues to fly the airplane neither he nor the captain knowing the jalapao’s engaged there think they’re hand flying they’re coming down to land he gets his glide path under control gets things kind of stabilized here and then one of the two pilots they don’t know which one accidentally Nick’s that toga bar on the auto throttles right in front of the throttles there and puts it into the go-around mode and this guy’s still coming in to land well since he’s coming in to land the copilot and the auto pilots on and it sees a toga command the autopilot goes well t-this guy’s got the elevator in the throttles how am I going to go around so then the autopilot goes oh I know yeah I go around with the stabilizer so the auto cloud starts one of the stabilizer George knows up in an attempt to go around the first officer who’s flying say he’s coming into an and so as he comes in to land as you might imagine he’s having a push father and father forward on the yoke because the stab trim run and as that disparity gets great enough that conversation in the cockpit starts and all you guys and gals know this conversation between the captain and co-pilot you know the one that goes what is why is how come is well that’s going on in the cockpit as this thing’s running and finally it comes to a stop within one degree of full up because that’s autopilot women at about the same time the first officer hits what is essentially full nose down elevator limit so they’re even and they’re still coming into land saying well then another neat thing occurs the auto throttles it without someone also those halls that are commanded to be engaged and they engage into the go-around mode when they engage into the go-around mode the throttles go flying forward right when the thralls go flying forward what do they say that would do to the pitch axis of an airplane like this sure I see all your hands doing it before I even said it yeah the airplane starts up well does he have any more elevator left to deal with that he’s already used that hasn’t he so now he’s holding the elevator full forward but the thrust vector is bringing the nose up and up and up the captain gets on the yoke and he’s pushing full forward on the yoke and the nose keeps coming up this goes on for the longest time think about this guys and gals they’re both holding yoke for forward and it goes on and goes on neither one of them has any idea what to do with this it keeps coming up and up and up and up and up finding it runs out of energy up in here stalls comes down tries to lift again right wing stalls rolls over onto its back and goes into the ground eighty degrees nose low I’m going to compare that since we have our Delta friends here I’m going to compare that to an incident that occurred with Delta that leads their crew to the exact same problem I think you will agree however they deal with it much better this is a Delta 1011 airplane airplane built like this this will be an example of jammed stabilizer however I think you will agree it took the crew to precisely the same problem their taxiing out and this 1011 at the San Diego Airport here a few years back we wrote this up in the flight deck many of you may remember this their taxiing out in this 1011 at the San Diego Airport and as they taxi out unbeknownst to the crew the stabilizer runs fully up and jammed and they would have had no way of knowing that and it’s fully up in jam now and as they take the runway they can’t know it because as part of the fault the stabilizer trim indicator is still in the green takeoff range yeah the plot thickens doesn’t it so is a taxi onto the runway now it indicates that they’re in the green on takeoff on the stabilizer and now when the first officer who’s going to make the takeoff pushes the throttles up for takeoff there will be no takeoff warning horn because as you know the horn is tied to the indicator not the stabilizer so they go roaring down the runway with no warning and the airplane of course starts to rotate early and the first officer does what I think I would have

done probably he goes you know he goes don’t come and stop that I’m not ready for that yet he pushes forward on the oak but the plane rotates some more so he goes come on stop that and the plane rotates and lifts off at the same time he hits full forward yoke they’re airborne with full forward yoke and they’re not even at rotation speed yet right from here on it looks a whole lot like Nagoya now by the way the captain of his credit is on the voice recorder already trying to run the stabilizer trim which I don’t think I’d have thought it at that fair matter that it wasn’t going to move it was jammed so they’re holding full forward on the stick the first officer is and here comes the nose it’s coming up it’s coming up quick somebody else is this unusual is it nose higher nose well what should I do help me quick yes roll yes and the captain takes over the airplane says I’ve got it and rolls the airplane to a nose high unusual attitude recovery procedure that I promise you he was taught by someone somewhere because when you roll the lift vector off regardless of what is wrong with an airplane then those is coming down he applies that procedure he gets the nose coming down he rolls back up and she just clear his Point Loma out off San Diego you know the ridge and she’s back in the climb again of course because the fault is still in there so he goes up to another nose high unusual attitude recovery then he goes up to another nose high unusual attitude recovery he goes up to another nose he cork screws out over the Pacific Ocean doing one nose high and usual attitude recovery after another finally gets enough altitude below him where he thinks he can start dealing with this problem and besides everyone is puking so he starts he starts saying okay what am I going to do with a horrible pitch problem with an airplane built like this what’s the first thing you’d go to for a horrible pitch problem exactly thrust vector effect and he does he pulls one and three to idle he jams number two to max and bang he overcomes a full-up stabilizer and he regains normal pitch control just one problem not enough total thrust headed back for the ocean okay so he has to come back in on one and three so he’s number two and max he eases back in on one and three until he finally gets enough total thrust to stop sinking now his airplanes back to doing this but not nearly as violently as it was before okay and then he says well what else can I do to deal with this pitch problem he thinks about it for a minute since I know I’ll move the center of gravity so he picks up the mic and he says free drinks and purrs class yeah everybody in the back runs to the front okay you get them all upfront and guess what he gets this puppy down to a pretty nice little damp okay now I’m going to stop right there because this story takes too long to tell and all in its entirety but let me go on to say if this captain goes on and does several clever things that every pilot in this room would think of given time and he recovers this airplane and a very boogered configuration successfully at the Los Angeles Airport right sure whoever he is he just got applause the the point here is that I want to make and I thank you guys and gals get it is what’s the difference between the Goya the outcome at Nagoya in the outcome at San Diego training because he right here right here few of us certainly not I are clever enough because there isn’t time to be clever a critical flight additive recovery requires training and rote response because there isn’t time to think you must respond to the training and it’s that response to that training that initial move that saves the initial crisis that buys the time to do all the clever things that we’ll all think of given time buy into that